Gloster U Mk.21

Gloster U Mk.21

Gloster Meteor U Mk.21

Gloster Meteor U Mk.21 var en ubemandet drone, der lignede U Mk.16 og ligesom det fly baseret på F Mk.8 jagerfly. Den eneste signifikante forskel mellem U.21 og U.16 var det elektroniske telemetriudstyr, med specifikt udstyr installeret i U.21 til brug på våbenets forskningsinstitut i Woomera.

Flight Refueling Limited konverterede en F.8 og syv U.16'er til U.21-standarden, hvor arbejdet begyndte i 1962. Fairey Aviation i Australien konverterede femten ex-RAAF F Mk.8s til U.21-standarden ved hjælp af kitdele af Flight Refueling Limited. Et af disse fly blev senere sendt tilbage til Det Forenede Kongerige (juli 1971) og konverteret tilbage til U.16 -standarden, der først trak sig tilbage den 11. oktober 2004, i samme måned som lukningen af ​​RAF Llanbedr.


Søg efter billeder af Spit SL674

Nedenfor er mit bryllupsfoto taget i 1988 foran Spitfire MK16 SL674 ved St. Georges Chapel, Biggin Hill.

I 1989 blev det fjernet og taget til St. Athan til opbevaring. Jeg tilfældigvis gik forbi den dag med mig kamera.

Siden da har jeg interesseret mig (mere som en besættelse) for SL674s historie. Nedenfor er angivet, hvad jeg har indtil videre (ret mig venligst, hvis der er fejl):

Bygget på Castle Bromwich sidst i 1944.

Juli 1945 til 29 MU RAF High Ercall, Shropshire (var dette ikke Bomber Comand?)

August 1947 501 eskadrille, Filton.

September 1948 FAAC (Sp. Hvad er en katastrofe AC -ulykke?)

April 1949 612 Squadron, Dyce, Aberdeen.

1956 Biggin Hill Gate Guardian.

Nu på lager i RAF Museum reserve, Stafford.

Jeg planlægger at lægge en side på mit websted, www.bigginhill-history.co.uk, med fotos, om SL674's historie. Hvis du har billeder af SL674, enten som portværge eller i tjeneste, eller andre nyttige oplysninger, som jeg kan bruge på mit websted, så lad mig det vide. Jeg vil naturligvis kreditere dig med billederne.

Medlem for

Indlæg: 1,859

Af: wieesso - 19. juli 2008 kl. 21:22 Permalink - Redigeret 1. januar 1970 kl. 01:00

1991 Lagret i St Athan
11.9.54 Kapelvagt, Biggin Hill
17.7.51 Pensionist
29.4.49 612 kvm som RAS-H og 8W-H
7.8.47 501 kvm
1.4.46 1 OTU
26.7.45 29 MU
http://www.supermarine-spitfire.co.uk/mark16.html
http://www.spitfires.ukf.net/p099.htm

Medlem for

Af: * Zwitter * - 20. juli 2008 kl. 07:56 Permalink - Redigeret 1. januar 1970 kl. 01:00

Hej Tony, dejligt at se en BH -beboer!

Ifølge folkene bag Biggin -museumskampagnen, som jeg talte med forleden, får museet SL674 tilbage til visning, hvis/når det åbner.

Ingen dybere information end det er jeg bange for, men det ville være fedt, hvis du får genopført dit bryllupsfoto.

Personligt glæder jeg mig til at se det igen, jeg husker det godt som barn.

Medlem for

Af: G -ORDY - 20. juli 2008 kl. 12:03 Permalink - Redigeret 1. januar 1970 kl. 01:00

Spitfire L.F.XVIE, SL674
RAF Museum Reserve Collection, Stafford, Storbritannien
Oprindeligt bestilt den 1. februar 1944 skulle SL674 være en af ​​et parti på 800 Mk 21 Spitfires, der udgjorde den sekstende ordre, der blev placeret hos Castle Bromwich Aircraft Factory. Ordren blev annulleret i august 1944, men delvist genindsat for 558 Spitfire Mk IX, som til sidst blev bygget som et blandet parti af Mks IX og XVI.

Leveret til nr. 29 M.U. ved High Ercall den 26. juli 1945 var SL674 blevet bygget på Castle Bromwich-fabrikken som en ryg med Packard Merlin 266-drevne L.F.XVIE. Det blev udstedt til nr. 17 O.T.U. den 1. april 1946, men dette opslag var kort, og den 23. oktober blev Spitfire leveret til nr. 6 M.U. hos Brize Norton. Her blev det klargjort til service med nr. 501 (County of Gloucester) Sqdn RAuxAF og leveret den 7. august 1947 som “RAB-R”.
Skade blev påført under en landingsulykke ved Filton den 4. september 1948, og reparationer blev udført af en part fra nr. 34 M.U. ved Montford Bridge mellem den 29. september og den 8. november, da ’674 sluttede sig til sin enhed igen.

Flyet blev overført til nr. 612 (amt i Aberdeen) Sqdn RAuxAF den 29. april 1949 og antog koden "RAS-H", som senere blev erstattet af "8W-H", her forblev det indtil pensionist den 17. juli 1951 og leveret til nr. 9 MU på Cosford, hvor den blev til 11. september 1954, da den fløj til Biggin Hill for at blive udstillet sammen med Royal Air Force Memorial Chapel.

I modsætning til de fleste andre Spitfire -portvogtere blev SL674 ikke "kaldet op" under udarbejdelsen af ​​Slaget om Storbritannien og forblev på sin post ved Biggin Hill. Det blev renoveret i St Athan mellem den 21. april og den 8. juni 1970 og vendte tilbage for at blive udstillet i en række forskellige malingskemaer i yderligere 19 år, blev endelig fjernet i februar 1989 og transporteret til RAF St Athan, og dets sted på Biggin Hill blev indtaget af en kopi af glasfiber.

I St Athan blev dens 612 Sqdn-markeringer "RAS-H", som den havde båret i de sidste år på Biggin Hill, fjernet, og den blev malet om i gråt og lagret til mulig udstillingsbrug eller til at blive byttet til en type på RAF-museets " Mest eftersøgte ”liste. Til sidst blev SL674 undersøgt, og dens vinger viste sig at være i overraskende god stand - god nok til at blive brugt i restaurering til flyvende tilstand af Mk IX MK356 (q.v), som i mange år havde været portværge ved RAF Locking.

SL674's type "E" afklippede vinger er nu fuldstændig forynget og flyver med MK356 som en del af RAF Battle of Britain Flight på Coningsby, mens dets flykroppe og MK356's vinger bevares i butik på Stafford til mulig fremtidig udveksling af RAF Museum Reserve Collection .


Gloster U Mk.21 - Historie

SUPERMARINE SPITFIRE F22 PK 662

& quotI aktion under hele anden verdenskrig og efter den havde Spitfire opnået udødelig berømmelse i slaget ved Storbritannien i 1940 og forblev i frontlinjetjeneste med RAF indtil december 1951. Den periode oplevede løbende forbedringer af det grundlæggende design, to af de vigtigste ændringer er udskiftning af maskingeværbevæbning med hårdt ramte 20 mm kanoner og introduktionen af ​​den større og mere kraftfulde Griffon-motor i Mk XII i 1943. Endelig havde RAF en jager, der var i stand til at håndtere truslen om hit- og kør Focke Wulf 190'erne. En midlertidig version, Mk XII blev afløst af Mk XIV, som fra juni 1944 sammen med Tempests var i stand til at opfange de frygtede V-1 flyvende bomber. Mk XVIII var den sidste nye jagervariant, der så service i krigen, og var den første, der havde den lavprofilerede bagkrop og boblebaldakin som standard. Det var Mk 21, der blev taget i brug umiddelbart efter krigen, der viste den mest radikale afvigelse fra den velkendte linje i Spitfire, selvom den vendte tilbage til den originale & quothigh & quot bagkropp af Mk XIV, næsten væk var den klassiske elliptiske vingeform . Højere ydeevne og udholdenhed havde krævet en stigning i vingeområdet og brændstoftankage, og en stigning i haleflyvidden spænder over disse ændringer sammen med forskellige strukturelle forbedringer til de endelige produktionsversioner, Mks 22 og 24.

I det væsentlige lignede disse de nedskårne bagkropp og boblebaldakin på Mark XVIII, og mens tidlige Mk 22'er bevarede fin- og rorformerne på Mk 21, og nogle også havde kontra-roterende propeller, så godt som alle ibrugtagningsmaskiner fremhævede meget forstørrede lodrette haleoverflader og fem bladede propeller, der var standard for Mk 24. Mk 22'erne tjente med 73 eskadron fra Middle East Air Force fra 1947 til 1948 og med 12 eskadriller fra Royal Auxiliary Air Force i Storbritannien mellem 1946 og 1951. Flere F22'er blev eksporteret, hvoraf 22 gik til det (dengang) sydlige Rhodesiske luftvåben, 20 til Egypten og 10 til Syrien. F24 så service kun med 80 eskadre, som i juli 1949 overførte fra sin base i Gutersloh i Tyskland til Kai Tak i Hong Kong for at styrke forsvaret i denne region under forstyrrelser på det kinesiske fastland og fra juni 1950 under Koreakrigen . Spitfires blev holdt i en høj tilstand, indtil de blev udskiftet med De Havilland Hornets i slutningen af ​​1951.

Selvom det ikke er nævnt i planerne, skal huller i den nedre fløj åbnes for at acceptere lokaliseringspiperne på raketstolperne. Alternativt kan piberne slibes af og pylonerne placeres med henvisning til de veldefinerede vingepaneler. Hvis raketbevæbning skal inkluderes i den færdige model - og de røde sprænghoveder tilføjer et stænk rødt til den ellers stort set grønne og grå palet - tilføjes de bedst sidst, efter at underving -mærkaterne er blevet påført, og det samme gælder for standard underwing Komponenter 77 og 78.

Mk V blev produceret i større antal end noget andet enkelt mærke af Spitfire og var hovedversionen af ​​jagerflyet i løbet af 1941 og erstattede Mk I og II i tjeneste i tide til at deltage i de første britiske modangreb over Frankrig. I løbet af sommeren 1941 havde Mk V en fordel i forhold til Bf 109, men i september 1941 debuterede Fw 190, og Mk V fandt sig selv udklasset. På trods af dette forblev det den vigtigste RAF -jager indtil sommeren 1942, og det lave niveau LF.Mk V forblev i brug i 1944.

Mk V var designet som et midlertidigt mærke. Mk III så et redesign af den grundlæggende skrog til at bære den mere kraftfulde Merlin XX -motor. Denne motor var imidlertid en mangelvare, og de interne ændringer i Mk III ville have forsinket produktionen. Rolls-Royce havde fortsat arbejdet med Merlin og producerede Merlin 45, og denne motor producerede 1515 hk ved 11 000 fod.

Det kunne let passe ind i en Mk I eller II skrog, så fly, der allerede er under produktion, kan konverteres til den nye standard. Senere i løbet blev de lignende Merlin 46, 50 og 50A motorer også brugt i Mk V. Men mens Merlin XX havde en to -trins kompressor (en til lav højde og en i høj højde), kunne Merlin 45 kun tilbyde overopladning i høj højde.

Den første Mk V blev produceret i januar 1941, og test viste, at den var næsten lige så god som Mk III, men uden den ekstra kompleksitet, der var involveret i den version. I marts 1941 blev det besluttet at producere Mk V i stedet for Mk III, og typen var allerede kommet i produktion på dette trin, 92 eskadron var den første til at modtage den i februar 1941. Produktionen blev oprindeligt delt mellem Va med de otte maskiner pistol “a ” vinge (94 bygget) og Vb med “b ” vingen af ​​to 20 mm kanoner og fire maskingeværer.

Dens største modstander i løbet af sommeren 1941 ville være Bf 109F. Dette var nok den bedste version af & quotAugsburg Eagle & quot og lignede meget Spitfire V omend med dårligere ydeevne i stor højde, men kanten tættere på dækket. Spitfire Vb var også stærkere bevæbnet (Bf 109F-2 bar en 15 mm kanon og to 7,9 mm (0,311 tommer) maskingeværer). Imidlertid blev Mk V i 1941 brugt i de forskellige typer af missioner over Frankrig, kendt som “leaning over the channel ”, hvor Spitfire -tabene steg for lidt praktisk afkast og mange erfarne piloter blev taget i fangenskab.

I oktober 1941 dukkede Mk Vc op med den universelle “c ” vinge udviklet til Mk III, som kunne bære enten otte maskingeværer, fire 20 mm kanoner eller to kanoner og fire maskingeværer. De to kanoner/ fire maskingeværskombinationer var mest almindelige, da versionen med fire kanoner var betydeligt tungere, hvilket reducerede ydeevnen.

Mk V var den første Spitfire, der blev brugt i stort antal uden for Storbritannien. Den første sådan indsættelse kom den 7. marts 1942, da femten Mk Vbs blev leveret til Malta i Operation Spotter. Denne operation så også Spitfires første gang lanceret fra et hangarskib.

På Malta blev Spitfire brugt til at holde Bf 109F tilbage, mens Hawker Hurricanes angreb bombeflyene på lavere niveau, men tabene var store. På trods af en anden levering af Spitfires den 21. marts var der ved udgangen af ​​23. marts kun fem krigere, der kunne betjenes på Malta.

HMS Ørn, transportøren, der bruges til at levere dem, var nu blevet beskadiget, og det næste forsøg på at forstærke Malta blev lanceret af U.S.S. Hveps. Denne gang blev 46 Spitfire Vcs færget til Malta den 13. april under Operation Kalender. Desværre blev mange af disse fly ødelagt i tyske bombeangreb, der blev lanceret for at falde sammen med deres ankomst. Det ville kræve endnu en større forsyningsindsats, Operation Bowery, for ordentligt at øge Maltas forsvar. Denne gang nåede 60 Spitfires til Malta, og de samme Spitfires, der lige var fløjet ind, blev nu krypteret for at klare det uundgåelige indkommende raid. Operation Bowery bidraget til at sikre Maltas overlevelse og spillede dermed en stor rolle i de vellykkede allierede kampagner i Nordafrika.

Det andet oversøiske teater, der modtog Spitfire, var Nordafrika. Ved leveringsruten til Egypten blev fly sendt til Afrikas vestkyst og derefter fløjet over kontinentet i ti etaper til Egypten. Dette var en langsom rute, og den første Spitfire -eskadron blev først operation i maj 1941. Dette var lige i tide til at deltage i tilbagetoget til Egypten i sommeren 1941. Derefter deltog Spitfire Vc i de luftslag, der fulgte med slaget ved El Alamein, flyvende topdæksel for at beskytte terrænangreb fra Bf 109F'erne fra det tyske ørkenluftvåben. Deres tilstedeværelse hjalp med at opretholde allieret lufts overlegenhed over slagmarken.

Den 15. marts 1937 reformerede 73 på Mildenhall som en jagereskadron med Hawker Fury -biplaner. I juni blev disse erstattet af Gloster Gladiators, der blev fløjet, før Hawker Hurricanes fandt sted i juli 1938, og gladiatorerne blev overført til 3 Squadron.

Ved udbruddet af Anden Verdenskrig var 73 en af ​​de to orkaneskadroner knyttet til Advanced Air Striking Force og flyttede til Frankrig. Efter det tyske angreb i maj 1940 hjalp enheden med at dække allierede flyvepladser og baser og faldt tilbage, da dens flyvepladser blev overrendt af fjendens søjler. Den 18. juni trak eskadrillen sig tilbage til England, hvor den koncentrerede sig om natkampe under slaget om Storbritannien.

Operationer ophørte den 20. oktober for at give 73 mulighed for at forberede overførsel til Mellemøsten. Eskadronens orkaner forblev i den vestlige ørken og Tunesien indtil juni 1943, da de blev erstattet af Spitfires, og 73 flyttede til Italien for defensive patruljer, og blev en jagerbomber enhed i april 1944. Den beholdt denne rolle i resten af ​​krigen, hovedsagelig fungerende over Balkan.

I april 1945 flyttede eskadronen til Jugoslavien indtil krigens slutning og flyttede til Malta i juli 1945. Konvertering til de Havilland Vampyrer fandt sted på Cypern i september 1948, og disse blev fløjet i Middelhavet og Mellemøsten, indtil de blev erstattet af de Havilland Venoms i November 1954. I marts 1957 konverterede 73 til engelske elektriske Canberras på Cypern, indtil den blev opløst den 17. marts 1969.


Militære ressourcer

Mississippianerne har en lang historie med at tjene i de væbnede styrker. Materialer, der dokumenterer denne service, findes i hele arkivets samlinger. Regeringsoptegnelser omfatter konfødererede optegnelser, statsrevisorers konfødererede pensionsfiler, militærafdeling/generaladjutant -serier, Veterans ’Affairs Board -poster og amerikanske militærjournaler. Arkiverne har næsten 400 manuskriptsamlinger forbundet med de forskellige krige, hvor Mississippianerne har tjent. Mississippiana -samlingen indeholder militærhistoriske bøger samt indekser til servicering af optegnelser og pensionsruller. Arkiverne har også mange fotografier med militære emner. Alle disse materialer kan søges i onlinekataloget.

Arkiverne har mikrofilmkopier af serviceoptegnelser for Mississippians i krigen i 1812 (1812–15), mexicansk krig (1846–48), borgerkrig (1861–65) og den spansk-amerikanske krig (1898) og udkast til registrering kort til 1. verdenskrig (1917–18). Arkiverne indeholder også Mississippi Første Verdenskrigs erklæring om servicekort, 1917–19.


Civil Rights Act fra 1964: En lang kamp for frihed Civil Rights Era (1950 og ndash1963)

NAACPs juridiske strategi mod adskilt uddannelse kulminerede i 1954 Højesterets skelsættende Brown v. Board of Education -afgørelse. Afroamerikanere fik den formelle, hvis ikke den praktiske, ret til at studere sammen med deres hvide kammerater i folkeskoler og gymnasier. Beslutningen gav anledning til en uforsonlig, voldelig modstand, hvor sydstater brugte en række forskellige taktikker til at unddrage sig loven.

I sommeren 1955 omfattede en stigning i anti-sort vold kidnapning og brutalt mord på den fjortenårige Emmett Till, en forbrydelse, der fremkaldte omfattende og selvhævdende protester fra sort-hvide amerikanere. I december 1955 begyndte busboykotten i Montgomery, Alabama, ledet af Martin Luther King, Jr., en langvarig kampagne af ikke -voldelig civil ulydighed for at protestere mod adskillelse, der tiltrak national og international opmærksomhed.

I løbet af 1956 underskrev en gruppe sydlige senatorer og kongresmedlemmer "Det sydlige manifest", der lovede modstand mod raceintegration med alle "lovlige midler". Modstanden øgedes i 1957 & ndash1958 under krisen over integration på Little Rock’s Central High School. Samtidig førte Leaderskabskonferencen om borgerlige rettigheder et vellykket drive for vedtagelse af borgerrettighedsloven af ​​1957 og fortsatte med at presse på for endnu stærkere lovgivning. NAACPs ungdomsråds kapitler iscenesatte sit-ins ved frokostbordene, der kun er hvide, hvilket udløste en bevægelse mod adskillelse i offentlige indkvarteringer i hele Syd i 1960. Ikke-voldelig direkte handling steg under John F. Kennedys formandskab, begyndende med Freedom Rides i 1961.

Hundredvis af demonstrationer brød ud i byer og byer i hele landet. National og international mediedækning af brugen af ​​brandslanger og angrebshunde mod børnedemonstranter udløste en krise i Kennedy -administrationen, som den ikke kunne ignorere. Bomberne og optøjerne i Birmingham, Alabama, den 11. maj 1963, tvang Kennedy til at indkalde føderale tropper.

Den 19. juni 1963 sendte præsidenten et omfattende lov om borgerrettigheder til kongressen. March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom den 28. august vakte offentlig støtte til det verserende lovforslag. Efter præsidentens attentat den 22. november var skæbnen for Kennedys lovforslag i hænderne på hans vicepræsident og efterfølger, Lyndon B. Johnson, og den amerikanske kongres.

Roy Wilkins NAACPs længst fungerende leder

Roy Wilkins (1901−1981) blev født i St. Louis, søn af en minister. Mens han gik på University of Minnesota tjente han som sekretær for den lokale NAACP. Efter eksamen begyndte han at arbejde som redaktør for Kansas City Call, en sort ugentlig. Overskriften dækning Wilkins gav NAACP i Opkald vakte opmærksomhed fra Walter White, der ansatte ham som NAACP assisterende sekretær i 1931.

Fra 1934 til 1949 fungerede Wilkins samtidig som redaktør for Krisen, NAACP’s kvartalsblad. I 1950 blev han NAACP -administrator og medstifter af Leadership Conference on Civil Rights. Han efterfulgte Walter White som eksekutivsekretær for NAACP i 1955. Under hans ledelse opnåede NAACP skoledegregering, større borgerrettighedslovgivning og dens højeste medlemskab. Wilkins trak sig tilbage i 1977 som den længst siddende NAACP -leder.

Roy Wilkins. New York: M. Smith Studio, mellem 1940 og 1950. NAACP Records, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (078.00.00) Hilsen af ​​NAACP

Bogmærke dette emne: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/civil-rights-act/civil-rights-era.html#obj078

Et faktaark om Cloture

I februar 1952 holdt Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR) et møde i Washington for at diskutere senatets regel XXII om cloture, en procedure, som sydlige senatorer benyttede til at blokere borgerrettighedsregninger i debat af filibuster. I 1952 krævede regel XXII to tredjedele af hele senatet for at påberåbe cloture for at bryde en filibuster. Senatorer havde også liberaliseret regel XXII ved at udsætte "enhver foranstaltning, bevægelse eller andet stof" for cloture. Ved starten af ​​hver ny kongres lobbyede LCCR for en revision af regel XXII for at mindske hindringerne for vedtagelse af borgerrettighedsregninger. Joseph Rauh var chefstrateg for LCCR’s regel XXII -kampagner.

Landsforeningen til fremme af farvede mennesker. Faktaark om Cloture. Typeskrift, ca. 1951. Side 2 - Side 3 - Side 4. NAACP Records, Manuskript Division, Library of Congress (079.00.00) Hilsen af ​​NAACP

Bogmærke dette emne: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/civil-rights-act/civil-rights-era.html#obj079

Pædagog og borgerrettighedsaktivist Harry Tyson Moore

Pædagog og borgerrettighedsaktivist Harry Tyson Moore var en af ​​de tidligste ledere, der blev myrdet i den moderne fase af borgerrettighedsbevægelsen. Moore var førende inden for vælgerregistrering og arbejdede som en landsdækkende organisator for NAACP i Florida og koncentrerede sig om at etablere filialer i landdistrikter. Han begyndte sin karriere som undervisning i det offentlige skolesystem i Brevard County, Florida, først på en folkeskole og senere som forstander for Mims Elementary School. Han og hans kone, Harriette, der også underviste i skole, sluttede sig til NAACP i 1933. De organiserede et lokalkapitel i Brevard og anlagde sag i 1937 og udfordrede de ulige lønninger til sorte og hvide lærere, den første af slagsen i syd. I 1951 var Moore og hans kone ofre for Ku Klux Klan -terror, da en bombe eksploderede i deres hjem.

Harry T. Moore. Foto, ca. 1950. New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (249.00.00)

Bogmærke dette emne: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/civil-rights-act/civil-rights-era.html#obj249

Ralph Ellisons Usynlig mand

“Jeg er en mand med stof, kød og ben, fibre og væsker og jeg kan endda siges at have et sind. Jeg er usynlig, forstår, simpelthen fordi folk nægter at se mig. ”

Forfatter Ralph Waldo Ellison gennemførte kun en roman i løbet af sit liv, den anmelderroste Usynlig mand, udgivet i 1952. Det er anerkendt som et af de mest indflydelsesrige mesterværker i det tyvende århundrede og har modtaget hædersbevisninger og priser for Ellison. I romanen omhandler Ellison, hvad det vil sige at være afroamerikaner i en verden, der er fjendtlig over for et mindretals rettigheder, på vej til den nye borgerrettighedsbevægelse.

Gordon Parks (1912 & ndash2006). Ralph Ellison. Foto, ca. 1950. Ralph Ellison Papers, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (081.00.00)

Ralph Waldo Ellison (1914 & ndash1994). Udkast til side af Usynlig mand. Side 2. Udskrift, 1952. Ralph Ellison Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (080.00.00)

Bogmærke dette emne: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/civil-rights-act/civil-rights-era.html#obj081

Arbejde med afrikanske frihedsbevægelser

I 1952 sluttede Bayard Rustin sig til A. Philip Randolph, George Houser, William Sutherland og andre for at danne amerikanere til sydafrikansk modstand, den første organiserede indsats i USA på vegne af befrielseskampen i Afrika. Senere samme år rejste Rustin til Vestafrika i regi af American Friends Service Community og Fellowship of Reconciliation for at hjælpe afrikanske ledere Kwame Nkrumah og Nnamdi Azikiwe med at organisere ikke -voldelige kampagner mod kolonialisme. I 1953 blev Rustin eksekutivsekretær for War Resisters League. I dette brev rapporterer Rustin om William Sutherlands arbejde med afrikanske frihedsbevægelser, der er sponsoreret af Ligaen.

Bayard Rustin til tilhængere af War Resisters League, 1. december 1953. Bayard Rustin Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (117.00.00) Hilsen af ​​Walter Naegle

Bogmærke dette emne: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/civil-rights-act/civil-rights-era.html#obj117

Supplerende kort i Brun Sager

Brown v. Education Board var et vendepunkt for amerikansk borgerrettighedslovgivning. Højesteret i USA fastslog, at Jim Crow -love, der adskilte folkeskoleelever på grundlag af race, var forfatningsstridige i strid med den fjortende ændrings lov om lige beskyttelse. Brun udtrykkeligt omstødte domstolens tidligere afgørelse i Plessy v. Ferguson, hvor den havde fastslået, at adskilte offentlige faciliteter var forfatningsmæssige, forudsat at de var adskilte, men i det væsentlige ens. Denne begivenhed var kulminationen på NAACP's Legal Defense Fund's kampagne mod adskillelse i skolerne. På trods af denne skelsættende beslutning blev desegregering af offentlige skoler ofte mødt med forsinkelser eller direkte modstand.

Supplemental Brief for USA om Reargument i Cases of Brown v. Board of Education: Oliver Brown, et al. v. Board of Education, Kansas et al., 1953. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (082.00.00) Hilsen af ​​NAACP

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Advokater for Brown v. Education Board

Højesteret bundtet Brown v. Education Board med fire beslægtede sager og planlagt en høring den 9. december 1952. Der blev indkaldt til en ny retsmøde den 7. december 1953 og en afgørelse truffet den 17. maj 1954. Tre advokater, Thurgood Marshall (centrum), chefrådgiver for NAACP’s juridiske forsvarsfond og hovedadvokat på Briggs sag med George E. C. Hayes (venstre) og James M. Nabrit (ret), advokater for Bolling sag, vises stående på den amerikanske højesterets trin og lykønsker hinanden efter domstolens afgørelse, der erklærer segregation forfatningsstridig.

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NAACP -sekretær Mildred Bond Roxborough Interviewet af Julian Bond i 2010

Mangeårig sekretær for NAACP Mildred Bond Roxborough (f. 1926) diskuterer organisationens resultater i et interview foretaget af Julian Bond (f. 1940) for Civil Rights History Project i 2010.

Civil Rights History Project Collection (AFC 2010/039), American Folklife Center

Warrens læsningskopi af Brun Udtalelse, 1954

Chief Justice Earl Warren's læseeksemplar af Brun er kommenteret i hans hånd. Warren meddelte udtalelsen i navnene på hver retfærdighed, en hidtil uset begivenhed. Dramaet blev forstærket af den udbredte forudsigelse om, at domstolen ville være delt om spørgsmålet. Warren mindede sig selv om at understrege afgørelsens enstemmighed med en marginal notation, "enstemmigt", der afveg fra det trykte læseeksemplar for at erklære: "Derfor holder vi enstemmigt. . . . ” I sine erindringer huskede Warren øjeblikket med ægte varme. "Da ordet 'enstemmigt' blev talt, fejede en følelsesbølge rummet ingen ord eller forsætlig bevægelse, men alligevel en tydelig følelsesmæssig manifestation, der trodser beskrivelse." "Enstemmigt" blev ikke inkorporeret i den offentliggjorte udgave af udtalelsen og eksisterer således kun i dette manuskript.

Earl Warrens læseeksemplar af Brun udtalelse, 17. maj 1954. Earl Warren Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (084.00.00)

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"En stor dag for Amerika"

Oliver Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) var et triumferende øjeblik for borgerrettigheder og understregede chefdommer Earl Warren's effektivitet i at lede domstolen. Chief Justice Warren erkendte vigtigheden af ​​at udstede Brown v. Board som en enstemmig beslutning, at sikre modstandere af beslutningen ikke ville blive opmuntret af en uenig mening. Advokatdommer Harold H. Burton sendte denne note til chefdommer Warren den dag, hvor Højesterets afgørelse i Brown v. Board blev annonceret. Han sagde: ”I dag mener jeg, at det har været en fantastisk dag for Amerika og domstolen. . . . Jeg værner om privilegiet at få del i dette. ” I en hyldest til Warrens retslige statsmandskab tilføjede Burton: "Til dig går æren for karakteren af ​​de meninger, der frembragte den vigtige enstemmighed. Tillykke."

Harold H. Burton til Earl Warren, 17. maj 1954. Holografbrev. Earl Warren Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (84.01.00)

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To reaktioner på Brown v. Board Højesterets afgørelse i USA

I denne live tv -diskussion, der blev sendt den 23. maj 1954, besvarede Illinois Senator Paul Douglas (1892 & ndash1976) og Texas Senator Price Daniel (1910 & ndash1988) spørgsmål om Brown v. Education Board Højesterets afgørelse afsagt seks dage tidligere. Som svar til Brown v. Board, Underskrev Daniel sammen med 100 andre lovgivere det sydlige manifest to år senere og protesterede mod Højesterets "misbrug af retsmagt". Dette uddrag er fra American Forum of the Air: Højesterets desegregeringsafgørelse, udsendt på NBC.

Film, Broadcasting og optaget lydafdeling. Hilsen af ​​NBC News

NAACP -advokat Benjamin Hooks interviewet af Renee Poussaint i 2003

NAACP -advokat og minister Benjamin Hooks (1925 & ndash2010) forklarer milepælen 1954 Brown v. Board of Education i et interview foretaget af Renee Poussaint for National Visionary Leadership Project i 2003.

National Visionary Leadership Collection (AFC 2004/007), American Folklife Center

Seks år efter Brun, Atlanta borgere diskuterer deres skoler

Som svar på Brown v. Board beslutning, vedtog Georgien lovgivning, der kræver lukning af offentlige skoler, der var blevet tvunget til at integrere ved domstolsordre og deres omdannelse til private skoler. Efter at en føderal dommer havde beordret Atlanta School Board til at forelægge en desegregeringsplan, nedsatte guvernør Ernest Vandiver et udvalg, der skulle afholde offentlige fora om spørgsmålet. Høringerne i marts 1960 i Atlanta, hvoraf dele blev sendt nationalt i CBS -rapporter: Hvem taler for syd? den 27. maj 1960 trak en stor skare og talere med forskellige meninger. I 1961 tilbagekaldte lovgiveren i Georgien sin skolesegregeringslov. En domstolsordnet desegregeringsplan trådte imidlertid ikke i kraft i endnu et årti.

“Jeg ville ønske, jeg vidste, hvordan det ville føles at være fri”

Sangen "I Wish I Knew How It Would Feel to Be Free" blev komponeret af jazzpianist og pædagog Dr. Billy Taylor (1921−2010). Selvom stykket blev skrevet i 1954, nød stykket først popularitet før borgerrettighedsbevægelsen i slutningen af ​​1950'erne og blev bemærkelsesværdigt i 1960'erne med en indspilning af sangen af ​​sangerinden Nina Simone. Titlen udtrykker et af de grundlæggende temaer for bevægelsen og ønsket om at leve frit med værdighed i Amerika.

Billy Taylor. "Jeg ville ønske, at jeg vidste, hvordan det ville føles at være fri." Holograf -manuskript, 1954. Side 2. Billy Taylor Papers, Music Division, Library of Congress (085.00.00)

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Paul Robesons telegram om Till -retssagen

Sanger, skuespiller og advokat for borgerlige frihedsrettigheder Paul Robeson (1898 & ndash1976) sendte dette telegram som svar på en helt hvid jury frifindelse af to hvide mænd anklaget for mordet på Emmett Till, en sort teenager fra Chicago, der besøgte slægtninge i Leflore County, Mississippi, i sommeren 1955. Dommen vakte nationen til forargelse. A. Philip Randolph, formand for Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters og ældre statsmand for borgerrettighedsbevægelsen, opfordrede til en massedemonstration.

Paul Robeson til A. Philip Randolph, 24. september 1955. Telegram. Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (087.00.00) Hilsen af ​​A. Philip Randolph Institute

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Mordet på teenager Emmett Till

Emmett Till blev brutalt myrdet den 28. august 1955 i en alder af fjorten for angiveligt at have fløjtet på en hvid kvinde, mens han besøgte i Money, Mississippi, med venner. Kvindens mand og hans venner kidnappede Till, slog og skød ham og kastede hans lig i Tallahatchie -floden, hvor det blev opdaget tre dage senere. Han kunne kun identificeres ved en ring på fingeren. Beslutningen fra Tills mor, Mamie Till-Bradley, om at få hans krop tilbage til deres hjem i Chicago og hendes insisteren på at have en åben kiste resulterede i at bringe national opmærksomhed på sociale forhold i landet. Published photos of Till created a global uproar for change and an end to discrimination and white supremacy.

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Civil Rights Activist Joyce Ladner Interviewed by Joseph Mosnier in 2011

Civil rights activist Joyce Ladner (b. 1943) discusses post-war Southern black youth in the movement in an interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier (b. 1962) for the Civil Rights History Project in 2011.

Civil Rights History Project Collection (AFC 2010/039), American Folklife Center

NAACP Field Secretary Medgar W. Evers

Medgar W. Evers (1925&ndash1963), the son of a farmer, was born in Decatur, Mississippi. After graduating from Alcorn Agriculture and Mechanical College in 1952, he went to work for a black insurance company in the Mississippi Delta. At the same time Evers began organizing for the NAACP. In 1954 he became the NAACP’s first field secretary in the state. His main duties were recruiting new members and investigating incidents of racial violence. Evers also led voter registration drives and mass protests, organized boycotts, fought segregation, and helped James Meredith enter the University of Mississippi. In May 1963 his home was bombed after he stepped up protests in Jackson, Mississippi. On June 11, he was murdered in his driveway.

Medgar W. Evers. Photograph, between 1950 and 1963. NAACP Records, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (088.00.00)

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Medgar Evers and the Jackson Movement: “Until Freedom Comes”

NAACP field secretary in Mississippi Medgar Evers (1925&ndash1963) was assassinated at his home in Jackson, Mississippi, a few hours after President Kennedy made a nationally televised speech in which he announced he soon would ask Congress to enact civil rights legislation. A portion of a speech by Evers during a direct action campaign to desegregate Jackson was featured in this excerpt from NBC’s The American Revolution of ’63, broadcast September 2, 1963, which also includes footage of sit-ins, beatings, and arrests of protesters in Jackson.

The NAACP’s Report on the Emmett Till Murder

In the fall of 1955, NAACP Field Secretary Medgar Evers, Southeast Regional Director Ruby Hurley, and Amzie Moore, president of the Bolivar County branch in Mississippi initiated an investigation of Emmett Till’s lynching and secured key witnesses. In his annual report, Evers included an account of Till’s kidnapping, lynching, and the trial of his killers.

Medgar W. Evers. Annual Report Mississippi State Office National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1955. Typescript. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (089.00.00, 089.01.00)

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Rosa Parks Arrested and Fingerprinted

Rosa Parks was a leader in the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott, which demonstrated that segregation would be contested in many social settings. A federal district court decided that segregation on publicly operated buses was unconstitutional and concluded that “in the Brun case, Plessy v. Ferguson has been implied, though not explicitly, overruled.” The U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the judgment of the district court without opinion, a common procedure it followed in the interim between 1954 and 1958.

Rosa Parks’ arrest record, December 5, 1955. Page 2. Frank Johnson Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (091.00.00)

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Civil Rights Activist Ruby Sales Interviewed by Joseph Mosnier in 2011

Civil rights activist Ruby Sales (b. 1948) describes the central role and importance of Rosa Parks and other working women for the freedom struggle in an interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier for the Civil Rights History Project in 2011.

Civil Rights History Project Collection (AFC 2010/039), American Folklife Center

Rosa Parks Being Fingerprinted

On December 1, 1955, forty-three-year-old Rosa Parks was arrested for disorderly conduct for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white passenger. Her arrest and fourteen-dollar fine for violating a city ordinance led African American bus riders and others to boycott Montgomery, Alabama, city buses. It also helped to establish the Montgomery Improvement Association led by a then unknown young minister from the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, Martin Luther King, Jr. The boycott lasted for one year and brought the civil rights movement and Dr. King to the attention of the world.

Mrs. Rosa Parks being fingerprinted in Montgomery, Alabama. Photograph, 1956. New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (090.00.00)

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Rosa Parks’ Instructions for Bus Boycott

The Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) was formed in Montgomery, Alabama, on December 5, 1955, to direct the black boycott of the city’s segregated buses. Martin Luther King, Jr., was elected its president and Rosa Parks served on the executive board of directors. Parks also worked briefly as a dispatcher for the MIA Transportation Committee. In this capacity, she was responsible for connecting people who needed rides with drivers of private cars and church owned station wagons. In these notes, Parks describes the creation of this volunteer transportation system and offers detailed instructions to riders and drivers to resolve "Transportation Problems."

Rosa Parks’ notes concerning the early days of the Montgomery Bus Boycott, [1955]. Autograph notes. Page 2 - Page 3. Rosa Parks Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (277.00.00, 277.00.01) Courtesy of the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development

Montgomery Fair date book with Rosa Parks’ notes concerning the Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955&ndash1956. Rosa Parks Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (322.00.00) Courtesy of the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development

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Rosa Parks’ Travels on Behalf of the Boycott

In 1956 Rosa Parks traveled across the U.S. making appearances on behalf of the bus boycott and the NAACP. In the spring she flew to Detroit, Seattle, Los Angeles, Oakland, Chicago, and Indianapolis, before spending two weeks in New York. There she addressed a civil rights rally and fundraiser at Madison Square Garden and met Roy Wilkins, Thurgood Marshall, and A. Philip Randolph. She left New York to address the annual NAACP Convention in San Francisco. After a summer respite in Montgomery, Parks resumed her tour as the featured speaker at a September mass meeting in Baltimore organized by Lillie Jackson, the NAACP branch president and mother-in-law of Clarence Mitchell.

NAACP Baltimore Branch flyer advertising a lecture by Rosa Parks at the Sharp Street Methodist Church, September 23, 1956. Rosa Parks Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (321.00.00) Courtesy of the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development

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Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., (1929&ndash1968) was a Southern Baptist minister who followed in the footsteps of his father by embracing a pacifist philosophy. One of his first roles as a civil rights leader was with the Montgomery bus boycott, inspired by the arrest of Rosa Parks for refusing to give up her seat. At the end of the year-long boycott, King emerged as a central figure in the struggle for civil rights by using his considerable oratorical skills to take his message on the road in speaking engagements across the country.

King led nonviolent protest marches in one of the South’s most segregated states&mdashAlabama. As the founder and leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), he was approached to join with the five key civil rights groups to support the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom where he delivered the “I Have a Dream” speech, solidifying his place in the history of the civil rights movement. King won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. The next year, he began the Selma Voting Rights movement and in 1966, began his “northern campaign” in Chicago.

Associated Press Photo. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Photograph, 1964. New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (092.00.00)

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Martin Luther King, Jr., on Nonviolence

Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., (1929&ndash1968) discusses the tactic and philosophy of nonviolence in excerpts from an interview conducted by Martin Agronsky at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, where Dr. King was the pastor. The interview was broadcast on October 27, 1957, in the NBC television Look Here serie.

Civil Rights Activist Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth on Bombings and Beatings in 1950s Birmingham

In an interview broadcast May 18, 1961, on CBS Reports: Who Speaks for Birmingham? Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth (1922&ndash2011), one of the founders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and the leading civil rights figure in Birmingham, Alabama, discusses the violence he suffered in 1955 and 1957 (shown in archival footage).

International Outreach

The original English language comic book, published by the Fellowship of Reconciliation in 1957, was discovered by Egyptian activist Dalia Ziada in 2006. Determining that a nonviolent protest should be the preferred method for reform, Ziada translated the comic book into Arabic, received approval from the government censors, and published the work in 2008. It is credited with helping to inspire the Egyptian Arab Spring protests at Cairo’s Tahrir Square that led to President Hosni Mubarak’s resignation on February 11, 2011.

Martin Luther King and the Montgomery Story, Arabic edition, 2008. Comic Book Collection, Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (093.00.00)

Martin Luther King and the Montgomery Story, 1957. Comic Book Collection, Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (093.01.00)

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Southern Negro Leaders Conference

In the fall of 1956, Bayard Rustin discussed with Martin Luther King, Jr., the need for an organization larger than the Montgomery Improvement Association that could sustain protest in the South. With contributions from civil rights activists Ella Baker and Stanley Levison, Rustin drafted seven working papers for a workshop on nonviolent social change. After studying the papers, King called a conference at Atlanta’s Ebenezer Baptist Church in January 1957. There he discussed with more than sixty ministers their common problems of the Southern struggle. The group voted unanimously to form a permanent organization, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).

Bayard Rustin. Southern Negro Leaders Conference on Transportation and Non-Violent Integration, Working Paper # 1, [1956]. Bayard Rustin Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (096.00.00) Courtesy of Walter Naegle

Bayard Rustin. Southern Negro Leaders Conference on Transportation and Non-Violent Integration, Working Paper # 7, [1956]. Bayard Rustin Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (096.01.00)

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Attorney Clarence Mitchell

Baltimore native Clarence Mitchell attended the University of Maryland Law School. He began his career as a reporter. During World War II he served on the War Manpower Commission and the Fair Employment Practices Committee. In 1946 Mitchell joined the NAACP as its first labor secretary. From 1950 to 1978, he served concurrently as director of the NAACP Washington Bureau, the NAACP’s chief lobbyist, and legislative chairman of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights. Mitchell waged a tireless campaign on Capitol Hill to secure the passage of a comprehensive series of civil rights laws&mdashthe 1957 Civil Rights Act, the 1960 Civil Rights Act, the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the 1965 Voting Rights Act, and the 1968 Fair Housing Act.

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Prayer Pilgrimage, 1957

In 1957, A. Philip Randolph, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Roy Wilkins cosponsored the Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom to demand federal action on school desegregation and demonstrate support for the Civil Rights Act of 1957. Held at the Lincoln Memorial on May 17, the third anniversary of Brown v. Education Board, the Pilgrimage attracted a crowd of about 25,000. The turnout was smaller than the organizers had predicted but was still the largest civil rights demonstration to date. The Pilgrimage launched the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and helped establish Martin Luther King, Jr., as a national leader.

Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom. Program, 1957. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (099.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP


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Currently under the direction of Henrik Pedersen, Gloster's catalog includes modular seating, accessories, and outdoor dining created by world-renowned designers. Founded in 1960, the brand balances tradition with progress, honoring their celebrated history while redefining what is possible in outdoor spaces. Come see why Gloster continues to be a leader in the luxury exterior design market.


Historie

Primary Care Health Services, Inc. is a private, community-based nonprofit corporation, formed in 1976 as the successor to the Homewood-Brushton Neighborhood Health Center (founded in 1968). Located on Hamilton Avenue in the Homewood community of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the health center was subsequently renamed the "Alma Illery Medical Center" to honor the civic leader, community champion and “doctor of goodwill,” Mrs. Alma Illery, who received an Honorary Doctorate in Humanities from Tuskegee University for her advocacy of racial integration in hospitals and promotion of training minorities for careers in health care.

Today, the Alma Illery Medical Center is the flagship for a countywide system of nine (9) medical, four (4) dental, seven (7) health care for the homeless, and one (1) family support services sites operated by Primary Care Health Services, Inc., to address the unique needs of a multicultural, predominately low-income population. Regardless of our patient’s ability to pay, PCHS is dedicated to providing quality medical and dental services to children and adults, as well as:

-Developing healthcare centers in medically underserved areas
-Ensuring that services are accessible, relevant, and of high quality
-Rendering continuing care to patients by the same clinician

1968
Homewood-Brushton Neighborhood Health Center opened at a time when the Civil Rights movement led to a flurry of free clinics opening around the country in poor neighborhoods.
Robert Bolden was hired as the first Executive Director and Chairman of the Board.

1973
A community group led by Mr. Richard Adams and Mr. Sam Thompson raised $1.8M to fund a more comprehensive health center.

Mrs. Alma Illery (1953-1972) was a pioneer and civic leader from Pittsburgh’s Hill District who was instrumental in establishing Camp Achievement, a woodsy Fayette County summer outpost for hundreds of inner-city children that operated for more than 50 years. She promoted integration in local hospitals and supported an array of humanitarian efforts. She single-handedly lobbied Congress in 1944 to pass legislation establishing Jan. 5th as George Washington Carver Day, in memory of Tuskegee University's famed black scientist. The University later presented Illery with an honorary doctorate in the field of humanities.

1975
Dr. James Stewart was hired as the first Medical Director
Inaugural Board of Directors were:
Richard Adams, President
Sam Thompson, Vice President
JoAnn Woodson
Nate Smith

1976
Primary Care Health Services, Inc., was established and became a state of PA non-profit organization.

1977
Mr. Wilford A. Payne was hired as the Executive Director.


Soviets begin withdrawal from Afghanistan

More than eight years after they intervened in Afghanistan to support the procommunist government, Soviet troops begin their withdrawal. The event marked the beginning of the end to a long, bloody, and fruitless Soviet occupation of Afghanistan.

In December 1979, Soviet troops first entered Afghanistan in an attempt to bolster the communist, pro-Soviet government threatened by internal rebellion. In a short period of time, thousands of Russian troops and support materials poured into Afghanistan. Thus began a frustrating military conflict with Afghan Muslim rebels, who despised their own nation’s communist government and the Soviet troops supporting it. During the next eight years, the two sides battled for control in Afghanistan, with neither the Soviets nor the rebels ever able to gain a decisive victory.

For the Soviet Union, the intervention proved extraordinarily costly in a number of ways. While the Soviets never released official casualty figures for the war in Afghanistan, U.S. intelligence sources estimated that as many as 15,000 Russian troops died in Afghanistan, and the economic cost to the already struggling Soviet economy ran into billions of dollars. The intervention also strained relations between the Soviet Union and the United States nearly to the breaking point. President Jimmy Carter harshly criticized the Russian action, stalled talks on arms limitations, issued economic sanctions, and even ordered a boycott of the 1980 Olympics held in Moscow.

By 1988, the Soviets decided to extricate itself from the situation. Russian leader Mikhail Gorbachev saw the Afghan intervention as an increasing drain on the Soviet economy, and the Russian people were tired of a war that many Westerners referred to as “Russia’s Vietnam.” For Afghanistan, the Soviet withdrawal did not mean an end to the fighting, however. The Muslim rebels eventually succeeded in establishing control over Afghanistan in 1992.


The True Story of Brainwashing and How It Shaped America

Journalist Edward Hunter was the first to sound the alarm. “Brain-washing Tactics Force Chinese Into Ranks of Communist Party,” blared his headline in the Miami Daily News in September 1950. In the article, and later in a book, Hunter described how Mao Zedong’s Red Army used terrifying ancient techniques to turn the Chinese people into mindless, Communist automatons. He called this hypnotic process “brainwashing,” a word-for-word translation from xi-nao, the Mandarin words for wash (xi) and brain (nao), and warned about the dangerous applications it could have. The process was meant to “change a mind radically so that its owner becomes a living puppet—a human robot—without the atrocity being visible from the outside.”

Relateret indhold

It wasn’t the first time fears of Communism and mind control had seeped into the American public. In 1946 the U.S. Chamber of Commerce was so worried about the spread of Communism that it proposed removing liberals, socialists and communists from places like schools, libraries, newspapers and entertainment. Hunter’s inflammatory rhetoric didn’t immediately have a huge impact—until three years into the Korean War, when American prisoners of war began confessing to outlandish crimes.

When he was shot down over Korea and captured in 1952, Colonel Frank Schwable was the highest ranking military officer to meet that fate, and by February 1953, he and other prisoners of war had falsely confessed to using germ warfare against the Koreans, dropping everything from anthrax to the plague on unsuspecting civilians. The American public was shocked, and grew even more so when 5,000 of the 7,200 POWs either petitioned the U.S. government to end the war, or signed confessions of their alleged crimes. The final blow came when 21 American soldiers refused repatriation.

Suddenly the threat of brainwashing was very real, and it was everywhere. The U.S. military denied the charges made in the soldiers’ “confessions,” but couldn’t explain how they’d been coerced to make them. What could explain the behavior of the soldiers besides brainwashing? The idea of mind control flourished in pop culture, with movies like Invasion of the Body Snatchers og The Manchurian Candidate showing people whose minds were wiped and controlled by outside forces. FBI director J. Edgar Hoover referred to thought-control repeatedly in his book Masters of Deceit: The Story of Communism in America and How to Fight It. By 1980 even the American Psychiatric Association had given it credence, including brainwashing under “dissociative disorders” in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III. Had Chinese and Soviet Communists really uncovered a machine or method to rewrite men’s minds and supplant their free will?

The short answer is no—but that didn’t stop the U.S. from pouring resources into combatting it.

“The basic problem that brainwashing is designed to address is the question ‘why would anybody become a Communist?’” says Timothy Melley, professor of English at Miami University and author of The Covert Sphere: Secrecy, Fiction, and the National Security State. “[Brainwashing] is a story that we tell to explain something we can’t otherwise explain.”

The term had multiple definitions that changed depending on who used it. For Hunter—who turned out to be an agent in the CIA’s propaganda wing—it was a mystical, Oriental practice that couldn’t be understood or anticipated by the West, Melley says. But for scientists who actually studied the American POWs once they returned from Korea, brainwashing was altogether less mysterious than the readily apparent outcome: The men had been tortured.

Robert Jay Lifton, one of the psychiatrists who worked with the veterans and late studied doctors who aided Nazi war crimes, listed eight criteria for thought reform (the term for brainwashing used by Mao Zedong's communist government). They included things like “milieu control” (having absolute power over the individual’s surroundings) and “confession” (in which individuals are forced to confess to crimes repeatedly, even if they aren’t true). For the American soldiers trapped in the Korean prison camps, brainwashing meant forced standing, deprivation of food and sleep, solitary confinement, and repeated exposure to Communist propaganda.

“There was concern on the part of [the American military] about what had actually happened to [the POWs] and whether they had been manipulated to be [what would later be known as] a ‘Manchurian candidate,’” says Marcia Holmes, a science historian at the University of London’s “Hidden Persuaders” project. “They’re not sleeper agents, they’re just extremely traumatized.”

The early 1950s marked the debut of the military’s studies into psychological torture, and instead of concluding the American soldiers needed rehabilitation, military directors came to a more ominous conclusion: that the men were simply weak. “They became less interested in the fantasy of brainwashing and became worried our men couldn’t stand up to torture,” Holmes says. This resulted in the Survival, Evasion, Resistance, Escape program (SERE), meant to inoculate men against future attempts at psychological torture by using those same torture techniques in their training.

Meanwhile, the American public was still wrapped up in fantasies of hypnotic brainwashing, in part due to the research of pop psychologists like Joost Meerloo and William Sargant. Unlike Lifton and the other researchers hired by the military, these two men portrayed themselves as public intellectuals and drew parallels between brainwashing and tactics used by both American marketers and Communist propagandists. Meerloo believes that “totalitarian societies like Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union or Communist China were in the past, and continue to be, quite successful in their thought-control programs… [and] the more recently available techniques of influence and thought control are more securely based on scientific fact, more potent and more subtle,” writes psychoanalyst Edgar Schein in a 1959 review of Meerloo’s book, The Rape of the Mind: The Psychology of Thought Control—Menticide and Brainwashing.

Psychiatrists, as well as writers like Aldous Huxley, were aided by the dominant theory of the human mind at the time, known as “behaviorism”. Think of Ivan Pavlov’s slobbering dogs, trained to salivate upon hearing a bell, even if they weren’t tempted with food. The basic assumption of behaviorism was that the human mind is a blank slate at birth, and is shaped through social conditioning throughout life. Where Russia had Pavlov, the U.S. had B.F. Skinner, who suggested psychology could help predict and control behavior. Little wonder, then, that the public and the military alike couldn’t let go of brainwashing as a concept for social control.  

With this fear of a mind-control weapon still haunting the American psyche, CIA director Allen Dulles authorized a series of psychological experiments using hallucinogens (like LSD) and biological manipulation (like sleep deprivation) to see if brainwashing were possible. The research could then, theoretically, be used in both defensive and offensive programs against the Soviet Union. Project MK-ULTRA began in 1953 and continued in various forms for more than 10 years. When the Watergate scandal broke, fear of discovery led the CIA to destroy most of the evidence of the program. But 20,000 documents were recovered through a Freedom of Information Act request in 1977, filed during a Senate investigation into Project MK-ULTRA. The files revealed the experiments tested drugs (like LSD), sensory deprivation, hypnotism and electroshock on everyone from agency operatives to prostitutes, recovering drug addicts and prisoners—often without their consent.

Despite MK-ULTRA violating ethical norms for human experiments, the legacy of brainwashing experiments continued to live on in U.S. policy. The same methods that had once been used to train American soldiers ended up being used to extract information from terrorists in Abu Ghraib, Iraq and Guantanamo Bay.

“Here, then, is the brief history of brainwashing,” Melley writes in a 2011 paper for Grey Room. “The concept began as an [O]rientalist propaganda fiction created by the CIA to mobilize domestic support for a massive military build-up. This fiction proved so effective that the CIA’s operations directorate believed it and began a furious search for a real mind control weapon. The search resulted not in a miraculous new weapon but a program of simulated brainwashing designed as a prophylactic against enemy mistreatment. This simulation in turn became the real basis for interrogating detainees in the war on terror.”

While few people take seriously the notion of hypnosis-like brainwashing (outside Hollywood films like Zoolander), there are still plenty who see danger in certain kinds of control. Consider the conversations about ISIS and radicalization, in which young people are essentially portrayed as being brainwashed. “Can You Turn a Terrorist Back Into a Citizen? A controversial new program aims to reform homegrown ISIS recruits back into normal young Americans,” proclaims one article in Kablet. Or there’s the more provocative headline from Vice: “Inside the Mind-Control Methods the Islamic State Uses to Recruit Teenagers.”

“I think a program of isolation and rigorous conversion still does have a life in our concept of radicalization,” Melley says. But outside those cases related to terrorism it’s mostly used facetiously, he adds.  

“The notion of brainwashing, no less than radicalization, often obscure[s] far more than it reveal[s],” write Sarah Marks and Daniel Pick of the Hidden Persuaders project. “Both terms could be a lazy way of refusing to inquire further into individual histories, inviting the assumption that the way people act can be known in advance.”

For now, the only examples of “perfect” brainwashing remain in science-fiction rather than fact. At least until researchers find a way to hack into the network of synapses that comprise the brain.

Editor's note, May 25, 2017: The article previously misstated that Robert Jay Lifton studied Nazi doctors' war crimes before studying American prisoners of war, and that he coined the term "thought reform." 


Carlos Casta󱻚 and Other Hallucinogens

Hallucinogens can be found in the extracts of some plants or mushrooms, or they can be manmade like LSD. The ergot fungus, from which Hofmann synthesized LSD in 1938, has been associated with hallucinogenic effects since ancient times.

Peyote, a cactus native to parts of Mexico and Texas, contains a psychoactive chemical called mescaline. Native Americans in Mexico have used peyote and mescaline in religious ceremonies for thousands of years.

There are more than 100 species of mushrooms around the world that contain psilocybin, a hallucinogenic compound. Archeologists believe humans have used these “magic mushrooms” since prehistoric times.

Carlos Casta󱻚 was a reclusive author whose best-selling series of books include The Teachings of Don Juan, published in 1968.

In his writings, Casta󱻚 explored the use of mescaline, psilocybin and other hallucinogenics in spirituality and human culture. Born in Peru, Casta󱻚 spent much of his adult life in California and helped to define the psychological landscape of the 1960s.

A number of manmade hallucinogens, such as MDMA (ecstasy or molly) and ketamine, are sometimes associated with dance parties and “rave culture.” PCP (angel dust) was used in the 1950s as a anesthetic before it was taken off the market in 1965 for its hallucinogenic side effects, only to become a popular recreational drug in the 1970s.


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