Franklin Roosevelt gifter sig med Eleanor Roosevelt

Franklin Roosevelt gifter sig med Eleanor Roosevelt

Fremtidens præsident Franklin Delano Roosevelt giftede sig med sin femte fætter, der engang blev fjernet, Eleanor Roosevelt, i New York på denne dag i 1905.

Eleanor, født Anna Eleanor Roosevelt i New York i 1884, mistede sin mor Anna til difteri, da hun var otte. Hendes far, Elliot, en bror til Theodore Roosevelt, døde som følge af alkoholisme, da hun var 10 år gammel. Som et resultat blev Eleanor opdraget af den udvidede Roosevelt -familie og mødte sin kommende mand for første gang, da hun kun var to år gammel, og han var fire. De så hinanden ofte til danse og fester og blev med årene meget tætte. I 1903 foreslog en 22-årig Franklin ægteskab med den 19-årige Eleanor; parret giftede sig to år senere på St. Patrick's Day. Tidligere præsident Theodore Roosevelt gav bruden væk. Da Franklin forfulgte en karriere inden for politik, rejste Eleanor fem børn (en sjette døde i barndommen), meldte sig frivilligt i borgerlige organisationer og arbejdede for kvinders stemmeret, inden hun blev førstedame.

LÆS MERE: Hvordan Eleanor Roosevelt pressede på for en universel erklæring om menneskerettigheder

Et år efter deres bryllup skrev Teddy Roosevelt, der var meget glad for sin niece, til FDR, "du og Eleanor er sande og modige, og jeg tror, ​​at du elsker hinanden uselvisk ..." Men deres ægteskabsliv viste sig ikke at være lykkeligt. I 1918 blev Eleanor ødelagt over at opdage, at Franklin havde en affære med sin sekretær, Lucy Mercer. Da Eleanor truede med at forlade ham, greb hans mor ind og tilbød at støtte Eleanor økonomisk, hvis hun ville blive i ægteskabet. Derefter bevarede Eleanor og Franklin den offentlige facade for et ægtepar, men levede i virkeligheden som platoniske partnere, der delte en interesse i public service.

Da Roosevelt blev præsident i 1933, blomstrede den generte Eleanor, da hun optrådte offentligt på hendes mands vegne og udførte en række filantropiske aktiviteter. Hun brugte sin berømthed til at fremme borgerrettigheder og humanitære årsager og udgav også en daglig avisspalte kaldet "Min dag." Roosevelt værdsatte Eleanors intellekt og synspunkt og rådførte sig ofte med hende om præsidentspørgsmål.

FDR fortsatte med at have andre anliggender, herunder et med sin sekretær, Missy LeHand. Hans søn, Elliot, huskede at have set LeHand sidde på sin fars skød, og at han ligesom resten af ​​præsidentens familie "accepterede det som en selvfølge." Med hensyn til Eleanor florerede der ubegrundede rygter om hendes påståede lesbiske kærlighedsaffære med en kvindelig reporter ved navn Lorena Hickok. De to kvinder udvekslede breve fyldt med seksuelle undertoner. En kær ven og mentor for Eleanor, Hickok flyttede ind i Det Hvide Hus i 1940.

Efter FDRs død i 1945 forblev Eleanor aktiv i public service og blev delegeret til FN's generalforsamling i 1948. Hun døde i 1962.

LÆS MERE: Hvorfor FDR ikke understøttede Eleanor Roosevelts Anti-Lynching-kampagne


Anna Eleanor Roosevelt

Eleanor Roosevelt var en forældreløs, "grim ælling", der voksede op til at blive verdens første dame. Hun var niece til præsident Teddy Roosevelt og var som sådan ikke fremmed for politikens verden. Men som barn havde hun ikke vist tegn på en udadvendt, politisk karakter. Faktisk var hun genert, akavet og tilbagetrukket efter at være blevet opdraget af sin strenge og vovede bedstemor. Således var hun forbløffet, da hendes ambitiøse, smukke og berettigede femte fætter Franklin Roosevelt foreslog ægteskab i 1905. I 1910 var Franklin en senator i New York. Da hans politiske horisonter udvidede sig, blev Eleanors sociale samvittighed også større. Det var hendes mands angreb på polio i 1921, der uigenkaldeligt satte Eleanor Roosevelt på vej til socialt engagement. Behovet for at bringe omverdenen til sin rekonvalescerende mand førte i sidste ende til, at Eleanor tog fat på sine egne årsager, især social- og velfærdslovgivningen. Hun begyndte at tale offentligt (overvinde sin generthed) for at udfylde sin mand og holde hans navn levende politisk. Inden længe søgte Franklin igen at deltage aktivt i det demokratiske parti.

Roosevelt blev guvernør i New York i 1929 med Eleanor ved siden af ​​ham. Kort fire år senere var Roosevelts i Det Hvide Hus, hvor Eleanor blev en mest aktiv, synlig og indflydelsesrig præsidentægtefælle. I løbet af sin embedsperiode som First Lady var Eleanor Roosevelt forkæmper for de mindre heldige. Hun rejste til fængsler, miner, hospitaler og lejemål. Hun var en aktiv fortaler for sin mands New Deal og blev kendt som hans "øjne og ører", da hun rejste rundt i USA i depressionstiden. Det anslås, at hun rejste over 40.000 miles hvert år som førstedame.

Blandt hendes præstationer som First Lady var oprettelsen af ​​National Youth Administration. Hun revitaliserede også Ellen Wilsons slumklaringsprogram med Alley Dwelling Act fra 1934. Hun inviterede Marian Anderson, en sort contralto, til at synge i Det Hvide Hus i 1936. I 1939 nægtede Daughters of the American Revolution at lade Miss Anderson synge kl. Constitution Hall Eleanor Roosevelt trådte straks ud af organisationen og sørgede for, at sangeren optrådte på Lincoln Memorial. Fru Roosevelt skrev en daglig avisspalte "My Day" for at udtrykke sine meninger. Under anden verdenskrig besøgte hun hærbaser over hele verden. Hun blev kåret til en af ​​Amerikas mest beundrede kvinder år efter år. Eleanor Roosevelt var blevet en amerikansk institution.


Franklin D Roosevelt gifter sig med Anna Eleanor Roosevelt

Den 17. marts 1905 giftede Roosevelt sig med Eleanor på trods af sin mors hårde modstand.

Eleanors onkel, Theodore Roosevelt, stod ind ved brylluppet for Eleanors afdøde far Elliott. Det unge par flyttede ind i Springwood, hans families ejendom, hvor FDRs mor blev en hyppig husgæst, meget til Eleanors ærgrelse. Hvad angår deres personlige liv, var Franklin en karismatisk, smuk og socialt aktiv mand. Derimod var Eleanor genert og kunne ikke lide det sociale liv, og blev først hjemme for at opdrage deres børn. Selvom Eleanor ikke kunne lide sex, og betragtede det som "en prøvelse at blive udholdt", [11] havde de seks børn hurtigt i træk:
Anna Eleanor (1906–1975, 69 år)
James (1907–1991, 83 år)
Franklin Delano, Jr. (18. marts 1909 - 7. november 1909)
Elliott (1910–1990 alder 80)
en anden Franklin Delano, Jr. (1914–1988 alder 74)
John Aspinwall (1916–1981, 65 år).

Franklin og Eleanor på Campobello Island, Canada, i 1905.
Roosevelt havde anliggender uden for sit ægteskab, herunder et med Eleanors socialsekretær Lucy Mercer, som begyndte kort tid efter, at hun blev ansat i begyndelsen af ​​1914. I september 1918 fandt Eleanor breve, der afslørede sagen i Roosevelts bagage, da han vendte tilbage fra 1. verdenskrig. Roosevelt -familien tilbød Eleanor Franklin en skilsmisse, så han kunne være sammen med den kvinde, han elskede, men Lucy, som var katolik, kunne ikke få sig selv til at gifte sig med en fraskilt mand med fem børn. Ifølge FDRs biograf Jean Edward Smith er det generelt accepteret, at Eleanor faktisk tilbød "at give Franklin sin frihed." [12] De forsonede sig imidlertid efter en måde med den uformelle mægling af Roosevelts rådgiver Louis McHenry Howe, og FDR lovede aldrig at se Lucy igen. Sara greb også ind og fortalte Franklin, at hvis han blev skilt fra sin kone, ville han bringe skandale over familien, og hun "ville ikke give ham en anden dollar." [12] Franklin brød imidlertid sit løfte. Han og Lucy fastholdt en formel korrespondance og begyndte at se hinanden igen i 1941 - og måske tidligere. [13] [14] Lucy fik endda kodenavnet "Fru Johnson" af Secret Service. [15] Faktisk var Lucy hos FDR den 12. april 1945 - den dag han døde. På trods af dette var FDR's affære først kendt i 1960'erne. [16]
Effekten af ​​denne affære på Eleanor Roosevelt er vanskelig at undervurdere. "Jeg husker en elefant. Jeg kan tilgive, men jeg kan ikke glemme," skrev hun en nær ven. [17] Selvom Eleanor aldrig kunne lide sex, efter affæren forlod enhver tilbageværende intimitet deres forhold. Eleanor etablerede kort efter et separat hus i Hyde Park ved Valkill og dedikerede sig i stigende grad til forskellige sociale og politiske årsager. For resten af ​​deres liv var Roosevelts ægteskab mere et politisk partnerskab end et intimt forhold. [18] Det følelsesmæssige brud i deres ægteskab var så alvorligt, at da FDR bad Eleanor i 1942 - i lyset af hans svigtende helbred - om at komme hjem og bo hos ham igen, nægtede hun. [16]
Franklins søn Elliott hævdede, at Franklin havde en 20-årig affære med sin private sekretær Marguerite "Missy" LeHand. [19] [20]
I 1919 boede Roosevelts ved siden af ​​Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer og var til stede, da en galleanistisk anarkist blev dræbt i den ødelagte bombning, der var et forsøg på at myrde Palmer. Også i 1919 hjalp Franklin Roosevelt Éamon de Valera og hans spæde irske republikanske hær med at komme uden om eksportlove for forsendelse af våben, der blev brugt mod britiske tropper i den irske uafhængighedskrig.
De fem overlevende Roosevelt -børn levede alle tumultartede liv i skyggen af ​​deres berømte forældre. De havde blandt dem nitten ægteskaber, femten skilsmisser og niogtyve børn. Alle fire sønner var officerer i Anden Verdenskrig og blev på fortjeneste dekoreret for tapperhed. To af dem blev valgt til Det Amerikanske Repræsentanternes Hus - FDR, Jr. tjente tre valgperioder, der repræsenterede Upper West Side på Manhattan, og James tjente seks valgperioder, der repræsenterede det 26. distrikt i Californien - men ingen blev valgt til højere embede trods flere forsøg. [21] [22] [23] [24]
Roosevelts hund, Fala, blev også kendt som en ledsager til Roosevelts i hans tid i Det Hvide Hus og blev kaldt "den mest fotograferede hund i verden." [25]

Den 17. marts 1905 giftede Franklin og Eleanor sig. Eleanors yndlings onkel, præsident Theodore Roosevelt, gav væk bruden. I de få år mellem Eleanors hjemkomst til New York og hendes ægteskab med Franklin havde hun haft en periode med relativ tilfredsstillelse gennem undervisning og udførelse af socialt arbejde. Men efter ægteskabet blev hendes liv fuldstændig overhalet af Franklin og moderskab. Hun fødte sit første barn, Anna, den 3. maj 1906. Inden for en periode på elleve år fødte hun Franklin seks børn, en pige og fem drenge, hvor en søn døde som spædbarn. Som hun udtrykte det, "I 10 år var jeg altid lige ved at komme over at få en baby eller var ved at få en anden, så mine erhverv var betydeligt begrænsede." I mellemtiden, med Franklin aktiv i politik, spillede hun i stigende grad rollen som samfundets værtinde, især efter hans udnævnelse i 1910 til det amerikanske senat. Som om dette ikke var nok, følte hun sig domineret af Franklins besiddende mor, Sara Delano Roosevelt, der havde finansieret parrets hjem, og som ledede Eleanors indsats med børnene.

Den 17. marts 1905 giftede hun sig med sin femte fætter, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, og mellem 1906 og 1916 blev de forældre til seks børn: Anna Eleanor (1906-75), James (1907-91), Franklin Delano, Jr. (1909), Elliott (1910-90), Franklin, Jr. (1914-88) og John (1916-81). I løbet af denne periode vendte hendes offentlige aktiviteter efter for familiens bekymringer og hendes mands politiske karriere. Men med amerikansk indtræden i Første Verdenskrig blev hun aktiv i det amerikanske Røde Kors og i frivilligt arbejde på flådehospitaler. I 1921 blev Franklin Roosevelt ramt af polio, der fik fru Roosevelt til at blive stadig mere aktiv i politik til dels for at hjælpe ham med at bevare sine interesser, men også for at hævde sin egen personlighed og mål. Hun deltog i League of Women Voters, sluttede sig til Women's Trade Union League og arbejdede for Women's Division i New York State Democratic Committee. Hun var med til at etablere Val-Kill Industries, en nonprofit møbelfabrik i Hyde Park, New York, og underviste på Todhunter School, en privat pigeskole i New York City.


2 tanker om & ldquo Eleanor Roosevelt & rdquo

Eleanor Roosevelt var pioner i den moderne rolle som First Lady som mere end bare et smukt tilbehør til præsidenten. Hun var i stand til at engagere sig i politik og arbejde for landets større bedste. Jeg er helt enig i, at hun kunne klassificeres som en outsatnding kvinde i historien.

Hvor langt var hendes fætter, som hun giftede sig med? lol. Hun gjorde så meget i sit liv. Hun har muligvis ændret det første dames sted, men jeg tror, ​​vi kommer til omtale i stedet for at hjælpe folk ud af deres hjertes venlighed.


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Var Franklin og Eleanor i familie?
Franklin og Eleanor var femte fætre, når de blev fjernet.

Hvornår og hvor mødtes Franklin og Eleanor første gang?
Ifølge hendes selvbiografi mødte Eleanor Franklin i 1886, da hendes forældre besøgte Sara Delano og James Roosevelt i Hyde Park, New York. Hun var to, og han var fire.

Hvornår og hvor giftede Franklin og Eleanor sig og bryllupsrejse?
Franklin og Eleanor blev gift på St. Patricks Day den 17. marts 1905 i New York City hjemme hos sin tante, fru Henry Parrish, Jr.

Brylluppet var enkelt, bortset fra præsident Theodore Roosevelt, der gav sin niece væk. Siden Franklin gik på Columbia Law School på det tidspunkt, udsatte de deres bryllupsrejse til Europa til sommeren og tog i stedet en uges tur til Hyde Park, New York.

Deres bryllupsrejse tog dem til England, Frankrig, Italien, Tyskland, Skotland og Schweiz.

Hvem var Franklin og Eleanors børn?
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (3. maj 1906, New York - 1. december 1975, New York), James Roosevelt (23. december 1907, New York -13. august 1991, Newport Beach, Californien), Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr. ( 8. marts 1909, New York - 8. november 1909, New York), Elliott Roosevelt (23. september 1910, New York -27. oktober 1990, Scottsdale, Arizona), Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr. (17. august 1914 , Campobello Island - 17. august 1988 Poughkeepsie, New York), John A. Roosevelt (13. marts 1916, Washington, DC - 27. april 1981, New York)

Biografier:

Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (datter)

Det ældste barn og eneste datter af Franklin og Eleanor Roosevelt, Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (kaldet "Sis" af familien) blev født i New York City den 3. maj 1906. Anna var aktiv som forfatter og journalist, og hun fungerede som redaktør af kvindens side i Seattle Post-Intelligencer i flere år.

I 1944 flyttede Anna på hendes fars anmodning ind i Det Hvide Hus for at tjene som assistent for præsidenten og som værtinde i Det Hvide Hus under sin mors hyppige fravær. Anna ledsagede også sin far til Yalta-konferencen i januar-februar 1945.

Anna dedikerede meget af sit senere liv til uddannelsesproblemer og til at varetage mange af sin mors interesser og filantropier. Hun var en aktiv tilhænger af Franklin D. Roosevelt -biblioteket. Anna døde den 1. december 1975 i en alder af 69 år.

Annas ægteskaber og børn:

1m. Curtis Bean Dall, 1926 skilt 1934.

Anna Eleanor Dall, f. 1927
Curtis Roosevelt Dall, f. 1930

2m. Clarence John Boettiger, 1935 skilt 1949.

John Roosevelt Boettiger, f. 1939.

3m. James Addison Halsted, MD, 1956.

James Roosevelt (ældste søn)

James Roosevelt blev født i New York City den 23. december 1907 og var det andet barn og den ældste søn af Franklin og Eleanor Roosevelt. Efter at have gået på Groton School og Harvard College, engagerede James sig i forsikringsbranchen og spillede en aktiv rolle i sin fars politiske karriere, tjente som kampagneleder i Massachusetts i 1932 og blev en uofficiel assistent i 1933. Han tjente i Det Hvide Hus som præsident assistent fra 1937-1938, og blev derefter filminstruktør.

Han tjente i marinerne fra 1940-1945 og tjente Navy Cross og Silver Star.

Efter krigen vendte James tilbage til Californien, hvor han genoplivede sin forsikringskarriere og blev involveret i demokratisk politik. Han blev valgt til seks valgperioder som medlem af det amerikanske repræsentanthus fra Californien. Efter at han forlod huset i 1967, vendte han tilbage til Californien, hvor han blev virksomhedskonsulent, forfatter og kommentator. James døde den 13. august 1991 i en alder af 83 år.

James ægteskaber og børn:

1m. Betsey Cushing, 1930 skilt 1940

Sara Delano Roosevelt
Kate Roosevelt

2m. Romelle Theresa Schneider, 1941 skilt 1955

James Roosevelt, Jr.
Michael Anthony Roosevelt
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt

3m. Gladys Irene (Kitchner) Owens, 1956 skilt 1969

Hall Delano Roosevelt (vedtaget)

4m. Mary Lena Winskill, 1969

Født den 23. september 1910, blev Elliott Roosevelt opkaldt efter sin morfar. Elliott gik på Groton School som sin far og storebror, James, men afviste at gå på college. Han havde en række forskellige job, inden han flyttede til Texas i 1932 for at slutte sig til kommunikationsindustrien. I 1933 blev han leder af Hearst radiokæden.

Elliott sluttede sig til Army Air Corps i 1940, hvor han udarbejdede en fremragende servicerekord, ledsagede sin far på mange af de allieredes magtkonferencer og opnåede rang som brigadegeneral.

Efter krigen blev han en produktiv forfatter, fungerede som chef for Miami Beach Tourist Bureau og blev valgt til en periode som borgmester i Miami Beach, Florida.

Elliott døde den 27. oktober 1990, en måned efter hans firs fødselsdag.

Elliots ægteskaber og børn:

1m. Elizabeth Browning Donner, 1932 skilt 1933

2m. Ruth Josephine Googins, 1933 skilt 1944

Ruth Chandler Roosevelt
Elliott Roosevelt, Jr.
David Boynton Roosevelt

3m. Faye Margaret Emerson, 1944 skilt 1950

4m. Minnewa (Bell) (Gray) (Burnside) Ross, 1954 skilt 1960

5m. Patricia (Peabody) Whitehead, 1960

Livingston Delano Roosevelt, født og død i barndommen
Elliott Roosevelt adopterede de fire Whitehead -børn:

James M. Roosevelt
Ford Roosevelt
Gretchen Roosevelt
David Macauley Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr. (Søn)

Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr., blev født den 17. august 1914 på Campobello Island, stedet for Roosevelt sommerhus. Efter eksamen fra Groton, Harvard (AB) og University of Virginia (LL.B.) arbejdede FDR Jr. på sin fars valgkampagne fra 1940.

Han sluttede sig til flåden i 1941 og tjente Purple Heart, Silver Star og andre hæder, før han blev udskrevet i oktober 1945 på rang som løjtnantkommandør.

Efter krigen arbejdede han som advokat i New York City og blev aktiv i demokratisk politik. Han fungerede som næstformand for præsident Trumans borgerrettighedskommission i 1949, og senere samme år blev han valgt til det amerikanske repræsentanthus fra New Yorks tyvende kongresdistrikt, et sæde, han ville have i tre perioder. FDR Jr. fungerede som under-sekretær for handel fra 1962-1965 og som den første formand for Equal Opportunity Commission fra 1965-1966.FDR Jr. døde den 17. august 1988, hans fireoghalvfjerds fødselsdag.

FDR Jr.s ægteskaber og børn:

1m. Ethel du Pont, 1937 skilt 1949

Franklin Delano Roosevelt III
Christopher du Pont Roosevelt

2m. Suzanne Perrin, 1949 skilt 1970

Nancy Suzanne Roosevelt
Laura Delano Roosevelt

3m. Felicia Schiff (Warburg) Sarnoff, 1970 skilt 1976

4m. Patricia Luisa Oakes, 1977 skilt 1981

5m. Linda McKay Stevenson Weicker, 1984

Det yngste barn af Franklin og Eleanor Roosevelt, John Aspinwall Roosevelt blev født den 13. marts 1916 i Washington, DC Uddannet på Groton School og Harvard College, John arbejdede i Filene's Department Store i Boston, Massachusetts, efter eksamen.

I 1941 trådte han ind i flåden og blev udskrevet i 1946 på rang som løjtnantkommandør.

Efter krigen var John aktiv i forskellige forretningsmæssige og økonomiske anliggender på vestkysten, og sluttede sig til firmaet Bache and Company i 1967. John tilbragte resten af ​​sin karriere hos firmaet, og han trak sig tilbage som senior vice president bare en få måneder før hans død den 29. april 1981.

John var den eneste Roosevelt -søn, der ikke søgte eller havde valgt embede, og i 1952 skiftede han sin politiske tilknytning til det republikanske parti, så han kunne støtte general Dwight D. Eisenhowers præsidentkampagne. Han var involveret i mange filantropiske bestræbelser og tjente som en fundraiser for National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis og som kurator for Marist College og State University of New York.

Johns ægteskaber og børn:

1m. Anne Lindsay Clark, 1938 skilt 1965

spædbarn søn født og død i barndommen
Haven Clark Roosevelt
Anne Sturgis Roosevelt
Sara Delano Roosevelt, 1942-1960
Joan Lindsay Roosevelt, 1952-1997


Uddrag: 'Franklin og Eleanor'

Franklin og Eleanor: Et ekstraordinært ægteskabAf Hazel RowleyIndbundet, 368 siderFarrar, Straus og GirouxListepris: $ 27

Eleanor havde forstået usikkerheden i hendes situation. Hvis Franklins mor ikke kunne lide hende, risikerede hun at miste Franklin. Næste morgen skrev hun til Sara:

Kæreste fætter Sally:

Jeg må skrive til dig og tak fordi du var så god ved mig i går. Jeg ved lige, hvordan du har det, og hvor svært det skal være, men jeg vil så gerne have, at du lærer at elske mig lidt. Du skal vide, at jeg altid vil prøve at gøre det, du ønsker, og jeg er vokset til at elske dig meget højt i løbet af den sidste sommer.

Det er umuligt for mig at fortælle dig, hvordan jeg har det over for Franklin, jeg kan kun sige, at mit eneste store ønske altid er at vise ham værdig.

Jeg tæller dagene til den 12., hvor jeg håber, at Franklin og I begge vil være her igen, og hvis der er noget, jeg kan gøre for jer, vil I skrive til mig, ikke sandt?

Med min kærlighed kære fætter Sally,
Altid hengivent
Eleanor.

Franklin blev i mellemtiden fanget mellem to kvinder. Han skrev til sin mor på Harvard Crimson notesbog og fortalte hende, at han havde meget travlt og arbejdede ind i de tidlige timer om morgenen på avisen og forskellige udvalg. Så kom dette:

Kære mor - jeg ved, hvilken smerte jeg må have forårsaget dig, og du ved, jeg ikke ville gøre det, hvis jeg virkelig kunne have hjulpet det - mais tu sais, me voilà! Det er alt, hvad der kan siges - jeg kender mit sind, har kendt det længe og ved, at jeg aldrig kunne tænke andet: Resultat: Jeg er den lykkeligste mand lige nu i verden ligeledes den heldigste - Og for dig , kære mor, du ved, at intet nogensinde kan ændre det, vi altid har været og altid vil være for hinanden - først nu har du to børn at elske & at elske dig - og Eleanor som du kender vil altid være en datter for dig på enhver sand måde.

Franklin havde gjort det utænkelige. Han havde stået op til sin mor, helt og fast. "Min kæreste Franklin," lød svaret fra Hyde Park, "jeg er så glad for at tænke på min dyrebare søn så fuldstændig glad, du ved det, og jeg prøver ikke at tænke på mig selv. Jeg ved, at jeg i fremtiden vil blive glad og jeg vil elske Eleanor og adoptere hende fuldt ud, når det rigtige tidspunkt kommer. Hav bare tålmodighed, kære Franklin, lad ikke denne nye lykke få dig til at miste interessen for arbejde eller hjem. "

Franklin skrev tilbage: "Jeg er så glad, kære mor, at du er ved at komme over det underlige ved det hele - det vidste jeg, du ville." Det forlod kampen omkring den følgende weekend.

Jeg indrømmer, at jeg synes, det ville være en dårlig politik for mig at gå til H.P. næste søndag - selvom jeg, som du ved og ikke behøver at blive fortalt, altid elsker og prøver at være der alt, hvad jeg kan - har jeg været hjemme to gange allerede denne periode ... Hvis jeg er i NY på søndag, er det ikke en sjæl har brug for at vide, jeg har været der overhovedet, som om vi overhovedet går i kirke, vi kan gå til en gammel på omkring 100th St. og resten af ​​dagen ville være i huset, hvor ingen kunne se os ... Nu Hvis du virkelig ikke kan se vejen klar til mit ophold i NY, vil jeg selvfølgelig gå til HP med dig, men du ved, hvordan jeg har det - og jeg tror også, at E. vil blive frygtelig skuffet, som jeg vil, hvis vi ikke kan få en af ​​vores første søndage sammen - Det virker lidt hårdt og unødvendigt for os begge.

Han og Eleanor vandt den runde. Men der var mange flere kampe fremover. Franklin var vant til sin mor, og havde for længst valgt sin måde at håndtere hende på - løgne, unddragelse og fiktiv lethed. Eleanor svingede mellem overensstemmelse og vrede. "Du ved, hvor taknemmelig jeg er for hvert øjeblik, jeg har med dig," skrev hun til Franklin og underskrev sit brev, ligesom hun plejede at underskrive breve til sin far, "Din hengivne lille Nell." Men hun forstod ikke, hvorfor hendes kommende svigermor skulle diktere dem, hvornår og hvor de kunne mødes. "Det er svært for hende at indse, at nogen kan ønske eller har brug for dig mere end hun gør," sagde Eleanor til Franklin, "så jeg formoder, at jeg ikke burde have noget imod det, kun jeg har det meget forfærdeligt."

Franklin formåede at overtale sin mor til ikke at flytte til Boston den vinter. Han foretrak at komme ned til New York for at se hende - og Eleanor. Som bytte indvilligede han i at tage på et fem ugers krydstogt i Caribien med Mama og hans bedste ven, Lathrop Brown. De sejlede den 6. februar. Sara skrev i sin dagbog: "F. er træt og blå." Det var Eleanor også, som syntes adskillelsen var ganske skræmmende. Ville Franklin stadig elske hende, da han kom tilbage? Hun vidste, at Sara ville blive intens lettet, hvis hendes søn ændrede mening.

Heldigvis havde Eleanor en anden interesse den vinter. Hun havde frivilligt tilbudt sine tjenester i bosættelsesbevægelsen, der havde til formål gennem "bosættelseshuse" at levere sociale tjenester til de fattige i byen. Eleanor blev henvist til University Settlement House, på Rivington Street, hvor hun og en ven underviste i dans og calisthenics til immigrantpiger - for det meste jøder og italienere - der boede i de grimme, ildelugtende slumkvarterer i Lower East Side. (Eleanor gik engang inde i et sammen med Franklin, da de tog en syg pige med hjem.) I modsætning til hendes veninde, der kom og gik i hendes vogn, foretrak Eleanor at tage det forhøjede tog og gå over Bowery med sin stuepige. Det var et glimt af en anden verden-gaderne, der vrimler med folk, der ser udadtil, vognens sælgere ved kantstenen, den mærkelige madlugt. Hun beundrede i høj grad ånden hos hendes unge elever, der arbejdede lange dage på en fabrik eller lavede akkord derhjemme. Hendes fætter Susie var rædselsslagen, overbevist om, at Eleanor ville bringe tuberkulose tilbage til husstanden. Men Eleanor følte for første gang i sit liv, som om hun gjorde noget nyttigt. Hendes klasser, skrev hun til Franklin, var "den dejligste del af dagen."

I slutningen af ​​februar tog Eleanor til Washington, hvor hun tilbragte to uger hos sin tante Bye og fik en vis tillid til det meget omgængelige hus på N Street. Den 10. marts ankom Sara og Franklin til Washington (de havde taget toget fra Miami) og gik direkte til Shoreham Hotel, hvor Bye hurtigt ringede og inviterede dem til te. I to timer, mens deres stuepige pakkede ud, marcherede Sara en utålmodig Franklin rundt i Washington. Endelig den eftermiddag blev han og Eleanor genforenet. "Franklins følelser havde ikke ændret sig," skrev Eleanor i sin selvbiografi.

"Darling Franklin," skrev hans mor fra Hyde Park, "jeg føler mig temmelig blå. Du er væk. Rejsen er slut ... men jeg skal prøve at være uselvisk og selvfølgelig kære barn jeg glæder mig over din lykke ... Åh hvor stadig huset er ... Skriv. Jeg længes allerede efter at høre. "

Franklin var vendt tilbage til Harvard, hvor han nød sit job som chefredaktør for Crimson. Da han blev valgt til formand for sit klasseudvalg, var Eleanor begejstret for ham. "Jeg ved, hvor meget det betød for dig, og jeg vil altid have, at du får succes. Kære, hvis du kun vidste, hvor glad det gør mig til at tro, at din kærlighed til mig får dig til at prøve hårdere på at gøre det godt, og åh! Jeg håber så meget, at jeg en dag vil være mere en hjælp for dig. "

De var i stand til at se hinanden mere, da Franklin kom ind på Columbia Law School i september 1904. Sara havde opgivet deres lejlighed på Renaissance Hotel og lejede et hus på 200 Madison Avenue. Hun og Franklin var igen under samme tag.

Den 11. oktober, Eleanors tyvende fødselsdag, overrakte Franklin hende en diamantforlovelsesring fra Tiffany. Hemmeligheden var stadig tæt bevogtet, men Sara havde accepteret det uundgåelige. "Jeg beder om, at min dyrebare Franklin må gøre dig meget glad," skrev hun til Eleanor, "og takker ham for at have givet mig sådan en kærlig datter."

Forlovelsen blev annonceret den 1. december 1904. "Præsidentens niece til ons ons fætter," rapporterede aviserne. Dette gjorde det til "et af de mest interessante engagementer i sæsonen." Med den ondskabsfulde hang, sladderklæderne havde til sammenligning af kvinders skønhed, kommenterede Town Topics: "Frøken Roosevelt har flere påstande om godt udseende end nogen af ​​Roosevelt -fætrene. Dette arver hun fra sin mor, der var skønheden i fru Valentine Halls fire døtre. "

Fra Det Hvide Hus sendte Theodore Roosevelt tillykke til Franklin:

Vi er meget glade for den gode nyhed. Jeg er lige så glad for Eleanor, som om hun var min datter, og jeg kan lide dig, stoler på dig og tror på dig. Ingen anden succes i livet - ikke formandskabet eller noget andet - begynder at sammenligne med den glæde og lykke, der kommer ind og fra kærligheden til den sande mand og den sande kvinde ... Gyldne år åbner for dig. Må al lykke deltage i jer begge, nogensinde.

Hendes onkel Ted ville give Eleanor væk og tilbød at holde brylluppet i Det Hvide Hus. Franklin og Eleanor foretrak en mere beskeden indstilling i New York. Fætter Susie Parishs hjem på East Seventy-sixth Street, hvor Eleanor i øjeblikket boede, var to sammenkoblede huse (Susies mor boede i den anden), og stuerne på anden sal kunne åbnes for at skabe en spektakulær balsal. Pussie var for nylig blevet gift der.

Det var ikke let at arrangere datoen: præsidenten havde en fuld kalender. Men han kom til New York den 17. marts til St. Patrick's Day parade og middag, og ind i mellem kunne han give bruden væk.

To uger før brylluppet rejste Sara, Franklin og Eleanor til Washington for at deltage i præsidentens indvielse. Theodore Roosevelt havde vundet valget med det største flertal i amerikansk historie. Franklin og Eleanor lyttede til hans tale, så paraden og dansede ved den indledende bold.

Dagen før brylluppet var der meget at komme og gå på 6-8 East Seventy-sixth Street. Stuen så fantastisk ud. Der var blevet opsat et alter foran mantelen, og fætrene skulle giftes under en overdådig palme og lyserøde roser, der symboliserede "rosefeltet" i familienavnet. Den aften skrev Sara i sin dagbog: "Dette er Franklins sidste nat derhjemme som dreng."

Uddrag fra Franklin og Eleanor: Et ekstraordinært ægteskab af Hazel Rowley. Copyright 2010 af Hazel Rowley. Uddrag med tilladelse fra Farrar, Straus og Giroux, en division af Macmillan.


Lucy Page Mercer blev født den 26. april 1891 i Washington, DC, til Carroll Mercer (1857–1917), medlem af Theodore Roosevelts "Rough Riders" kavalerimilitære enhed i kampagnerne i Cuba på øens sydlige bred. nær Santiago under den korte spansk-amerikanske krig i 1898, og Minna Leigh (Minnie) Tunis (1863–1947), en uafhængig kvinde af "boheme" eksotiske, frisindede smag. [1] Lucy havde en søster, Violetta Carroll Mercer (1889–1947). [2] Though they were both from wealthy, well-connected families, Mercer's parents lost their fortune through the Financial Panic of 1893 and subsequent great recession/depression which curtailed their lavish spending. [3] The pair separated shortly after Lucy's birth, and Carroll became an alcoholic. Minnie then raised the girls alone. [1]

As a young woman, Lucy Mercer worked in a dress shop. [4] In 1914, Mercer was hired by Eleanor Roosevelt to become her social secretary. She quickly became an established part of the Roosevelt household, and good friends with Eleanor. [5] According to historians Joseph Persico and Hazel Rowley, the affair between Mercer and Franklin likely began in 1916, when Eleanor and the children were vacationing at Campobello Island to avoid the summer heat, while Franklin remained in Washington, D.C. [6] [7] In 1917, Franklin often included Mercer in his summer yachting parties, which Eleanor usually declined to attend. [8]

In June 1917, Mercer quit or was fired from her job with Eleanor and enlisted in the US Navy, which was then mobilizing for World War I. [8] [9] Franklin was at that time the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, and Mercer was assigned to his office. [8] Mercer and Franklin continued to see one another privately, causing widespread gossip in Washington. Alice Roosevelt Longworth—daughter of Theodore Roosevelt, and a cousin of Eleanor's—encouraged the affair, inviting Mercer and Franklin to dinner together several times. She later commented, "He deserved a good time. . He was married to Eleanor." [10]

In 1918, Franklin went on a trip to Europe to inspect naval facilities for the war. When he returned in September, sick with pneumonia in both lungs, Eleanor discovered a packet of love letters from Mercer in his suitcase. [11] Eleanor subsequently offered her husband a divorce. [12]

Franklin's mother, Sara Delano Roosevelt, was adamantly against the idea of divorce, however, as it would mark the end of Franklin's political career she stated that she would cut him off from the family fortune if he chose separation. Historians have also debated whether, as a Roman Catholic, Mercer would have been willing to marry a divorced man. [12] Eleanor Roosevelt biographer Blanche Wiesen Cook expressed skepticism that this had been a serious obstacle, noting the depth of Mercer's feelings. [13] Persico also doubts that this was a factor, observing that Mercer's mother Minnie had divorced and remarried, and that the family had come to Roman Catholicism only recently. [14]

In the end, Franklin appears to have told Mercer disingenuously that Eleanor was not willing to grant a divorce. [15] He and Eleanor remained married, and he pledged never to see Mercer again. The Roosevelts' son James later described the state of the marriage after the incident as "an armed truce that endured until the day he died." [16] Eleanor later wrote, "I have the memory of an elephant. I can forgive, but never forget." [17] The incident marked a turning point in her life disillusioned with her marriage, she became active in public life, and focused increasingly on her social work rather than her role as a wife. [18] [19]

Mercer left Washington after the affair and became the governess for the children of Winthrop Rutherfurd (1862–1944), a wealthy New York socialite. [20] Winthrop Rutherfurd was famous for winning the heart of socialite/heiress Consuelo Vanderbilt (1877–1964), back in 1896, only to see her social-climbing mother instead force her into marriage with Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough (1871–1934) (cousin to later British prime minister Winston Churchill). Now in his fifties, Rutherfurd was considered one of society's most eligible widowers. About a year and half later, on February 11, 1920, Mercer became his second wife. [21] Franklin Roosevelt learned of the marriage by overhearing news of it at a party. [22] The Rutherfurds had one child, Barbara Mercer Rutherfurd (June 14, 1922–November 6, 2005), [23] [24] who married Robert Winthrop "Bobby" Knowles, Jr. in 1946. [25] [26]

Despite Franklin's promise to Eleanor, he kept in contact with Lucy Rutherfurd after her marriage, corresponding with her by letter throughout the 1920s. [27] Historian/author Persico speculates that these letters may have been the cause of the 1927 nervous breakdown of Franklin's long-time unmarried first secretary Marguerite "Missy" LeHand (1898–1944), as LeHand was also reputedly in love with Roosevelt and no medical cause for her breakdown was found. [28]

In 1926, Roosevelt mailed Rutherfurd a copy of his first public lecture after his 1921 paralytic illness, privately dedicating it to her with an inscription. [29] At his first memorable presidential inauguration on March 4, 1933, Roosevelt made arrangements for Rutherfurd to attend and witness his swearing-in. [30] When her husband later suffered a stroke, she contacted Roosevelt to arrange for him to be cared for at well-regarded Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, D.C. [31] Historian/author Doris Kearns Goodwin speculated that an entry in the White House ushers diary for August 1, 1941 included a code name for Lucy Rutherfurd, suggesting that she attended a private dinner with the president then. [32] After her husband's death in 1944, when the two began seeing each other more occasionally, Rutherfurd also arranged for her friend Elizabeth Shoumatoff (1888–1980), a well-known artist, to paint Roosevelt's portrait. [33]

Winthrop Rutherfurd died in March 1944 after a long illness. [34] Rutherfurd continued to meet more frequently with Roosevelt in the months that followed. [35] In June 1944, Franklin requested of his daughter Anna, who was then managing some White House social functions and acting as hostess, that she help him arrange to meet Rutherfurd without Eleanor's knowledge. Aware of Rutherfurd's role in her parents' early marriage, Anna was at first angry that her father had put her in such a difficult position. However, she ultimately relented and set up a meeting in Georgetown. To her surprise, Anna found that she liked Rutherfurd immediately, and the pair became friends. There were supposedly several dinners in the White House's second floor private quarters during Roosevelt's last year which were attended by Rutherfurd in a group with Anna's presence and obvious acceptance. [36] When Eleanor discovered, shortly after Franklin's death, from some female cousins, of Anna's role in arranging these meetings, the relationship between Eleanor and Anna became strained and cool for some time. [37]

In early April 1945, Anna arranged for Rutherfurd to come over from her South Carolina estate in Aiken to meet her father at his "Little White House" in Warm Springs, Georgia, the small plain rustic cottage built at the polio therapy center by the heated mineral water springs resort that Roosevelt helped develop beginning in the 1920s. Rutherfurd and Shoumatoff, along with two female cousins, were sitting there as the artist worked on her painting of Roosevelt as he sat at a card table by the living room stone fireplace, fine-tuning a future speech and reading over some other papers on the early afternoon of April 12, 1945. In this quiet domestic scene as the two had just been smiling at each other, Roosevelt suddenly placed his hand up on his forehead and temple, saying "I have a terrific headache," then slumped over losing consciousness. Later, his two doctors - called in soon after the event - said he had suffered a fatal cerebral hemorrhage. Since a thorough medical exam a year before, he had received increasingly more intensive care and concern from a young recently recruited private physician. [38] The two women, Mercer and Shoumatoff, immediately packed and left the cottage. [39] Eleanor nonetheless soon later learned the truth from the cousins and felt doubly betrayed to learn of her daughter's role in the long-time deception. [40] [41] Finding Shoumatoff's unfinished preliminary watercolor among Franklin's possessions some time later however, she mailed it to Rutherfurd, to which Rutherfurd responded with a warm letter of thanks and condolences. [42]

In 1947, Rutherfurd's sister Violetta committed suicide after her husband requested a divorce, and only a month later, on Christmas Day 1947, her mother Minnie died at age 84. [43] Just seven months later, Rutherfurd herself died from leukemia at the young age of 57, on July 31, 1948, just 3-1/4 years after FDR, having destroyed almost all of her correspondence with Franklin. [44] [45] Rutherfurd is buried along with her husband in Green Township, New Jersey.

Following Roosevelt's death, his administration concealed from the press the fact that Rutherfurd had been present during his death, fearing the scandal that would ensue. Shoumatoff's presence became known, and she gave a press conference to address questions, but managed to hide Rutherfurd's role and was even not mentioned in early post-war biographies and administration histories for almost two decades. [46] Roosevelt's second private secretary Grace Tully (1900–1984), who had also been at Warm Springs at the time of his death, did briefly mention Rutherfurd's presence in "F.D.R., My Boss," her 1949 memoir, but gave no further hint of the relationship. Though it was reported several times in Eleanor's lifetime that Roosevelt had had a serious affair with an unnamed Catholic woman, this remained only a rumor for decades. [47]

The Mercer–Roosevelt affair became wider public knowledge in 1966, when revealed in "The Time Between the Wars," a memoir of the decades 1920s and 1930s, written by Jonathan W. Daniels (1902–1981), a former Roosevelt aide from 1943 to 1945. [42] [48] When the news of the memoir's contents broke, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. (1914–1988), said that he had no knowledge of an affair between Rutherfurd and his father, [49] while Rutherfurd's daughter Barbara flatly denied that any such romance had occurred. [49] Well-known historian/author Arthur Schlesinger Jr. (1917–2007) stated of the affair that if Rutherfurd "in any way helped Franklin Roosevelt sustain the frightful burdens of leadership in the second world war, the nation has good reason to be grateful to her." [50]

Mercer's friendship with Franklin Roosevelt is portrayed in the well-regarded TV mini-series Eleanor and Franklin starring Edward Herrmann and Jane Alexander, with Mercer portrayed by actress Linda Kelsey from the 1976 telecast (a second series was subsequently broadcast in 1977 entitled Eleanor and Franklin: The White House Years, with flash-backs to earlier episodes), based on the earlier best-selling biography of the same name by Eleanor's personal friend Joseph P. Lash in 1971.

In addition, the relationship was covered in a documentary film in XX - FDR for "The Presidents" series of multi-part video retrospectives for the Amerikansk erfaring series on American history and biography on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), and in the 2014 documentary film, also televised for the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), Roosevelts, directed by noted documentary film-maker Ken Burns, with an accompanying companion pictorial book by Geoffrey Perrett.


Franklin Roosevelt marries Eleanor Roosevelt - HISTORY

A shy, insecure child, Eleanor Roosevelt would grow up to become one of the most important and beloved First Ladies, authors, reformers, and female leaders of the 20 th century.

Born on October 11, 1884 in New York City, Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was the first of Elliot and Anna Hall Roosevelt’s three children. Her family was affluent and politically prominent, and while her childhood was in many ways blessed, it was also marked by hardship: her father’s alcoholism, as well as the deaths of both parents and one of her brothers before she was ten years old. She was raised by her harsh and critical maternal grandmother, who damaged Eleanor’s self-esteem. Timid and awkward, she believed that she compared badly with other girls.

In 1899, Roosevelt began her three years of study at London’s Allenswood Academy, where she became more independent and confident. Her teacher, Mademoiselle Marie Souvestre, with her passionate embrace of social issues, opened Roosevelt up to the world of ideas and was an early force in Roosevelt’s social and political development.

Roosevelt returned to New York for her social debut in 1902. She became involved with the settlement house movement, teaching immigrant children and families on Rivington Street. In 1905, after a long courtship, she married her distant cousin Franklin Delano Roosevelt, a charming, Harvard graduate in his first year of law school at Columbia University. Her uncle and close relative, President Theodore Roosevelt, walked her down the aisle.

The Roosevelts settled in New York, where Eleanor found herself under the thumb of her controlling mother-in-law, Sara Roosevelt, who, like her grandmother earlier, was harsh in her criticism of her daughter-in-law. While Franklin advanced his career, his wife raised their daughter and four sons under the watchful eye of her often belittling mother-in-law.

All that changed in 1911, when Franklin was elected to the New York State Senate, and the couple moved to Albany, away from Sara. Two years later, the Roosevelts moved to Washington, DC, when Franklin joined Woodrow Wilson’s administration as Assistant Secretary of the Navy. While she was initially uncomfortable with the DC political scene, Roosevelt was growing in her political consciousness. When World War I broke out, she volunteered with various relief agencies, further increasing her visibility and political clout. Hurt when she discovered in 1918 that her husband had had an affair with another woman, she remained married, though her feelings changed. She began to live a more independent life and often escaped to Val-Kill, her upstate New York home, where she was also part of a women-owned furniture cooperative. Nonetheless, she remained his political ally and advisor, among those who urged him to remain in public life despite the polio he contracted in 1921.

Although initially wary of women’s suffrage, after its passage in 1920, Roosevelt promoted women’s political engagement, playing a leadership role in several organizations, including the League of Women Voters and the Women’s Trade Union League. She surrounded herself with politically astute women such as Molly Dewson and Rose Schneiderman. She was head of the Women’s Division of the Democratic National Committee, recruited in 1928 to help Al Smith’s presidential bid. Her activities were widely covered in the media in the 1920s, making her more publically recognizable than her husband when he decided to run for governor in 1928. Though unhappy about his bid for the governorship and his equally successful run for the presidency in 1932, Roosevelt became the most politically active and influential First Lady in history, using the position to advance many of her progressive and egalitarian goals.

In the White House from 1933 to 1945, First Lady Roosevelt kept a dizzying schedule. She wrote nearly 3,000 articles in newspapers and magazines, including a monthly column in Women’s Home Companion, where she asked the public to share their stories, hardships, and questions. In a few short months, she received several hundred thousand responses and donated what she earned from the column to charity. She also authored six books and traveled nationwide delivering countless speeches. She held weekly press conferences with women reporters who she hoped would get her message to the American people.

Roosevelt had immense influence on her husband’s decisions as president and in shaping both his cabinet and the New Deal. Working with Molly Dewson, head of the Women’s Division of the DNC, she lobbied her husband to appoint more women, successfully securing Frances Perkins as the first woman to head the Department of Labor, among many others. She also ensured that groups left out of the New Deal were included by seeking revisions to programs and legislation, including greater participation for women in the heavily male-dominated Civilian Conservation Corps. She also championed racial justice, working to help black miners in West Virginia, advocating for the NAACP and National Urban League, and resigning, with much media fanfare, from the Daughters of the American Revolution when they refused to allow African American singer Marion Anderson to perform in their auditorium.

Roosevelt’s political activism did not end with her husband’s death in 1945. Appointed in 1946, she served for more than a decade as a delegate to the United Nations, the institution established by her husband, and embraced the cause of world peace. She not only chaired the United Nations Human Rights Commission, she also helped write the 1948 United Nations Declaration of Human Rights. She spoke out against McCarthyism in the 1950s. In 1960, at the request of President John F. Kennedy, she chaired the President’s Commission on the Status of Women, which released a ground-breaking study about gender discrimination a year after her death in 1963. She also worked on the Equal Pay Act that was passed that same year. Roosevelt’s commitment to racial justice was evident in her civil rights work and efforts to push Washington to take swifter action in housing desegregation and protections for Freedom Riders and other activists. Kennedy nominated Roosevelt for the Nobel Peace Prize and though she did not win, she remained at the top of national polls ranking the most respected women in America decades after her death.

Unedited version reprinted with permission from: Doris Weatherford. American Women's History: An A to Z of People, Organizations, Issues, and Events, (Prentice Hall, 1994), 294-298.

Cook, Blanche Wiesen. Eleanor Roosevelt: Volume I, The Early Years, 1884-1933. (Penguin Random House, 1993).

Cook, Blanche Wiesen. Eleanor Roosevelt: Volume II, The Defining Years, 1933-1938 (Penguin Random House, 2000).

Chafe, William F. “Eleanor Roosevelt” in Sicherman, Barbara and Carol Hurd Green, et al. Notable American Women: The Modern Period. (Radcliffe, 1980) p. 595-601.

MLA – Michals, Debra. “Eleanor Roosevelt.” National Women’s History Museum, 2017. Date accessed.

Chicago – Michals, Debra “Eleanor Roosevelt.” National Women’s History Museum. 2017. www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/eleanor-roosevelt.

The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project at George Washington University. https://www2.gwu.edu/

"Eleanor Roosevelt." Historic World Leaders , edited by Anne Commire, Gale, 1994. Biography in Context , link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/K1616000506/BIC1?u=dist214_biorc&xid=3a496f5a . Accessed 12 Aug. 2017.

Asbell, Bernard. Mother and Daughter: The Letters of Eleanor and Anna Roosevelt. (Coward, McCann, 1982).

Cook, Blanche Wiesen, Eleanor Roosevelt: Volume III, The War Years and After, 1939-1962 (Penguin Random House, 2016).

Goodwin, Doris Kearns. No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front in World War II (Simon & Schuster, 1994).

Hareven, Tamara K. Eleanor Roosevelt: An American Conscience. (Quadrangle, 1968).

Lash, Joseph. Love, Eleanor: Eleanor Roosevelt and Her Friends. (Doubleday, 1982).


BATTLING ILLNESS

In 1910 Roosevelt was elected to the New York State Senate. A few years later, President Woodrow Wilson named him assistant secretary of the Navy. He ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. Senate in 1914 before leaving the Navy in 1920 to campaign as the running mate of presidential nominee James M. Cox. (They lost.)

Illness stalled his political career in 1921 when he contracted polio, a virus that attacks the nervous system and can cause paralysis. Roosevelt went from being healthy and active one day to being unable to walk two days later. Although he never regained use of his legs, Roosevelt learned how to stand on leg braces and take limited steps with the help of others. Within three years he was practicing law again. Before the decade was over, he had become governor of New York.


Anna Eleanor Roosevelt

Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was the longest-serving First Lady throughout her husband President Franklin D. Roosevelt's four terms in office (1933-1945). She was an American politician, diplomat, and activist who later served as a United Nations spokeswoman.

A shy, awkward child, starved for recognition and love, Eleanor Roosevelt grew into a woman with great sensitivity to the underprivileged of all creeds, races, and nations. Her constant work to improve their lot made her one of the most loved--and for some years one of the most revered--women of her generation.

She was born in New York City on October 11, 1884, daughter of lovely Anna Hall and Elliott Roosevelt, younger brother of Theodore. When her mother died in 1892, the children went to live with Grandmother Hall her adored father died only two years later. Attending a distinguished school in England gave her, at 15, her first chance to develop self-confidence among other girls.

Tall, slender, graceful of figure but apprehensive at the thought of being a wallflower, she returned for a debut that she dreaded. In her circle of friends was a distant cousin, handsome young Franklin Delano Roosevelt. They became engaged in 1903 and were married in 1905, with her uncle the President giving the bride away. Within eleven years Eleanor bore six children one son died in infancy. "I suppose I was fitting pretty well into the pattern of a fairly conventional, quiet, young society matron," she wrote later in her autobiography.

In Albany, where Franklin served in the state Senate from 1910 to 1913, Eleanor started her long career as political helpmate. She gained a knowledge of Washington and its ways while he served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy. When he was stricken with poliomyelitis in 1921, she tended him devotedly. She became active in the women's division of the State Democratic Committee to keep his interest in politics alive. From his successful campaign for governor in 1928 to the day of his death, she dedicated her life to his purposes. She became eyes and ears for him, a trusted and tireless reporter.

When Mrs. Roosevelt came to the White House in 1933, she understood social conditions better than any of her predecessors and she transformed the role of First Lady accordingly. She never shirked official entertaining she greeted thousands with charming friendliness. She also broke precedent to hold press conferences, travel to all parts of the country, give lectures and radio broadcasts, and express her opinions candidly in a daily syndicated newspaper column, "My Day."

This made her a tempting target for political enemies but her integrity, her graciousness, and her sincerity of purpose endeared her personally to many--from heads of state to servicemen she visited abroad during World War II. As she had written wistfully at 14: ". no matter how plain a woman may be if truth & loyalty are stamped upon her face all will be attracted to her. "

After the President's death in 1945 she returned to a cottage at his Hyde Park estate she told reporters: "the story is over." Within a year, however, she began her service as American spokesman in the United Nations. She continued a vigorous career until her strength began to wane in 1962. She died in New York City that November, and was buried at Hyde Park beside her husband.

The biographies of the First Ladies on WhiteHouse.gov are from “The First Ladies of the United States of America,” by Allida Black. Copyright 2009 by the White House Historical Association.

You can learn more about Mrs. Roosevelt from The Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library maintained by Marist College.


It’s Time to put Eleanor Roosevelt on the $10 bill

The many faces that grace American currency are all men. Most of them are presidents who made great contributions to the history of the United States. But they represent only 50% of our population. The Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. Jacob Lew, has started a public conversation about having a woman replace Alexander Hamilton on the $10 bill. He asked the public to use social media and #TheNew10 to express their opinions and created a web site to track the responses. https://thenew10.treasury.gov/ For many people there is no question who that woman should be: Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt.

While there are a number of highly qualified women being considered, Eleanor Roosevelt deserves to be the first woman to appear on our currency. No woman, and indeed it could be argued no man, worked harder or did more to realize the American promise that “all people are created equal.”

Besides being the longest serving First Lady, she transformed the very concept of what a First Lady could be. She championed the rights of all women, indeed of all people who suffered from discrimination, poverty, oppression or injustice. As the primary author of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights she established a global standard for how governments should treat their people – a standard which remains unmet in many countries today. Perhaps most importantly she gave hope to those who faced hopeless situations, she inspired people to “act boldly” and do good deeds and alleviated the plight of millions by shining the spotlight of publicity on their hardships.

Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was born on Oct. 11, 1884 on West 37 th St. in Manhattan. Her uncle was Theodore Roosevelt, the 26 th President of the United States. Eleanor suffered through a difficult childhood and married Franklin D. Roosevelt, a distant cousin, when she was 20 years old.

So began one of the most remarkable marriages and political partnerships in American history. A simple listing of her various roles gives some indication of her extraordinary life:

First Lady of New York (1929-1932)
First Lady of the United States (1933-1945)
Chairman of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (1946-1951)
U.S. Representative to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (1947-1953)
U.S. Delegate to the United Nations General Assembly (1946-1952)
Chairwoman of the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women. (1961-1962)

This official resume does not do justice to the extraordinary work Mrs. Roosevelt did across all fields and subjects. The great FDR biographer James MacGregor Burns described Eleanor Roosevelt this way:

“After eight years in the White House … she was still leading the seven lives of wife, mother, chief hostess, White House columnist, nationwide lecturer (one hundred lectures in 1940…) Democratic party voice and organizer, and spokeswoman in the White House for labor, Negroes, youth, tenant farmers, the poor and women in general.”

Mrs. Roosevelt believed that actions matter and her actions in regards to civil rights were pioneering and highly controversial. Perhaps her most famous action was in regards to the opera singer Marian Anderson.

When the Daughters of the American Revolution denied a request for Mrs. Anderson to perform at Constitution Hall in Washington D.C., because she was African American, Mrs. Roosevelt took action. She resigned from the DAR very publicly, and her letter to them is remarkable for its politeness and quiet condemnation. It begins with a simple statement:

“I am afraid I have never been a very useful member of the Daughters of the American Revolution, so I know it will make very little difference to you whether I resign or whether I continue to be a member of your organization.”

She then goes on to say that the organization had “set an example which seems to me unfortunate” and that they had “an opportunity to lead in an enlightened way” but had “failed to do so.”

She then arranged for Mrs. Anderson to perform on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial before thousands of fans. Mrs. Roosevelt also invited Mrs. Anderson to perform at the White House for the King and Queen of England. In fact she invited a wide range of African Americans to dine and perform at the White House despite intense criticism of her actions in the media. She understood the power of the press to both inform and shape public opinion and she used it more effectively than any other First Lady.

During her 12 years in the White House she held 348 press conferences and because women were not allowed to attend the President’s press conferences she only allowed female reporters to attend hers. She wrote her column “My Day” six times a week from 1936 until 1962, published 27 books and 555 articles, received 175,000 letters a year while First Lady, and after she left the White House hosted both radio and television programs.

In her “My Day” column of May 5, 1956 she wrote this about racial equality:

“For the people of this country, the question is whether they can continue to exist without giving all citizens full equality before the law and equal dignity as human beings. We must make this decision and upon it depends our whole future and that of white peoples everywhere.”

She was a tireless champion for human rights, traveling the world and challenging the status quo. Her work on the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights still stands as perhaps her greatest legacy.

The accomplishments of Eleanor Roosevelt cannot be summarized easily, for she improved the lives of millions of people in millions of untold ways. The time has come to formally recognize her unique and extraordinary contributions to the United States and the world by putting her on the $10 bill.


Se videoen: Eleanor Roosevelt interview on FDRs Legacy 1959