Allieret luftangreb på Singhu, Burma, 1945

Allieret luftangreb på Singhu, Burma, 1945

Allieret luftangreb på Singhu, Burma, 1945

Allierede tropper ser et luftangreb på Singhu (Burma), før de begyndte deres eget angreb på byen tidligt i 1945.


Anden Verdenskrigs database

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" Hævningen af ​​dette flag på Suribachi betyder et marinekorps i de næste 500 år. "

James Forrestal, marinesekretær, 23. februar 1945

Anden Verdenskrig Database er grundlagt og administreret af C. Peter Chen fra Lava Development, LLC. Målet med dette websted er todelt. For det første har det til formål at tilbyde interessante og nyttige oplysninger om 2. verdenskrig. For det andet er det at fremvise Lava's tekniske kapaciteter.


Allieret luftangreb på Singhu, Burma, 1945 - Historie

Burma -kampagnen er en fascinerende, hvis den forsømmes, en del af WWII's historie. Det mest fantastiske var naturligvis, at briterne stort set alene faktisk formåede at genvinde Burma i 1945, efter at alle, fra Churchill til betjentene i teatret, sagde, at det ikke kunne lade sig gøre. Det var også en kampagne, hvor briterne efter deres uhyggelige nederlag i Malaya og Burma formåede at komme sig og slå japanerne i noget af det værste jungletræn. Mange farverige figurer pryder denne kampagne: Slim, Stilwell, Merrill, Wingate. Det var også en af ​​de få kampagner, hvor KMT -styrker faktisk havde succes på slagmarken!

Selvom der er mange wargames om Stillehavskampagnen i 2. verdenskrig, er der meget færre spil om Burma -kampagnen. (Malaya -kampagnen har endnu færre spil - hvoraf nogle kan findes på min tidligere Geeklist, Alt om Singapore http://www.boardgamegeek.com/geeklist/9655)

Så her er en historie om Burma -kampagnen. (Hvis fortællingen er lidt underlig, er det fordi jeg har forsøgt at inkludere alle de spil, jeg kan finde om emnet.)

Briterne troede ikke, at japanerne ville invadere Burma, før det var for sent at iværksætte et materielt forsvar. Burma blev grundlæggende hoppet rundt omkring forskellige kommandoer mellem 1940-42. I november 1940 blev Burma placeret under den nyoprettede Fjernøsten-kommando under luftmarshal Brooke-Pophams glatte ledelse. (De, der kender Malaya -kampagnen, ved, hvem denne fyr er.) Efter invasionen af ​​Malaya i december 1941 blev Burma overført tilbage til India Command. Der var en kort periode under den kortvarige og totalt ubrugelige ABDACOM i februar 1942, derefter blev Burma bragt tilbage under kommando af Indien Kommando, lige i tide til Rangoon faldt til japanerne i marts.

Et GDW-spil fra 1970’erne om Burma. Enheder er regiment/brigadeniveau.

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    Burma havde ikke et korps hovedkvarter med sine tropper under kommando af hærens hovedkvarter. Dette ændrede sig, da Burma Corps hovedkvarter blev oprettet efter Rangons fald, under generalløjtnant William Slim. Af de britiske befalingsmænd i 2. verdenskrig var Slim uden tvivl den mest succesrige. Han marskalerede en besejret styrke og tog med succes kampen til fjenden. I modsætning til Montgomery, der altid vil have Market Garden's skygge over sin arv, har Slim ingen sådan plet.

    Dette er Gamers 'OCS -spil på Burma. Nu på forhåndsbestilling på www.multimanpublishing.com.

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      Dette er en interessant titel til et Burma -kampagnespil og fanger, hvordan situationen Burma vendte om for de allierede i Burma. De blev besejret af japanerne i 1942, men det lykkedes at starte deres egen offensiv i Burma i 1944 og fordrive japanerne i 1945. Selvfølgelig spillede japansk dårskab en rolle i deres nederlag. Mere om det herunder.

      Ikke let tilgængeligt, da dette er fra en fransk Spansk wargaming magasin. Enheder er på bataljonsniveau.

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        General Joseph Stilwell, vicechef for øverstkommanderende for Sydøstasiens kommando, er en farverig karakter i Burma -kampagnen, selvom han ikke var ansvarlig for hele Burma -kampagnen, bare den nordlige del.

        At sætte sit navn på dette spil var sandsynligvis et forsøg på at tromme mere salg blandt amerikanske købere, men: ahem: CBI var mere end bare Stilwell. Faktisk burde der være et Burma -krigsspil med navnet William Slim et sted i titlen, men det er ikke tilfældet.

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          Generalmajor Claire Lee Chennault kæmpede hårdt med Stilwell om gennemførelsen af ​​Burma -kampagnen. Chennault hævdede, at strategisk bombning af Japan fra kinesiske luftbaser var nøglen til sejr, mens Stilwell ønskede tæt luftstøtte til sine tropper fra Chennault. Men i de tidlige krigsår blev American Volunteer Group, også kaldet Flying Tigers, spillet op som modige helte, der kæmpede mod japanerne midt i det japanske angreb.

          Dette spil dækker Flying Tigers 'bedrifter under den første japanske invasion. Spillet indeholder et landkort, hvor landkampagnen spilles ud med enkle regler og et taktisk luftkort til luftkamp. Luftenheder repræsenterer grupper på 6 til 8 fly, mens jordenheder for det meste er brigader og regimenter.

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            Hvor effektive Flying Tigers virkelig var, er plettet i betragtning af deres ujævne flyveoplevelse. Men jeg synes, kommentarer om, at P-40 ikke matcher Zero, er overspillet. P-40 var af hårdere konstruktion med rustninger og selvforseglende brændstoftanke og tungere bevæbning end Zero. I en dygtig pilots hænder ville det have givet Zero anfald.

            Officielle krav for AVG var 297 fjendtlige fly ødelagt. Senere forskning vurderer, at det faktiske tal var mindre end halvdelen af ​​det officielle tal.

            Dette er et gammelt spil af Lou Zocchi!

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              I 1942 lancerede briterne deres første offensiv i Burma siden deres nederlag. Den indiske 14. division går videre til Arakan. De blev standset af et stærkt japansk forsvar. Et japansk modangreb flankerede 14. division, og de blev tvunget til at trække sig tilbage.

              Game by Avalanche Press. Enheder er bataljon/kompagni-niveau.

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                Af mere strategisk konsekvens var offensiven af ​​den 77. indiske infanteribrigade, nu kendt i historien under deres andet navn, chinditterne, ledet af den uortodokse generalmajor Orde Wingate. I virkeligheden var angrebene fra chinditterne ikke så succesrige, og bestræbelserne på at montere disse angreb lagde en stor belastning på Chindit -styrken. Imidlertid var den japanske kejserhærs hovedkvarter overbevist om, at en offensiv var mere velsmagende, da de for at forsvare sig mod den allierede trussel ville have brug for at forstærke Burma med så mange divisioner, som de alligevel ville have behov for at montere offensiven. Så japanerne beslutter sig for at krydse grænsen til Indien og angribe Imphal, et skridt, de ville komme til at fortryde.

                Dette spil findes i Games Journal magazine fra Japan. Det dækker kampagnens periode 1944-45.

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                  Slaget ved Imphal og Kohima var en hårdt kæmpet sejr for de allierede. Japanerne angreb i marts 1944. De allieredes tropper blev afskåret ved Imphal og Kohima og måtte stole på luftstøtte. Ærgerligt for japanerne, at den allieredes luftsituation i 1944 var en helt anden end i 1942. Luftforsyningen holdt garnisonerne i Imphal og Kohima i gang, mens den japanske logistiske situation støt forværredes. I juli var japanerne, efter at have lidt 55.000 tilskadekomne og ikke gjort fremskridt, trukket sig tilbage over grænsen. Allierede tab - 17.500.

                  Dette spil dækker den lille handling ved Sangshak, hvor den 50. indiske faldskærmsbrigade, inklusive elefanter, blev angrebet af elementer fra den japanske 31. division. Enheder er virksomhedsniveau.

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                          Jadgpanther udgave spil #11. Fra BGG -posten af ​​Alan Sharif:

                          På trods af at det blev offentliggjort tilbage i 1975, er marts i Indien 1944 stadig et godt spil, hvis regler er bemærkelsesværdigt spilbare. Ikke egnet til begyndere, men særdeles spilbar solo, emnet er desværre blevet overset af spildesignere lige siden. Efter min mening fortjener emnet i kraft af dette tidligere værdige tilbud en mere opdateret behandling for at teste den nuværende designers afgrøde. Indtil da, søg en kopi af denne. Du bliver ikke skuffet

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                                  "Over the Hump Airlift Campaign 1942-1945" er en simulering af luftliften til Kina i anden verdenskrig.

                                  Der er 16 scenarier, der begynder med et indledende grundscenario, der involverer et China National Aviation Corporation DC-3-type fly, der flyver en banebrydende stifindingsflyvning fra Assam, Indien over Himalaya til Kunming, Kina. Det andet scenario bringer den amerikanske hærs luftvåben flyvende fly af typen C-47, der transporterer brændstof til Kina til Doolittle's Raiders, som de ville have brugt til at flyve fra Kina til Indien efter angrebet på Tokyo i begyndelsen af ​​1942. Scenarier fortsætter kronologisk med at fange højdepunkter fra airlift-kampagne og indførelse i rækkefølge: C-87, C-46, C-109 og til sidst C-54 fly. Det endelige scenario giver op til 500 fly på en enkelt dags maksimal indsats, der fandt sted den 1. august 1945, da lufttransportkommandoen Indien-Kina-divisionen foretog over 1.000 sorteringer og leverede mere end 5.000 tons gods til Kina på en enkelt 24 -timeperiode.

                                  Simuleringen er tilgængelig som en gratis download i filafsnittet på dens Board Game Geek-spilside og er fuldt ud indeholdt i en Adobe Acrobat-fil, der udskrives i farver på 58 sider med 8-1/2 x 11 tommer papir.

                                  Simuleringen er designet til kabale. Mere end én spiller kan deltage ved at dele flytyper mellem spillere eller opdele driftsbaser mellem spillere.


                                  Den glemte arv fra anden verdenskrig i det nordlige Thailand

                                  Thailand blev trukket ind i anden verdenskrig den 8. december 1941. På grund af tidsforskellen foretog den japanske flåde et angreb på Thailands sydkyst omtrent samtidig med, at de angreb Pearl Harbor den 7. december. Thailandske tropper forsvarede straks landet med kampe, der brød ud i Prachuab Khiri Khan, Chumphon, Songkhla, Pattani og Had Yai. Feltmarskal Plaek Phibunsongkhram, Thailands premierminister, sagde før angrebet, at Thailand ville kæmpe til den sidste dråbe blod. Men mens disse tropper blev marcheret til deres uundgåelige død, mødtes Phibunsongkram og resten af ​​kabinettet i hemmelighed for at diskutere deres overgivelse. På bare 12 timer, og med hundredvis af thailandske og japanske soldater døde på strandene, havde Thailand erklæret våbenhvile, hvilket gav Japan fri passage i hele landet på betingelse af, at i det mindste på papiret thailandske suverænitet og uafhængighed blev værnet. Indtil dette tidspunkt havde Thailand forsøgt at forblive neutral i den voksende globale krig, men med våbenhvileaftalen sat i sten, havde Thailand taget parti for japanerne. Kun en time efter denne beslutning modtog Phibunsongkram imidlertid en besked fra Winston Churchill, den britiske premierminister, hvor der stod "Der er en mulighed for overhængende japansk invasion af dit land. Hvis du bliver angrebet, skal du forsvare dig selv. Bevarelsen af ​​Thailands sande uafhængighed og suverænitet er en britisk interesse, og vi vil betragte et angreb på dig som et angreb på os selv. ”

                                  Chiang Mai var ikke fritaget for krigen. Med invasionen af ​​Burma i horisonten blev Chiang Mai og andre nordlige byer kommanderet af japanerne for at hjælpe deres krigsindsats. Snart blev Shan -staterne beslaglagt og derefter givet til Thailand af japanerne, der ønskede at holde et godt forhold til deres noget uvillige værter. Tretten dage efter invasionen, den 21. december, indgik Thailand en militærpagt med Japan og etablerede Payap Army, en flok på 70.000 hær- og luftvåbenpersonale, der var samlet i Lampang, byen, der skulle tjene som hovedkvarter for den japanske hær og luftvåben under hele krigen. Overbevist om, at Japan ville vinde, erklærede Phibunsongkhram krig mod de allierede via telegrammer til USA og Storbritannien. Den thailandske ambassadør i Washington, DC på det tidspunkt afviste offentligt erklæringen og nægtede at levere beskeden til Franklin Roosevelt, den amerikanske præsident, hvorimod Churchill modtog beskeden højt og tydeligt, og i dag er Thailand det sidste land, som Storbritannien officielt har officielt erklæret krig mod.

                                  Thailand var på siden af ​​aksen, men debat raser stadig om, hvorvidt Thailand var tvunget til at erklære krig mod de allierede eller ej.

                                  USA betragter Thailands status under krigen som et besat land, i modsætning til Storbritannien. Dette skyldes til dels den thailandske ambassadørs holdning, men også Pridi Banomyong, den daværende finansminister og kommende regent, der vendte hjem i starten af ​​krigen og straks startede den underjordiske frie thailandske bevægelse (Seri Thai). Seri Thai samlede snart en række andre nøglefigurer, såsom Jamgad Palangkoon (den første udsending, der smuglede den første seri -thailandske besked til omverdenen), prins Bhisatej Rajani, leder af Royal Projects, Puey Ungpakorn, den thailandske studenterforeningsleder i England og prins Subhasvasti Svasti, medlem af den kongelige familie, der fulgte kong Prajadipok i eksil i 1933. Seri Thai -bevægelsen arbejdede under jorden og galvaniserede lokalbefolkningen fra hele landet i træning til at forberede sig på at angribe japanerne, da tiden kom. Ironisk nok, få dage før de var klar til at ramme de japanske besættere, sluttede krigen mellem Asien og Stillehavsområdet pludseligt efter faldet af to atombomber på de japanske byer Hiroshima og Nagasaki i 1945.

                                  Historiebøger rundt om i verden fortæller historier fra den 415 kilometer lange Death Railway i Kanchanburi. Bygget af omkring 60.000 allierede krigsfanger og anslået (og lidt talt om) 270.000 civile arbejdere fra Thailand, Malaya, Burma og Hollandsk Østindien, forstås det enstemmigt at være det mest tragiske kapitel under krigen i Thailand og eneste kapitel kendt i populærhistorien. Det nordlige Thailand spillede imidlertid en nøglerolle i den japanske offensiv under deres bevægelse til Burma, hvor vores by fungerede som hovedkvarter og til sidst blev kirkegården for hundredvis og tusinder af flygtende japanske soldater efter den britiske hærs kontraoffensiv. Denne historie er lidt kendt, og meget er gået tabt for minder og jungler.

                                  Tigrene ser sydpå
                                  Sammenlignet med resten af ​​Østasien forblev Thailand relativt fredeligt på trods af at det var hjemsted for Japans hovedkvarter under deres offensiv på regionen, og meget få kampe blev udkæmpet i det nordlige Thailand. Den allierede kampagne mod Thailand under krigen var næsten udelukkende i luften på grund af udfordringerne i den bjergrige region nord og vest for Thailand. I kølvandet på den kinesisk-japanske krig, hvor over to tredjedele af Kina var under japansk besættelse i 1940, accepterede Roosevelt at yde hemmelig luftstøtte til Kina. Den amerikanske frivilliggruppe, kaldet Flying Tigers, blev dannet i Kina og blev beordret til at forsvare Kina og Burmavejen. Efter invasionen af ​​Thailand og derefter Burma af japanerne havde de flyvende tigre øjnene rettet mod regionen.

                                  Mod slutningen af ​​marts 1942 blev det allierede luftvåben skubbet ud af Burma efter et vellykket angreb af japanerne.

                                  Amerikanerne flygtede til Kina for at omgruppere sig med de flyvende tigre, og den britiske RAF flygtede til Indien. Chefen for de flyvende tigre, oberst Claire Lee Chennault, beordrede et hævnangreb på flyvepladser i Chiang Mai og Lampang, steder han mistænkte blev brugt af den japanske krigsmaskine. To eskadriller af P-40 Tomahawks med deres ikoniske hajtandskilt på næsen foretog et angreb på det nordlige Thailand den 24. marts. En eskadrille fik til opgave at angribe Chiang Mai flyveplads, og efter et vellykket angreb blev en pilot, 'Black Mac' McGarry, ramt af jordskydning og styrtede ind i junglen i Mae Hong Son. Han overlevede styrtet, men blev derefter hurtigt taget til fange af det thailandske politi, inden han blev fængslet i Bangkok, indtil han blev løsladt af Seri Thai -bevægelsen i 1944.

                                  Den anden eskadrille var på vej mod Lampang, og hvis de havde nået så langt, kunne hele krigen i regionen have været meget anderledes. På dette tidspunkt var de allierede styrker stadig uvidende om, at Lampang var hjemsted for det japanske hovedkvarter i Thailand, og vendte hjem uden nogen idé om, hvad der lå over bjergkæden. Det menes, at de forvekslede Lamphun med Lampang, og da de ikke så nogen troppebevægelser, tog de tilbage. Da de vendte sig om, fulgte de jernbanen tilbage til Chiang Mai, men blev opfanget af skud, der kom fra Ban Tha Lo -jernbanebroen over Mae Kuang -floden. Eskadronleder Jack Newkirk, der cirkulerede rundt for et dykkerangreb, så, hvad han troede var en pansret bil på vejen og angreb. Da han duede, ramte hans vinge et træ, og han styrtede ind i et rismark foran. Den pansrede bil viste sig at være en oksevogn, og føreren blev dræbt af skud. Lokalbefolkningen begravede pilotens rester i rismarken i en vestlig grav ved siden af ​​Wat Phra Yuen. De blev vendt hjem efter krigen, men der findes stadig mindesmærker i templet fra tid til anden. Den dag i dag kan rester af det væltede fly i Lamphun stadig ses på Tango Squadron Museum fundet i Wing 41 Airbase i Chiang Mai Internationale Lufthavn sammen med vraget af 'Black Mac' McGarry's P-40, der blev fundet af landsbyboere i 1991.

                                  Ban Tha Lo jernbanebro (Jack Eisner)

                                  Tempelfængsler
                                  Krigsfanger var ret sjældne i nord, hvor de fleste, der blev taget til fange under den burmesiske offensiv, enten blev holdt i Burma eller blev sendt til Bangkok og Kanchanburi ligesom 'Black Mac' McGarry. Mens jeg indtog Chiang Mai,

                                  japanerne brugte Wat Muen San, lige ved Wua Lai Road, som et militærhospital og allieret krigsfangerforbindelse, der ifølge dokumenter skrevet dengang var hjemsted for kun 46 krigsfanger.

                                  Det fungerede også som en seddelprinter, som udskriver besættelsesvaluta for Burma. Chiang Mai Station blev brugt til at transportere varer, våben og personale ind og ud af nord, og da allierede krigsfanger blev bragt ind, blev en lokal mekaniker og chauffør, der tilfældigvis var ganske god til engelsk, indkaldt af japanerne til at arbejde som oversætter . Mekanikeren opdagede hurtigt, at mange af krigsfangerne var underernærede og led eller var døde af malaria. Efter at have opbygget et forhold til japanerne begyndte han at sende sin 12 -årige søn, Orachun Tanapong, til Wat Muen San for at levere til japanerne, så han kunne smugle varer til krigsfangerne der blev holdt der. Mad, værktøj og cigaretter blev smuglet ind af den modige unge dreng. Faktisk var Orachun den første person til at fortælle krigsfangerne, at krigen var afsluttet i 1945 efter at have hørt nyhederne, selv før de japanske vagter. Orachun voksede op til at slutte sig til Thailands diplomatiske korps, inden han tog rollen som fungerende generaldirektør for ASEAN i 1980'erne.

                                  Wat Muan San er nu hjemsted for et lidt støvet japansk krigsmindesmuseum bygget i 1981, der huser flere artefakter og dokumenter fra æraen. Der er statuer af japanske soldater sammen med Buddha -statuer rundt om templet og uden for museet er en plaket med ordene 'May Peace Prevail on Earth' skrevet på tre sprog engelsk, thai og japansk. Det påstås også, at mange japanske soldater blev begravet på templets grund, da de ikke havde ressourcer til at kremere alle ligene. I dag afholdes der årlige mindehøjtideligheder på museet den 15. august til ære for datoen for afslutningen på Asien-Stillehavskrigen. Årets begivenhed vil med glæde markere det 72. år eller 6. cyklus siden 1945.

                                  Nordlige ar
                                  Tegn på japansk besættelse kan stadig ses i det nordlige Thailand i dag. Talrige veje, landingsbaner og templer blev bygget eller brugt af den japanske hær. Nutidens Highway 1095, der strækker sig fra Chiang Mai til Mae Hong Son, er et af disse ar, der er blevet bygget som en grusbane til grænsen af ​​japanerne. Selvom de nåede nordpå, slog japanerne vejen for at slutte sig til byen Mae Hong Son, før de skar en lille vej over grænsen mod vest ud af Khum Yuam. Den sidste strækning af denne vej var aldrig færdig før krigens slutning, men under dens konstruktion døde mange lokale af de frygtelige forhold efter at have været brugt som slavearbejde.

                                  Vejen havde været beregnet til at blive brugt til logistisk støtte, men hjalp også med at forsyne de japanske tropper under deres mislykkede Imphal -kampagne i det nordøstlige britiske Indien. Briternes succes oplevede imidlertid et uorganiseret tilbagetog fra japanerne over Burma, der endelig flød ind i det nordlige Thailand. Highway 1095 blev hurtigt den vigtigste flugtvej for de tusinder af japanske tropper, der næsten var forladt af deres kommandanter, og som måtte finde deres egen vej tilbage til et sikkert japansk territorium. Det blev til sidst kaldt 'Skeleton Road' af japanerne, da det var fyldt med lig af faldne japanske soldater, der var døde af krigssår, malaria eller udmattelse.

                                  Japansk propaganda læser “Den engelske er ikke skræmmende! ”

                                  Ud over det uorganiserede tilbagetog dukkede Karen og Karenni -guerillas op fra junglerne langs vejen og angreb de allerede stærkt formindskede soldater. Disse guerillaer var bevæbnet af briterne, efter at de søgte hjælp til gengældelse mod japanerne for at få hundrede af stammefolk til tvangsarbejde.

                                  Anslået 12.500 japanske tropper blev dræbt af stammeguerillaerne, da de trak sig tilbage i Thailand ad den ene vej alene.

                                  Selvom næsten alle, der overlevede, formåede at omgruppere sig med den japanske hær og vende hjem efter krigen, besluttede nogle få at blive. En af disse mænd var Fujita Matsuyoshi, der til sidst blev naturaliseret og tilbragte sit liv, indtil han for nylig døde, dedikeret til at indsamle resterne af soldater, der døde langs skeletvejen. Resterne af cirka 100 soldater blev sendt til Japan i 1980'erne efter årtiers arbejde af Matsuyoshi, der også rejste et mindesmærke fra sine egne midler i Ban Nakhon Chedi, Lamphun.

                                  Stadig stående
                                  På trods af den thailandske regerings manglende opmærksomhed på dette vigtige kapitel i historien - hovedsagelig på grund af en række politiske katastrofer efter krigen, hvor den seri -thailandske modstand blev ødelagt og derefter glemt efter Pridis eksil og også for at være på den tabende side - mindesmærker findes, idet de fleste er japanske frem for thailandske eller allierede.

                                  Ud over de steder, der allerede er nævnt, kan du stadig besøge en række steder, som enten er relikvier fra krigen eller mindesmærker. Ban Tha Lo -jernbanebroen i Lamphun er der stadig den dag i dag, og jernbanebroen San Khayom lige nede ad vejen er måske den eneste struktur, der er tilbage i det nordlige Thailand, der stadig viser skader fra luftangreb under Anden Verdenskrig. Mellem Lamphun og Chiang Mai sidder Ban Kat Technical College, som nu er hjemsted for et japansk mindesmærke, der blev bygget i 1995, efter at knogler fra tusinder af japanere blev opdaget. I byen er museet i Wat Meun San tilgængeligt, hvis du kan finde en munk med en nøgle, og du kan besøge Wing 41 Tango Squadron Museum, selvom du først skal skrive et brev til dem med tilladelse. Chiang Mai udenlandske kirkegård er vært for en mindehøjtidelighed hver erindringsdag den 11. november og er også hjemsted for en sort obelisk, der hedder Flying Tigers, samt at være hvilested for flere udenlandske krigsveteraner, der gjorde Thailand til deres hjem efter krigen. Langs Highway 1095 er det største japanske krigsmindesmærke i det nordlige Thailand beliggende på grunden til Wat San Kayoum i landsbyen Ban Kat. To japanske hospitalsenheder begravede også de døde i Don Kaew, lige nord for Chiang Mai, men desværre er der desværre ikke markeret hverken lejre eller grave på trods af det anslåede kropstal på over 400. Alle udgravede lig blev dog fløjet tilbage til Japan efter bestræbelser fra en krigsveterangruppe under mottoet "Efterlad ikke et organ bag". Lidt længere væk i Mae Hong Son er der et privat museum fra Anden Verdenskrig fuld af japanske og thailandske artefakter fra krigen, indsamlet af politioberstløjtnant Cherdchai Chomtavat i hans tid som politibetjent i området. Hvis du går direkte til grænsen, er et politihus bygget i 1901, der blev brugt af japanerne under deres tilbagetog i Thailand på bredden af ​​Thanlyin -floden og kan findes, stadig stående, nær Tha Ta Fang -skolen i Mae Yuam.


                                  Burma bombefly

                                  De missioner, disse mænd fløj var forskellige, bombeflyene fløj på solo- og gruppemissioner, både om dagen og om natten. Befrierne var ofte fyldt med tonsvis af bomber og havde besætninger på op til 11 mand. De angreb mål som jernbaner, skibe, broer og fjendtlige troppekoncentrationer. De fløj mod fjendtlige mål i Rangoon, Burmas hovedstad - en by stærkt forsvaret af de japanske besættere med flak- og jagerfly. De opererede fra en række flyvepladser på steder som Indien, Ceylon og Cocosøerne i Det Indiske Ocean. Japanerne blev ved med at kæmpe til slutningen, og derfor stod Burma -bombeflyene over for fare indtil de sidste dage af krigen.

                                  De mænd, der fløj på disse missioner, stod over for mange udfordringer, og den lange varighed af sortierne var ofte en betydelig hindring. Nogle gange skulle disse fly bære to sæt flyvebesætninger, fordi flyvningerne var længere, end et besætning sikkert kunne klare. Befriere fra nr. 222 Group, RAF, (med 372 canadiske flybesætninger på styrke i marts 1945) foretog en række langdistancebomber og minelægningsoperationer, der tog dem så langt væk som Sumatra, Indonesien, i et forsøg på at levere de allierede styrker og forstyrrer japansk skibsfart.


                                  En berømt Hollywood -instruktør skød optagelser af slaget.

                                  En film viser stadig et hangarskib fra US Navy, sandsynligvis USS Enterprise, under slaget ved Midway, fra den John Ford-instruerede dokumentar & apos The Battle of Midway, & apos 1942.

                                  U.S. Navy/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images

                                  Mest kendt for sine mesterlige vestlige og sit mangeårige samarbejde med John Wayne, instruktør John Ford var også officer i U.S.Naval Reserve, og havde til opgave at lave dokumentarfilm for flåden under Anden Verdenskrig.

                                  Efter anmodning fra admiral Nimitz ’ blev direktøren stationeret på Midway under slaget og pådrog sig en 𠇋omb hjernerystelse ” og skudsår under det japanske angreb, ifølge nu afklassificerede optegnelser. Amerikanske marinesoldater gav Ford førstehjælp, men han forlod ikke sin station, før han havde afsluttet sin fotografiske mission. ”

                                  Ford ’s optagelser af slaget, og især aktiviteterne i amerikanske B-17'er (flyvende fæstninger), dukkede op i Slaget ved Midway, der vandt en Oscar for bedste dokumentar det år. Ford fortsatte med at lede den fotografiske enhed for Office of Strategic Services (OSS), forløberen til CIA, for resten af ​​krigen.


                                  Slaget ved Midway begynder  

                                  Efter det afledende japanske angreb på de aleutiske øer den 3. juni fløj en gruppe amerikanske B-17 Flying Fortress-bombefly fra Midway for at angribe Kondo ’s invasionstyrke, som de fejlagtigt antog var den japanske største flåde. Dette mislykkede angreb markerede det første militære engagement i slaget ved Midway.

                                  Inden daggry den næste dag forlod flere B-17'ere Midway for et andet angreb på den japanske invasionsstyrke, også uden held. I mellemtiden lancerede Nagumo den første fase af Japans angreb som planlagt og sendte 108 japanske krigsfly fra de fire hangarskibe til at ramme Midway. Efter at have påført den amerikanske base alvorlig skade, endte det første japanske angreb med 7:00, hvilket efterlod flyvepladsen stadig brugbar og amerikansk luftværnsforsvar stadig fungerer.

                                  Kort tid efter, ligesom hans piloter meddelte Nagumo, at et andet luftangreb mod basen ville være nødvendigt, begyndte amerikanske fly, der blev lanceret fra Midway, at angribe de fire japanske luftfartsselskaber, uden held. Da Nagumo oprustede japanske fly til et andet luftangreb, opdagede et japansk spejderfly dele af den amerikanske flåde, herunder USS Yorktown, øst for Midway. Nagumo skiftede taktik og beordrede fly, der stadig var bevæbnet til at forberede sig til at angribe de amerikanske skibe, når resten af ​​de japanske fly vendte tilbage fra Midway.

                                  I mellemtiden en bølge af amerikanske Devastator -torpedobomber fra de amerikanske transportører Gedehams og Virksomhed ankom for at angribe de japanske skibe. Uden ledsagelse af jagerfly blev næsten alle skudt ned af japanske Zero -krigere. Men cirka en time senere, da japanerne tankede og genopbevarede deres fly, ramte endnu en bølge af amerikanske luftfartøjsbombere, der ramte tre japanske luftfartsselskaber —Akagi, Kaga og Soryu—og sætte dem i brand.

                                  Som svar, Japan ’s overlevende luftfartsselskab, Hiryu, lancerede to bølger af angreb på Yorktown, som måtte opgives, men forblev flydende. Amerikanske dykkerbombefly fra alle tre luftfartsselskaber vendte tilbage for at angribe Hiryu og satte den også i brand og satte alle fire japanske luftfartsselskaber ud af drift.


                                  Burma og Anden Verdenskrig

                                  Burma spillede en betydelig rolle i Anden Verdenskrig for den britiske hær. Det var i Burma, at Orde Wingate og chinditterne fandt berømmelse, og det var i Burma, hvor den japanske hær led alvorlige militære tilbageslag, der førte til, at de trak sig tilbage mod øst.

                                  Japanerne var gået frem til Burma, da hendes hær havde damprullet alt før den mellem 1942 og 1943. Briterne havde overgivet sig i Singapore, og amerikanerne med Douglas MacArthur i spidsen havde forladt Filippinerne. Da japanerne avancerede mod vest, kom de til Burma. Here their supply lines were stretched to the limit and only a minority of the Japanese Army was stationed there – the majority were in the Pacific region.

                                  The main threat to the Japanese came from ‘Vinegar Joe’ Stilwell’s Chinese Army in India (CAI). The Indian Army, under the British, had lost their best men to the campaign in North Africa. The British military hierarchy was also only prepared to take on the Japanese when it felt that British troops were sufficiently trained in jungle warfare.

                                  In January 1943, Indian troops were given the task of advancing along the Burmese coast to the port of Akyab. This was done by the 14th Indian Division. They found only light Japanese resistance and many Japanese posts were manned by just a few soldiers. The real problem for the Allies was the environment. Burma was criss-crossed with jungle, mountains, rivers and mangrove swamps. Moving equipment was a nightmare across such hazardous terrain and worse was the constant threat of disease. Malaria was a very real problem.

                                  Where the Japanese were stationed, they had dug themselves in. This made attacking them difficult as their bunkers had been well constructed and well camouflaged. Most could only be destroyed by heavy artillery and moving such equipment about in Burma was extremely difficult. Combined to the well-placed and well-built bunkers, was the fighting spirit of the Japanese who fought until death.

                                  The 14th Indian Division launched a series of attacks against the Japanese at Akyab but after six weeks they had to pull back as a result of a Japanese counter-attack. The 14th Division returned to India – apparently highly demoralised as a result of their experience.

                                  Stilwell attacked the Japanese in the north of Burma. The Chinese Army in India (CAI) was made up of men who Stilwell had brought out of China in 1942. At this time, China was ’governed’ by Chiang Kai-shek though his country was in disarray with the occupation by the Japanese and the rebellion by Mao Zedong’s Communist Party. Stilwell was to prove a remarkable leader of these men.

                                  Stilwell was probably the only man who could have commanded such a force as the CAI. He was a foreigner and that usually meant that he was held in deep suspicion by the Chinese. However, Stilwell spoke fluent Chinese and was highly knowledgeable about their culture and customs. As such, he was well respected by those in the CAI. Stilwell trained the force as if it was an American unit. Officers were expected to train as well as men and discipline played a very large part in their training. The officers in the CAI were Chinese, so it could not be labelled a colonial army. Stilwell maintained control of the CAI by having his own liaison officers in the unit. His biggest problem was Chiang Kai-shek who felt that he had a right to get involved in the unit as it was made up by men from China. Stilwell was a man who liked to get things done – Chiang Kai-shek wanted a more cautious approach.

                                  The first task of the CAI was to move south as it was effectively trapped in the north of Burma and could only be supplied by air. This was expensive and left the planes open to attack. By moving south, the CAI would have to engage the Japanese in combat. By 1943, the Japanese had become defensive in nature, primarily because of the position it found itself in. However, though the Japanese army had become defensive in mentality, this did not mean that it was passive.

                                  The Japanese had built a series of forts throughout Burma and managed to inflict some reverses on both the British/Indian army stationed there and also on the CAI. Led by Lieutenant-General Tanaka, the Japanese remained a formidable enemy but Tanaka was unable to exploit these successes. Hvorfor?

                                  Field Marshal Sir Archibald Wavell had given a seemingly eccentric British officer the task of organising a military force that could operate behind the lines of the Japanese. The officer was Orde Wingate and the force was the legendary Chindits – named after the stone tigers that guarded temples in Burma. The Chindits used classic guerrilla tactics against the Japanese, attacking Japanese forces where they least expected an attack. Ably supported by the Gurkhas, the Chindits used deep-penetration tactics and worked in small groups – thus making their detection very difficult. They used the jungle for cover and kept in contact using field radios.

                                  The first Chindit operation lasted for three months. Of the 3,000 men who had gone out, only 2,200 returned and only 600 of these men were considered to be fit for further operations. However, the first assault by the Chindits was portrayed as a success by those in charge of Allied forces in the Far East. For the first time, the Japanese army had been seriously weakened where the Chindits had taken them on. Japanese communication lines had been cut as had the railway serving the north of Burma. Despite the losses to the Chindits, the boost to the morale of Allied forces, especially in India, was huge. It also showed the British army the way ahead – the use of unconventional forces could do untold damage to the previously undefeated and seemingly invincible Japanese army.

                                  However, the Japanese also learned that remaining static in Burma made it vulnerable – hence its decision to attack Imphal, the place where the British were building up their supplies in readiness for the liberation of Burma.


                                  For Your Tomorrow : Canadians and the Burma Campaign, 1941-1945

                                  Seventy minutes before the attack on Pearl Harbour, the Japanese forces launched the invasion that in five months rolled unstoppably across the whole of Burma. In March 1944 the Japanese commander stood on the border to India, his eyes bright with the vision of marching in triumph into Delhi. What followed was the ten-week long siege of the border town of Imphal and the biggest defeat the Japanese Army ever suffered. Then the Allied forces turned on their ruthless enemy and drove him southward to the sea even more rapidly than he had advanced in 1942. By mid-June 1945 the Japanese Army in Burma was completely disorganized and destroyed. Of the 300,000 Japanese soldiers who swaggered into Burma, only 118,000 ever returned home.

                                  It is surprising how little the Burma Campaign is known in Canada, and even more surprising how little is known of Canadians involvement in it. In the air Canadians flew fighter planes that conquered Japan's Oscars, Zekes and Zeroes and manned the bombers that broke the back of the River Kwae Railway. Two RCAF pilots salvaged the wreckage of a light plane and used it to rescue British soldiers wounded two hundred miles behind enemy lines. A Canadian was in charge of the mules for one of the Wingate's Chindit columns. It was a Canadian pilot who discovered the Japanese fleet steaming toward Ceylon. A Canadian doctor laboured day and night to save the wounded in the flight from Burma and in the siege of Imphal and ended up as personal surgeon to the last Viceroy of India. The Burma Campaign was almost completely supplied by air and Canadian crews flew more than one third of those supply missions.

                                  Canadians were awarded more than 150 decorations for merit and bravery in Burma, including one Victoria Cross. Approximately 8000 Canadians served there and 500 of these gave their lives in the Burma Campaign. For Your Tomorrow tells the story of the Campaign and of the Canadians who fought in it.


                                  Allied air attack on Singhu, Burma, 1945 - History

                                  By Dr. Carl H. Marcoux

                                  ­­A small group of Americans, operating behind the Japanese lines in Burma from 1942 until mid-1945, played a major role in neutralizing a large enemy force. Ultimately, the Japanese had to give up control of Burma, ending Japan’s threat to invade India. Office of Strategic Services (OSS) Detachment 101 consisted of a handful of Americans who trained and led a powerful guerrilla contingent that harassed the Japanese Army continuously as the Japanese sought to use Burma as a major base for their military domination of Southeast Asia.
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                                  Following the Pearl Harbor attack on December 7, 1941, the Japanese invaded Malaya, Borneo, and Burma as well as the Dutch East Indies and the Philippines. They also invaded a number of smaller islands in the South and Central Pacific, securing most of these targets with little opposition. After five months of war, the Japanese were poised to threaten both Australia and India.

                                  The Japanese Occupation of Burma

                                  The Japanese conquered Burma with little difficulty in the spring of 1942. The principal cities of Rangoon and Mandalay quickly fell to the invaders. Those British and Indian troops that could, escaped to India. A Chinese army, under the command of American General Joseph Stilwell, was also forced to retreat. Stilwell himself barely escaped capture by the rapidly advancing Japanese forces.

                                  Many of the lowland Burmese populace aided the invaders. They helped the Japanese by supporting their fifth-column activities during ambushes, night attacks, and demolition work. These Burmese hoped that their country, with the departure of the British, would achieve independence for the first time in eight centuries. The Japanese propagandists had preached the doctrine of “Asia for the Asians.” Unfortunately for the Burmese, they experienced an even a greater degree of social, economic, and political oppression under the country’s new occupiers.

                                  Burma represented a key factor in the progress of the war in Southeast Asia. The Burma Road, through the country’s northern highlands, represented a major link in the shipment of war material to Chinese forces from Allied bases in India. After the Japanese captured Burma, the Allies had to supply the Chinese by air, over the forbidding Himalayas. The hazardous air route was nicknamed “the Hump.” It was a much less efficient—and more costly—transfer of critical goods. Burma also represented a key staging area for any Japanese plan for the invasion of India. It became critical for the Americans and the British to retake Burma to reduce these threats to the successful pursuit of the war in Southeast Asia.

                                  Creating a Guerrilla Army From Scratch

                                  The U.S. government, meanwhile, was working on plans for combating the Japanese. These strategists reached the conclusion that espionage and subversion would have to be employed in any successful attempt to liberate those countries now under Japanese control. American President Franklin D. Roosevelt admired the well-established programs of this nature employed by the British, whose Special Operations Executive (SOE) Roosevelt sought to emulate.

                                  Roosevelt selected General William J. “Wild Bill” Donovan, who had been a classmate of the president at Columbia Law School, to set up a program similar to that operated by the British. Originally called the Office of the Coordinator of Information, the designation would soon be changed to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the forerunner of the modern Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). At the time a Wall Street lawyer and a former assistant U.S. attorney general, “Wild Bill” Donovan had been the commanding officer of the U.S. Army’s famed Fighting 69th Regiment of the Rainbow Division during World War I. He and General Douglas MacArthur were the only two soldiers who held three of the nation’s top medals: the Medal of Honor, the Distinguished Service Cross, and the Distinguished Service Medal.

                                  Burma was certainly an area where a program of subversion and sabotage could be used to great advantage by the Allies. The country’s north was covered largely with a dense jungle —a perfect cover for guerrilla warfare. Soon after his appointment, Donovan got in touch with General Stilwell to map out such a program. The task of establishing units capable of such work had to be started from scratch, since the Army had no such agenda in existence.

                                  Approximately 80 miles north of Lashio, Burma, American infantrymen engage Japanese troops in a fight for control of a section of the Old Burma Road. The overland link was a vital supply connection for Allied troops fighting in the China-Burma-India Theater.

                                  Fortunately, Stilwell had a candidate to lead this unit for the planned incursions into Burma. Captain Carl Eifler commanded a company of the 35th Infantry Regiment in Hawaii. Eifler cut an imposing figure. Standing over six feet, two inches tall, weighing more than 250 pounds, and skilled in jujitsu, Eifler, Stilwell believed, possessed the characteristics needed to lead such a demanding program. Eifler, for his part, immediately began recruiting a group of officers and noncommissioned officers that he felt could aid in developing a team for the mission ahead.

                                  The new mission’s chief traveled to Washington, D.C., met with General Donovan, and listened to the latter’s rather vague ideas on organization and training. Following the meeting, Eifler established a series of training facilities in Maryland. Chief among these was Area B, some 70 miles from Washington. The site later became Camp David, a vacation retreat for American presidents.

                                  OSS Detachment 101

                                  The unit, officially designated as OSS Detachment 101, consisting initially of 21 members, began an intensive training program in early April 1942. William A. Peers, who later succeeded Eifler as commander of Detachment 101, said in his memoirs that the designation for the group was chosen to give the impression that the unit was well established and had been activated for a considerable length of time.

                                  The curriculum included learning the use of high explosives, cryptography, methods for search and rescue, and many other specialties associated with subversion and sabotage behind enemy lines. Members of the group also received intensive training in techniques of unarmed combat to prepare them for face-to-face contact with the enemy.

                                  The combat training involved brutal, destructive, and aggressive methods of dealing with the enemy. Capture could mean torture and even death. OSS participants carried lethal capsules that would allow the agents to commit suicide, if they chose, rather than endure torture in the event of their capture by the enemy.

                                  Parachute jumping represented a critical element of OSS training. Operatives would be expected to land behind enemy lines if they were to successfully execute sabotage missions. The training also involved techniques for landing on enemy beaches with small craft launched from submarines. The training was made as realistic as possible.

                                  Training For the Pacific Theater

                                  In late 1943, a program specifically designed for the Pacific Theater was established. An OSS training center was established at Toyon Bay, the site of a prewar boys’ school on Catalina Island, off of the coast of Southern California. The site was chosen because of its isolation and relative inaccessibility.

                                  The training period turned out to be quite brief for those scheduled for the China-Burma-India Theater. The new team left for Asia in late May 1942. Travel to the unit’s new assignment was by slow freighter. The ship also carried what limited supplies Detachment 101 could acquire on short notice in preparation for deployment.

                                  The detachment arrived at Karachi, now part of Pakistan, on July 4, 1942. The men then traveled across India to Nazira, Assam, in the country’s northeast, close to the Burmese border. The U.S. Air Transport Command (ATC), responsible for flying supplies to China, maintained several airfields in the vicinity of the town. The Americans quickly established contact with local British authorities, who had extensive knowledge of Burma and Japanese activities in the country.

                                  Detachment 101 set up a program for its first recruits and began instruction on demolition techniques and methods for the destruction of a wide variety of targets critical to Japanese military operations. The American instructors learned almost as much from their pupils, initially mostly British and Anglo-Burmese, as they taught them. This first group of potential saboteurs knew a great deal more than its American teachers about the Burmese people and territory.

                                  Winning Over the Burmese People

                                  The Americans also realized that the long-range success of their mission would require the assistance of a large number of indigenous Burmese. The accomplishments of the Japanese during their invasion of the country were due in no small part to the assistance of lowland Burmese people who had believed that their fellow Asians would be their liberators. Ultimately, such proved not to be the case, and the Burmese soon became disillusioned because of the treatment they received at Japanese hands.

                                  Burma has a mixture of a number of different ethnic groups, often speaking different languages and dialects. Separate from the Burmese peoples living in the arable lowlands are the hill tribes in the country’s mountainous north. These peoples, the Karens, Shans, Papaung, Chins, and especially the Kachins, were much more warlike and aggressive than their southern neighbors. During the 1940s, they lived in isolated villages located in dense forest areas. These tribes had developed a working relationship with the British and had made up the majority of the native troops trained and officered by the Europeans before the war began. The hill people made superb jungle fighters and, as such, were potential candidates for a guerrilla force capable of seriously impacting the ability of the Japanese to control the country’s mountainous areas. The Americans sought to win these fighters quickly to the Allied side.

                                  The Three Objectives of Detachment 101

                                  The strategy of Detachment 101 designed for the Burma campaign consisted of the following: (1) the destruction of targets of opportunity such as bridges, railways, and mines used by the Japanese in controlling the country and in shipping supplies and equipment throughout the countryside, (2) the ambush of enemy personnel where practical, as well as spying on their movements, and (3) the recovery of airmen downed in Japanese territory.

                                  After being lost in the jungle of northern Burma for 45 days, a wounded and fatigued American pilot is carried to safety. Detachment 101 regularly assisted in the rescue of Allied airmen who had crashed or been shot down in the skies over Burma.

                                  The detachment planned to parachute small teams of men into remote jungle areas as close as possible to their intended targets. Each unit would contain some Kachin natives to act as guides as well as saboteurs. The Kachins knew the country and could act as translators when the teams encountered their fellow tribesmen in the hill villages.

                                  Guerrilla tactics involved a sudden strike on an unsuspecting target, its destruction, and then a quick retreat to safety. No prolonged engagements were contemplated. The advantage lay with the attackers as long as they struck quickly and then vanished. The detachment and its Kachin recruits proved to be adept at this type of warfare. The jungle, despite all of its problems and hazards, furnished ideal camouflage for its hit-and-run tactics. The Kachins took advantage of the undergrowth to plant pungis, two-foot strips of bamboo shaped like spears and hardened over fire until they were as sharp as steel. These were placed alongside the jungle trails and caused serious injury to unsuspecting Japanese troops.

                                  Fighting Behind Enemy Lines

                                  The ATC agreed to furnish C-87 aircraft to carry the teams and their equipment into enemy territory. The Air Corps had converted these cargo planes from B-24 Liberator heavy bombers. The aircraft also had to be rigged to permit the exit of parachutists. These planes were also used for supply missions and to pick up team members after they had completed a mission. The ATC furnished the necessary aircraft whenever possible. Often, it was downed ATC personnel that the teams would be seeking to return to the safety of their bases. The teams sometimes had to extract themselves from enemy territory on foot if rescue by air proved to be impractical.

                                  To take Burma back from the Japanese, General Stilwell was compelled to keep open both a major road and a rail line between Calcutta, India, and his Chinese troops in the field. A loss of these vital routes would allow resupply of these troops by airlift only and materially reduce the effectiveness of the Chinese forces as a result. Detachment 101 operated behind Japanese lines, ambushing isolated Japanese units when possible, seriously interdicting enemy supply lines, and reporting Japanese troop movements by radio.

                                  Stilwell’s Assault on Myitkyina

                                  In April 1944, Stilwell launched his coordinated attack on the main Japanese base in northern Burma—Myitkyina. Japanese aircraft based at Myitkyina harassed Allied supply lines connecting the Ledo Road with the Burma Road, the major supply line on the ground to the Chinese troops in eastern Burma and beyond. Stilwell’s three-pronged strike force consisted of 3,000 recently recruited American volunteers who came to be known as Merrill’s Marauders, a mixed but experienced British force called the Chindits (a combination of British, Gurkha, Nigerian, Chinese, and Burmese troops), and two Chinese divisions, the 22nd and the 38th. The Chinese troops had been trained in India by a team of U.S. Army instructors under the supervision of Stilwell himself.

                                  Stilwell directed the Chinese to begin a direct frontal assault on the Japanese stronghold, the Americans to attack from the east around the Japanese right flank, and the Chindits, moving west from India, to infiltrate the area behind Japanese lines from that direction. During the advance of Stilwell’s main forces, Detachment 101 continued to disrupt Japanese communications and supply operations behind enemy lines and acted as guides for the advancing Allied troops.

                                  By May 17, the Allies had captured the city’s critical airstrip, and the battle for control of Myitkyina appeared to be over. Then disaster struck. Stilwell decided to give the honor of completing the capture of the city to some of his Chinese units. However, the two Chinese battalions ordered to take the city were relatively inexperienced. They attacked one another by mistake and had to be withdrawn after the friendly fire had exacted heavy casualties.

                                  The Japanese rallied quickly and even managed to send some reinforcements and supplies to their beleaguered defenders. It was not until August that Allied troops finally managed to force the Japanese out of Myitkyina, requiring the enemy to retreat to their bases in Burma’s southern reaches. The loss of Myitkyina ended the threat of Japanese aircraft against the Ledo and Burma Roads.

                                  The High Cost of Battle

                                  Detachment 101 continued to harry the enemy during its retreat southward. Only a relative few enemy soldiers managed to reach the Japanese base at Bhamo. However, Stilwell’s strike force—the Marauders, the Chindits, and the Chinese—also suffered substantial battle casualties. The attacking troops had been subjected to a variety of debilitating tropical diseases in the lengthy process of capturing Myitkyina. After being relieved by occupation troops, those combatants that had taken the town required extensive rest and rehabilitation. The Marauders’ losses proved to be so severe that they virtually ceased to function as a unit after the battle. The Chindits suffered the same fate within a few months as they continued to suffer severe losses in their accelerated movement southward in pursuit of the Japanese.

                                  The leaders of both the Marauders and the Chindits also met with personal disaster. General Frank Merrill, for whom the Marauders were named, suffered three disabling heart attacks and had to be replaced during the Myitkyina campaign. Brigadier Orde Wingate, the charismatic leader of the Chindits, died in an airplane crash on March 24, 1944.

                                  A String of Japanese Losses

                                  The loss of Myitkyina was the first of a continuous series of defeats for the desperate, slowly retreating Japanese infantry. They now faced a constantly expanding, well-supplied Allied army that also controlled the air. The Japanese, on the other hand, no longer received reinforcements to replace their dwindling manpower and found that their now greatly diminished supply lines faced constant harassment by Detachment 101’s Kachin Rangers. Detachment 101 also received orders to expand the training program for the Burmese fighters, which now included many southerners, Shans, and other lowland Burmese, who had initially supported the Japanese. By this time, the guerrilla forces under Detachment 101’s leadership were numbered in the thousands.

                                  A triumphant group of American soldiers displays trophies of war taken from the vanquished Japanese during a recent engagement near Kamaing, Burma.

                                  Toward the end of the fighting in Burma, Detachment 101 also launched an intensive propaganda campaign, dropping leaflets written in Japanese and purportedly issued by the Japanese high command, ordering their troops to surrender. The leaflets further lowered the morale of the hard-pressed, retreating Japanese. Although the enemy troops continued to fight fiercely, they lost town after town. Finally, both Mandalay and Rangoon, the country’s principal cities, were liberated.

                                  Detachment 101’s Remarkable Success

                                  By mid-July 1945, orders from Washington deactivated the OSS Burma operation. The remarkable success of Detachment 101’s guerrilla activities was borne out by an impressive set of statistics. At its peak, the detachment numbered only 689 Americans, 131 officers and 558 enlisted men. During the course of its operations, the unit was able to train more than 10,000 native troops, mostly Kachins, in the techniques of guerrilla warfare.

                                  The Northern Combat Area Command’s (NCAC) statistics indicated that Detachment 101 had killed or wounded an estimated 10,000 Japanese, captured 75, taken down 51 bridges, derailed nine trains, and destroyed 277 enemy vehicles. Of paramount importance to their operations, too, was the rescue of some 232 downed U.S. airmen, whose planes had been lost in the airlifts over the Hump to China.

                                  The NCAC stated that the great majority of the intelligence provided to the command came from Detachment 101. Yet, the cost in American lives proved to be surprisingly small. The enemy succeeded in killing only three Americans from Detachment 101. Another 19 were lost in air crashes. Ultimately, on January 17, 1946, the War Department awarded the members of the detachment a Distinguished Unit Citation for their accomplishments in the China-Burma-India Theater.

                                  Major General William J. “Wild Bill” Donovan, creator of the OSS and chief architect of successful covert operations in Burma during World War II, died February 8, 1959.

                                  Dr. Carl H. Marcoux is a World War II veteran of the U.S. Merchant Marine and a Korean War veteran of the U.S. Air Force. He resides in Newport Beach, California.

                                  Originally Published January 16, 2017

                                  Comments

                                  My Father, William H. McClare was a liaison pilot assigned to OSS Detachment 101. For his actions he was awarded two Distinguished Flying Crosses and the Air Medal. After the war he went back to college, on to law school and then had a career with the newly formed Central Intelligence Agency. He was assigned With other CIA agents to Chiang Ke Shek. He later was involved in the Bay of Pigs operation.
                                  He passed away in 1970.

                                  Thanks for writing and sharing “Yankee Guerrillas in Burma: The story of OSS Detachment 101 in Burma“

                                  Thanks for an interesting article. I’ve always been interested in the history of the CBI and OSS operations in Burma during WWII.


                                  Allied air attack on Singhu, Burma, 1945 - History

                                  490th Bombing Squadron (M)
                                  "Burma Bridge Busters"

                                  341st Bomb Group, 10th & 14th Air Forces
                                  China-Burma-India
                                  Sep 1942 - Oct 1945

                                  This distinctive insignia was designed by Eugene Clay an artist, engineer and friend of Col. James A. Philpott, first commander of the 490th. This "winged skull" adorned the nose of the Lockheed Hudson that Col. Philpott ferried to China after the attack on Pearl Harbor. When the initial cadre organized the 490th they need an insignia and the design seemed the natural choice. The emblem was approved for use by the 341st Bomb Group commander in late 1942 and adorned the forward fuselage of the Mitchells belonging to the Squadron during the time it saw action against the Japanese in India, Burma and China. It was never officially approved by the USAAF, however, the emblem adorns a "Morale Badge" of the current 490th Missile Squadron, the descendant of the 490th Bomb Squadron, at Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana.

                                  The 490th Bombardment Squadron (M) was constituted and authorized to be made active, pursuant to War Department letter dated 14 Aug 42. On 16 Sep 42, General Order No. 42, Headquarters, Tenth American Air Force, New Delhi, India activated the Squadron at Karachi, India. The 490th was assigned to the 341st Bombardment Group, along with the 11th, 22nd and 491st Squadrons. Prior to this point, the WW II history of the 490th is the history of the 11th Bombardment Squadron which was split in half to form the new squadron. The unit received personnel and equipment and trained with B-25Cs/Ds during Sep-Dec 1942.

                                  Moving to Camp Moire Ondal, India, 5 Jan 43, the squadron entered combat on 18 Feb 1943, striking targets in central Burma to delay the movement of supplies from southern Burma to the Japanese troops fighting in northern Burma. As well as Camp Moire, the Squadron operated from Chakulia (20-25 May 43) and moved to Kurmitola, India, 25 May 43. During this time they struck at bridges, locomotives, railroad yards, trackage and rolling stock in central Burma, in the Monywa-Mandalay-Goktteik region, and ranged as far north as Myitkyina and as far south as Thazi.

                                  In Jan 1944 the 341st Group moved to China, leaving the 490th remaining under control of the Tenth Air Force. The Squadron's success in effectively 'glip' bombing bridges earned them the nickname of "Bridge Busters".

                                  Between 20 May and 30 Jun 44, the Squadron carried supplies and ammunition from Chittagong, India to Allied units at Imphal, during the Japanese offensive into India. During the 1944 Allied summer offensive against the Japanese in Burma, the 490th assisted the ground troops by providing low-level air support. They strafed and bombed enemy troop concentrations in particular striking at the bridges leading into Myitkyina which was being besieged by the Allies. The squadron moved and began operating from Dergaon, India, 26 Aug 44 from Moran, India, on 20 Oct 44 and from Warazup, Burma, on 29 Nov 44.

                                  Beginning in Jan 1945, they dropped leaflets (nicknamed the "Burma Mail") for the U.S. Office of War Information. The 490th moved to Hanchung, China, 13 Apr 45 coming under the control of the 312th Fighter Wing, 14th Air Force. With detached operations from Hsian, China, 16 Apr - 4 Aug 45, they continued attacks against bridges and rail yards, while also continuing to drop propaganda leaflets on occupied portions of China until war's end.

                                  With the 341st Group, the squadron returned to the U.S., Sep-Oct 1945 and was inactivated at Camp Kilmer, NJ, 1 - 2 Nov 45.

                                  The 490th has been reactivated, and redesignated the "490th Missile Squadron", at Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana, assigned to the 341st Missile Wing, formerly the 341st Bomb Group.

                                  EXCERPT FROM THE "HISTORY OF THE 490th MISSILE SQUADRON"

                                  490th BOMBARDMENT SQUADRON (MEDIUM)

                                  The 490th has a proud and distinguished history dating back to its beginning in India on 15 September 1942, when the 490th Bombardment Squadron (Medium) was activated. The first combat mission was flown on 18 February 1943 in B-25 Mitchell bombers bearing the now famous "Skull and Wings" insignia, an adaptation of the personal insignia of the commanding officer at that time, Major James A. Philpott. The squadron's aircraft bombed bridges, locomotives, railroad yards, and other targets to delay the movement of supplies to the Japanese troops fighting in northern Burma. Many bridge-bombing missions were initially unsuccessful. High-level, low-level, dive bombing, and skip-bombing all proved ineffective against these difficult targets.


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