Kap Verde -øerne - Historie

Kap Verde -øerne - Historie

Kap Verde -øerne ud for den afrikanske kyst nær Dakar blev opdaget af Alivse da Cadamosto, der var ansat i Henry Navigatorens tjeneste. Øerne blev hurtigt bosat af portugiserne, der begyndte at bruge det til slavehandel.

Santo Antão, Kap Verde

Santo Antão (Portugisisk for "Saint Anthony") er den vestligste ø Kap Verde. På 785 km 2 (303 sq mi) er den den største i Barlavento Islands -gruppen og den næststørste ø på Kap Verde. [1]: 25 Den nærmeste ø er São Vicente mod sydøst, adskilt af havkanalen Canal de São Vicente. Dens befolkning var 38.200 i midten af ​​2019, [2] hvilket gør den til den fjerde mest folkerige ø på Kap Verde efter Santiago, São Vicente og Sal. Den største by er Porto Novo, der ligger på den sydlige kyst (9.310 indbyggere i 2010). [3]

Kap Verde

Dens første sømount, der kom over vandet, var for omkring 20 millioner år siden, og havniveauet var omkring 200 til 400 meter, højere end i dag. De første dannede øer var i dag Sal og den østlige del for 50-40 millioner år siden. Den vestlige del blev dannet senere, herunder, So Nicola, allerede for 11,8 millioner år siden, So Vicente, for 9 millioner år siden, i dag Santiago og Logo for 4 millioner år siden, og Brave, for 3-2 millioner år siden.

Nogle millioner af år efter at sømounts blev hævet over havet, dets første gekkoer, firben og insekter samt planter kom til øhavet, var en mulig ledetråd, der blev raftet fra det afrikanske fastland, når havets saltindhold var lavere.

Skærgården havde et par store vulkanudbrud registreret gennem geologi, herunder Praia Grande for 4,5 millioner år siden, Så Vicente muligvis moderne Porto Grande for 300.000 år siden, [1] Topo da Coroa for 200.000 år siden og den sidste øst for nutidens Fogo For 73.000 år siden oversvømmede den kystnære ø Santiago og muligvis Brave og en del af ventilatorøerne. [2]

I løbet af den sidste istid faldt havniveauet til omkring 130 meter under dets nuværende niveau, dets øer var lidt større med nordvestøen, i dag var Santos Anton en kilometer nordvest for øen, Boa Vista og Mai var en enkelt ø, og der var en anden ø ved navn Nola (Ila DA Nola) nordvest for Santos Anton, der var omkring 80–90 meter høj. Inden istiden sluttede, delte den østlige ø (Ila Occidental) sig i tre øer, den ene blev nedsænket og er nu João Valente -revet, Canal de São Vicente blev udvidet til 12 km fjernt fra Santos Anton, Nola Island nedsænket og blev igen en sømount og øst for den nordvestlige ø blev brudt op i So Vicente, den mindre Santa Luria og de to holme Brando og Rosa.

Kap Verde kan refereres til i værkerne DE koreografisk af Pomponius Mela og Historiske naturfolk af Plinius den Ældre. De kaldte øerne "Gorges" med henvisning til hjemmet til de mytiske Gorgoner dræbt af Perseus. De foreslog også (i typisk gammel euhemerisme) øerne som stedet, hvor den karthagiske Hanno Navigatoren dræbte to kvindelige "Gorillai", hvis skind Hanna bragte tilbage til Kartago.

Plinius, med henvisning til den græske forfatter Xenophon of Lampshades, placerede Gorges to dages rejse fra "Hesperus Cesar" (den vestligste del af det afrikanske kontinent, i dag kaldet Cap-Vert). Plinius (som citeret af Gaius Julius Solinus) oplyste også, at rejsen fra slugterne til Hesperides er omkring 40 dage. [3]

The Isles of the Blessed skrevet af Marinos of Tyrus og refereret af Ptolemaios i hans Geografi kan have været Kap Verde -øerne. [4]

15. og 16. århundrede Rediger

I 1456 opdagede Alvise Cadamosto, Antoniotto Usodimare (henholdsvis venetiansk og en genomkaptajn) og en navngiven portugisisk kaptajn i tjeneste for prins Henry the Navigator i fællesskab nogle af øerne. I det næste årti opdagede Diogo Gomes og António de Noli, også kaptajner i prins Henriks tjeneste, de resterende øer i skærgården. Da disse søfarende først landede på Kap Verde, var øerne golde af mennesker, men ikke af vegetation. Portugiserne vendte tilbage seks år senere til øen São Tiago for at grundlægge Beriberi Grande (nu Cidade Velha) i 1462 - den første permanente europæiske bosættelsesby i troperne.

I Spanien voksede Reconquista -krigen i sin mission om at erobre Iberia og senere udvise muslimer og jøder. I 1492 opstod den spanske inkvisition også i sit fulde udtryk for antisemitisme. Det spredte sig til nabolandet Portugal, hvor kong João II og især Manuel I i 1496 besluttede at eksilere tusinder af jøder til São Tomé, Príncipe og Kap Verde.

Portugiserne bragte snart slaver fra den vestafrikanske kyst. Placeret på de store handelsruter mellem Afrika, Europa og den nye verden, trivedes øgruppen fra den transatlantiske slavehandel i det 16. århundrede. Bosættelser begyndte at dukke op på andre øer, São Filipe blev grundlagt i 1500, Ponta do Sol, Ribeira Grande blev grundlagt i midten af ​​1500 -tallet, dens første bosættere ankom også til Madeira, Ribeira Brava på So Nicola, Povoação Velha på Boa Vista blev senere grundlagt, Furna, Nova Sintra på Brave og Palmeira på Sal.

Øernes velstand bragte dem uønsket opmærksomhed i form af en fyring fra pirater. Efter at det filippinske dynasti begyndte, fyrede Sir Francis Drake først Beriberi Grande i 1582 og derefter erobrede øen i 1585 og angreb Decide Vela, Praia og São Domingos, kort tid efter at de forlod. Et år senere i 1586 blev Kap Verde en samlet kronekoloni i Portugal.

17. og 18. århundrede Rediger

Praia blev senere grundlagt i 1613 på plateauet i den tidligere bosættelse. Pico do Fogo brød ud i 1680, hvilket resulterede i at befolkningen flyttede til Brave og andre dele, herunder Brasilien. I et par år var vulkanen et naturligt fyrtårn, som sømænd brugte. I løbet af 1600 -tallet etablerede algeriske korsarer en base på Kap Verde -øerne. I 1617 angreb de Madeira, stjal kirkeklokkerne og tog 1.200 mennesker til fange. [5] Som et resultat af den franske Cassard -ekspedition i 1712, hvor Beriberi Grande blev ødelagt, blev hovedstaden delvist flyttet til Praia i øst, som senere blev hovedstad i 1770. I 1740 var øen et forsyningspunkt for amerikanske slave skibe og hvalfangere. Dette startede en immigrationsstrøm til de amerikanske kolonier (nu USA), men kun mænd.

I 1747 blev øerne ramt af den første af flere tørke og hungersnød, der har plaget dem siden, med et gennemsnitligt interval på fem år. Situationen blev forværret af skovrydning og overdrev, hvilket ødelagde den vegetation, der gav fugt. Tre store tørker i det 18. og 19. århundrede resulterede i, at godt 100.000 mennesker sultede ihjel. Den portugisiske regering sendte næsten ingen lettelse under nogen af ​​tørkeperioderne. [ citat nødvendig ]

Tekstiler blev smuglet og solgt til det sorte marked, da dets værdier var høje og dens oprindelse var svære at bevise, mellem 1766 og 1776 blev 95.000 "Barabbas" (Kap Verde og tekstiler) importeret til Guineas kyst.

Pico do Fogo udbrød igen i 1769. Dette var sidste gang, det brød ud fra toppen yderligere udbrud fandt sted i 1785 og 1799. En anden hungersnød startede i 1774, hvor 20.000 mennesker sultede, da Brave og Logo blev påvirket. Logos befolkning faldt fra 5.700 til 4.200 i omkring 1777. Den første emigrationsbølge begyndte fra øerne Brave og Logo, da amerikanske hvalfangstskibe besøgte disse øer og tog nogle indbyggere til et bedre liv i USA. I 1770 blev Praia den koloniale hovedstad, og derfor forblev Kap Verde en uafhængighed.

Selvom Portugal var neutral i hele den anglo-franske krig og amerikanske revolutionskrig, kæmpede britiske og franske eskadriller Slaget ved Porto Praya ud for nutidens Praia den 16. april 1781.

Kort over Kap Verde -øerne, 1683 med dets geografiske træk på mellemfransk

1747 fransk/hollandsk kort over Kap Verde af Jacques Nicolas Bellin

En skildring af Praia under slaget ved Porto Praya, 1781, af Marquis de Rossel

1800 -tallet Rediger

Nedgangen fra det 19. århundrede i den lukrative slavehandel var endnu et slag for landets økonomi. Den skrøbelige velstand forsvandt langsomt. Kap Verdes koloniale storhedstid var forbi. Det var omkring dette tidspunkt, at Kap Verde ans begyndte at emigrere til New England. Dette var en populær destination på grund af de hvaler, der florerede i farvandet omkring Kap Verde, og allerede i 1810 rekrutterede hvalfangstskibe fra Massachusetts og Rhode Island i USA (USA) besætninger fra øerne Brava og Fogo.

De sidste piratangreb inklusive en i Sal Ra i 1815 førte til at bygge et par flere forter på tværs af Kap Verde. Andre bosættelser på nogle øer blev grundlagt senere, herunder Mindelo (først som Fossa Sen hora DA Luz) i 1795, Pedra de Lume på Sal i 1799 og Santa Maria i starten af ​​1830 på den samme ø. Den koloniale hovedstad Praia undergik modernisering i 1822, hvilket udvidede plateauet mod nord.

Efter at Portugal havde mistet Brasilien, brugte briterne Mindelo til kulpåfyldning af skibe, og byen blomstrede i 1838, og der blev foretaget forsøg på at flytte kolonihovedstaden fra Praia, først en plan om at flytte til Pecos i 1831 på det tidspunkt, hvor en anden hungersnød ramte Kap Verde , så i 1838, Minded, mange mennesker ikke ønsker at flytte den koloniale hovedstad, hovedstaden blev i Praia. Logoet brød ud for sidste gang i det 19. århundrede i 1847, 1852 og 1857. Minded voksede som følge af tankning af skibe, to undersøiske telegrafkabler blev forbundet i 1874 til Pernambuco, Brasilien, Cory Brothers åbnede senere, en anden forbundet til Cameroun via Bratwurst (nu Banjul), Gambia i 1885, Minded blev den mest brugte transatlantiske telegrafstation i nogen tid i 1912. I alt 669 skibe blev tanket hvert år i havnen, den nåede op på 1.927 skibe et årti senere og derefter, når benzin brændstof blev begyndt at blive brugt især både, det konkurrerede aldrig med havnene i Las Palms på Grand Canary eller nærliggende Dakar i Senegal. Brugen af ​​kul faldt, hvilket førte til en kulstrejke i 1912 på grund af utilstrækkeligt arbejde, da den store depression begyndte i 1930, skibets aktivitet sluttede.

Slaveriet var ved at forsvinde i Kap Verde, den første var So Vicente, derefter So Nicola, Santos Anton, Boa Vista i 1867, samtidig med at slavehandel sluttede, senere sluttede slaveriet i hele Kap Verde.

20. århundrede Rediger

I slutningen af ​​1800 -tallet, med fremkomsten af ​​havfartøjet, gjorde øens position langs Atlanterhavets sejlruter Kap Verde til et ideelt sted for at forsyne skibe med brændstof (importeret kul), vand og andre forsyninger. På grund af sin fremragende havn blev Mindelo (på øen São Vicente) et vigtigt kommercielt center i løbet af 1800 -tallet, hovedsageligt fordi britiske virksomheder brugte Kap Verde som et lagerdepot for kul, der var på vej til Amerika. Havneområdet ved Minded blev udviklet af britiske købmænd til dette formål. Øen blev omdannet til en kul- og undersøisk kabelstation, og der blev hurtigt masser af arbejde til rådighed for lokale arbejdere. Dette var byens gyldne periode, hvor den fik de kulturelle egenskaber, der gjorde den til den nuværende kulturelle hovedstad i landet. [ citat nødvendig ]

Under Anden Verdenskrig blev Royal Navy -skibe stationeret i Minded, senere med Winston Churchills interesse i Kap Verde, i april 1941 var tusinder af allierede tropper stationeret på øen. Efter Anden Verdenskrig brød økonomien sammen, da skibstrafikken blev drastisk reduceret. Da den britiske kulindustri gik i tilbagegang i 1980'erne, tørrede denne indtægtskilde op, og britiske købmænd måtte opgive deres Kap Verde -interesser - hvilket endte med at blive den sidste strejke mod den stærkt afhængige lokale økonomi. [ citat nødvendig ]

Espargos i midten af ​​øen blev grundlagt i midten af ​​det 20. århundrede, den blev grundlagt i slutningen af ​​1940'erne som en lufthavnsby, den sidste i den portugisiske æra, i 1950 steg en række flyvninger, først Alitalia, derefter den portugisiske- Brazilian Friendship flight og South Africa Airways (SAGA) i 1967 med flyvningerne i London, måtte flyselskabet bruge lufthavnen på grund af den internationale boykot af apartheid på det tidspunkt. Det sidste udbrud i kolonitiden var ved Pico do Fogo i 1951 og var en lille. [ citat nødvendig ]

I 1952 planlagde den portugisiske regering at overføre over 10.000 nybyggere til øen So Tom i So Tom og Principe, en anden portugisisk koloni, for at arbejde i plantager i stedet for Forrest. Afrikanere ville hovedsageligt komme fra øerne So Nicola, Santiago, Santos Anton, Logo og Brave. I løbet af den tid, hvor de to kolonier blev uafhængige, forlod mange til Europa og USA, nogle få vendte tilbage til Kap Verde, efter at Kap Verde en befolkning ville blive flyttet til den nærliggende ø Principe, mange Kap Verde og efterkommere, nogle med en anden efterkommer blev element ind i Principe Creole samfund. [ citat nødvendig ]

I løbet af denne periode opstod flere hungersnød i landet, forværret af dårlige høst, Anden Verdenskrig og en dårlig reaktion fra den portugisiske koloniale administration. Disse hungersnød førte til emigration af titusinder til Europa, nogle forlod til Senegal og São Tomé og Príncipe. [ citat nødvendig ]

I forløbet til og under den portugisiske kolonialkrig forbandt dem, der planlagde og kæmpede i den væbnede konflikt i Portugisisk Guinea, ofte målet om frigørelse af Guinea-Bissau til målet om befrielse i Kap Verde. (For eksempel grundlagde Amílcar og Luís Cabral i 1956 Det Afrikanske Parti for Guinea og Kap Verde's uafhængighed.)

Uafhængighedsbevægelse Rediger

Selvom Kapverdierne blev behandlet dårligt af deres kolonimestre, var portugisisk behandling af Kap Verde ans forskellig fra deres behandling af andre koloniserede regioner, [6] og befolkningen i Kap Verde klarede sig lidt bedre end afrikanere i andre portugisiske kolonier på grund af deres lettere hud. Et lille mindretal modtog en uddannelse, og Kap Verde var den første afrikansk-portugisiske koloni, der havde en skole for videregående uddannelser. På tidspunktet for uafhængigheden kunne en fjerdedel af befolkningen læse, sammenlignet med 5% i portugisisk Guinea (nu Guinea-Bissau).

Denne storhed gav imidlertid i sidste ende bagslag på portugiserne, da læsere fra Kapverdierne blev klar over presset på at bygge uafhængighed på fastlandet, mens øerne fortsat led af hyppig tørke og hungersnød, til tider fra epidemiske sygdomme og vulkanudbrud og den portugisiske regering gjorde ingenting. Tusinder af mennesker døde af sult i løbet af første halvdel af det 20. århundrede. Selvom den nationalistiske bevægelse virkede mindre ivrig på Kap Verde end i Portugals andre afrikanske besiddelser, var det afrikanske parti for Guineas og Kap Verdes uafhængighed (PAIGE, akronym for portugiserne Parotid afrikansk DA uafhængighed DA Guinea og Cabot Verde) blev grundlagt i 1956 af Amílcar Cabral og andre pan-afrikanister, og mange kapverdianere kæmpede for uafhængighed i Guinea-Bissau. [7]

I 1926 var Portugal blevet et højreorienteret diktatur, der betragtede kolonierne som en økonomisk grænse, der skulle udvikles i Portugals og portugisernes interesse. Hyppig hungersnød, arbejdsløshed, fattigdom og den portugisiske regerings undladelse af at løse disse spørgsmål forårsagede harme. Den portugisiske diktator António de Oliveira Salazar var ikke lige ved at opgive sine kolonier lige så let som andre europæiske kolonimagter havde opgivet deres.

Efter Anden Verdenskrig havde Portugal til hensigt at holde fast i sine tidligere kolonier, siden 1951 kaldte oversøiske territorier. Da de fleste tidligere afrikanske kolonier opnåede uafhængighed i 1957/1964, holdt portugiserne stadig fast. Følgelig, efter Pijiguiti-massakren, kæmpede befolkningen i Kap Verde og Guinea-Bissau en af ​​de længste afrikanske befrielseskrige.

Som med andre kolonier i 1972 blev der givet autonomi, og portugisisk Kap Verde holdt sit eneste parlamentsvalg i 1973, hvor kun dem, der var portugisiske borgere, kunne stemme. Ud af den samlede befolkning på 272.071 var det kun 25.521, der havde registreret sig for at stemme. I alt 20.942 personer stemte, hvilket giver en valgdeltagelse på 82,1%. Da den portugisiske forfatning på det tidspunkt forbød politiske partier, blev flertallet af kandidater fremsat af den herskende People's National Action -bevægelse, selvom nogle borgerlige sammenslutninger fik lov til at udpege kandidater

Efter nellikerrevolutionen den 25. april 1974 blev Kap Verde mere autonom, men fortsatte med at have en guvernør fra udlandet, senere blev stillingen højkommissær. Udbredt uro tvang regeringen til at forhandle med PAIGE, og aftaler om en uafhængig Kap Verde lå på bordet. Pedro Pires vendte tilbage til Praia den 13. oktober efter at have været landsforvist i over et årti. Efter hans hjemkomst underskrev Portugal Algier -aftalen fra 1975. Den 5. juli i Praia overgav Portugals premierminister Vasco Gonçalves magten til nationalforsamlingens præsident Abilio Duarte, og dermed endte kolonien i Kap Verde, da Kap Verde blev uafhængig. Der var imidlertid ingen væbnet konflikt i Kap Verde og i sidste ende uafhængighed for Kap Verde skyldtes forhandlinger med Portugal. [8] Katalysatoren for Kap Verdes uafhængighed var imidlertid PAIGE-filialen i Guinea-Bissau, som indledte en i sidste ende vellykket krig mod portugiserne i Guinea-Bissau, som til sidst tvang Portugal til at acceptere uafhængighed for Kap Verde.

One Party Rule Edit

Umiddelbart efter et kup i november 1980 i Guinea-Bissau (Portugisisk Guinea erklærede uafhængighed i 1973 og fik de jure uafhængighed i 1974), blev forholdet mellem de to lande anstrengt. Kap Verde opgav sit håb om enhed med Guinea-Bissau og dannede det afrikanske parti for Kap Verdes uafhængighed (PANIC). Problemer er siden blevet løst, og forbindelserne mellem landene er gode. PANIKEN og dens forgænger etablerede en enpartistat og styrede Kap Verde fra uafhængighed til 1990.

Som reaktion på et stigende pres for en politisk åbning indkaldte PANIC til en nødkongres i februar 1990 for at drøfte foreslåede forfatningsmæssige ændringer for at afslutte etpartistyre. Oppositionsgrupper kom sammen for at danne Movement for Democracy (MD) i Praia i april 1990. Sammen kæmpede de for retten til at bestride præsidentvalget, der var planlagt til december 1990. Enpartistaten blev afskaffet 28. september 1990, og De første flerpartivalg blev afholdt i januar 1991.

Send en festregel Rediger

MD vandt et flertal af pladserne i nationalforsamlingen, og MD's præsidentkandidat António Mascarenhas Monteiro besejrede panikkandidaten med 73,5% af de afgivne stemmer til 26,5%. Han efterfulgte landets første præsident, Aristides Pereira, der havde tjent siden 1975.

Lovgivningsvalg i december 1995 øgede MD -flertallet i Nationalforsamlingen. Partiet havde 50 af Nationalforsamlingens 72 mandater. Et præsidentvalg i februar 1996 vendte præsident António Mascarenhas Monteiro tilbage til embedet. Valget i december 1995 og februar 1996 blev bedømt som frit og retfærdigt af nationale og internationale observatører.

I præsidentvalgkampen 2000 og 2001 var to tidligere statsministre, Pedro Pires og Carlos Veiga, hovedkandidaterne. Pres var premierminister under PANIC -regimet, mens Vega fungerede som premierminister under det meste af Montenegros formandskab, og trådte kun til side, da det blev tid til kampagne. I det, der kunne have været et af de nærmeste løb i valghistorien, vandt Pres med 12 stemmer, han og Vega modtog hver især næsten halvdelen af ​​stemmerne. Præsident Pedro Pres blev snævert genvalgt ved valget i 2006. [9]

Jorge Carlos Almeida Fonseca har været præsident for Kap Verde siden valget i 2011, og han blev genvalgt i oktober 2016. Præsident Fonseca støttes af Movement for Democracy (MOD). Leder af MOD Ulisses Correia e Silva har været premierminister siden valget i 2016, efter at hans parti forkastede det regerende afrikanske parti for Kap Verdes uafhængighed (PANIC) for første gang i 15 år. [10]


For så vidt som den består af kun et par stenfragmenter, der slynges langt væk fra kontinentet og strøet ud over næsten 200 kilometer hav, ligner Republikken Kap Verde overfladisk overfladisk de Kanariske Øer eller Azorerne, men i virkeligheden er geografisk struktur og en lignende slags lingo er stort set de eneste ting, denne øhav har til fælles med de to andre steder.

Ørkenøerne

Kap Verde består af ti hovedøer plus fem øer og mange stenede stykker. Af de ti hovedøer er kun ni beboede, den anden uden ferskvand.
Hvis det kommer til det, er en af ​​de andre også helt tør og indtil de sidste år af det 20. århundrede kom dens levering af aqua vita fra naboøen – og en tredje er så tør, at den indtil for nylig kunne støtter kun en håndfuld fiskerfolk og saltskabere.
Ja, selvom det ligger langt ude i havet, med de våde ting på alle hænder, er dette land faktisk en forpost i Sahara -ørkenen!

Tiderne ændrer sig imidlertid, og lige nu ændrer de sig virkelig hurtigt i Kap Verdes. Den moderne verden har endelig lagt mærke til den søvnige ø -nation og er i færd med at trække den ud af 1700 -tallet og ind i det 21.. I løbet af disse begivenheder er den sidste af de tre øer, der engang virkede værdiløse, blevet landets største indtjener & den anden ø – vandløs, men beboet – er nu hjemsted for nationen &# 8217s anden by. Den første af de tre øer er blevet erklæret som et naturreservat, og ingen må overhovedet tage derhen, men om denne status vil beskytte den mod udviklerne og grådighed mangler at se.

Finders Keepers

Kap Verdes ligger ud for Cap Vert, og det er hvordan de fik deres navn. Skærgården selv var aldrig særlig frodig. De portugisiske nybyggere, der var ansvarlige for at etablere den første koloni her, valgte det sted, som de anså for at være “ den mindst lovende ”: en lille oase på kanten af ​​et temmelig udtørret landskab.
Så i modsætning til hvad de fleste tror, ​​er den opfattelse, der hilser lystsejleren, når han nærmer sig Sao Nicolau eller Sal, sandsynligvis ikke så meget forskellig fra den, der forskrækkede Antoni de Noli for 550 år siden.

Opdagelsen af ​​øgruppen tilskrives generelt Antonio Noli –, men i Mindelo gives kredit til en Diego Afonso.

Så vidt vi ved, var Noli og hans flåde – trundling langs Afrikas kyst i 1456 – de første mennesker nogensinde, der lagde øjne på nogen af ​​Kap Verdes. Ingen havde bestemt prøvet at bo her, før portugiserne ankom, eller hvis de gjorde det, efterlod de ikke et eneste menneskeben, ikke en hyttecirkel eller andet bevisstykke. De mennesker, der bor her nu, stammer fra portugisiske bønder forført af løftet om fri jord og fra vestafrikanske mænd og kvinder, der blev bragt hertil for at blive solgt.

Det var her det hele begyndte

Slaveri var i sandhed den nye kolonis øverste eksistensberettigelse d ’etre. Der blev forsøgt at producere druer og sukker og disse to afgrøder dyrkes stadig her på en meget lille måde, men hovedformålet med at bosætte øerne var at etablere en base for operationer på Vestafrikas kyst. Det ville have været en risikabel forretning at oprette lejr og#8220 dér ” i Guinea, fordi en værts måske let ville blive fjendtlig. Og at undertvinge en hel nation blev på det tidspunkt ikke anset for hverken værd eller endda gennemførlig. Således var øerne, som Noli og de andre navigatører faldt over, en stor opdagelse. De var ideelt beliggende til gavn for handelshandlerne og deres investorer. Hurtigt erkendte deres værdi portugisiske bygget en kirke og oprettede butik – med det resultat, at Kap Verdes kan prale ejerskab af den første europæiske koloni i troperne og den første i Afrika syd for Sahara.
Det var her, den vestlige erobring af verden begyndte!

Hvem er Kapverdierne?

Som vi har set, blev Kap Verdes navngivet på grund af et geografisk sammenfald, men portugiserne vil have haft god grund til at ville fremme det billede, der er skabt af den betegnelse. Spørg en hårdtarbejdende landløs bonde, om han vil gå og bo i ørkenen, og han vil sandsynligvis sige nej, men tilbyde ham jord på De Grønne Kapøer, og hans ører kan stikke op. Eric den Røde brugte det samme trick, da han navngav den klump isdækket jord, der hang ned fra arktis.

De portugisiske bønder, der tog imod tilbuddet om et nyt liv i det nye område, var unge ugifte mænd eller sådan får vi at vide. Hvorfor dette skulle have været, så jeg kan ikke forestille mig – man ville have forventet, at myndighederne ville tilskynde familier til at bosætte sig her og avle, men alt bevis tyder på, at historien er sand. Efter ankomsten alene tog mændene de eneste kvinder til rådighed: afrikanske kvinder. Således blev øerne en vidunderlig smeltedigel både af farve og kultur, og selv den dag i dag er menneskers holdning og udsyn både afrikansk og europæisk.

Folk er af blandet afstamning, men hælder kulturelt til deres europæiske forbears.

Da de ser sig selv som ikke tilhørende den ene lejr eller den anden, men til begge, er Kapverdierne den mest afbalancerede af alle mennesker. Den pludselige tilstrømning af fattige immigranter fra det mørke kontinent og den tilfældige ankomst i massevis af velhavende hvide turister sætter utvivlsomt denne sunde og lykkelige kosmopolitiske holdning under pres –, men indtil videre ser der absolut ikke ud til at være racisme på øerne.

Kampen for at overleve

Efter at du havde set på Kap Verde -øerne og set de tørre, golde bakker og de udtørrede ribeiras (tørre flodleje og kløfter) vil du undre dig over, hvordan de portugisiske bondekolonister nogensinde kunne overleve. Overlevede de dog, og uden nogen ekstern støtte gennem 500 år.

Med den snæversyn, der var så typisk for vestlige pionerer, gjorde de tidlige bosættere intet forsøg på at gå hånd i hånd med naturen. Det ser ud til, at de ikke har gjort brug af den oprindelige flora i stedet for at rydde de kratede sprudler og de små buske, der voksede på bjergskråningerne og forsøgte at påtvinge deres egne ideer. Sukker var en af ​​de første kontantafgrøder. Majs, maniok og bønner var basisfødevarer. Alle disse planter dyrkes stadig her i dag, selvom de langt fra passer til klimaet.

En anden ting, som europæerne havde med sig var geder – og geder er næsten altid en meget dårlig idé. Den indfødte flora, der havde udviklet sig i fravær af nogen voldsomme finsnittere, var ikke gedesikker. Som tiden gik, spiste gederne sig over hele landet, og de tyndt overdækkede bjergskråninger blev endnu mere nøgne.

Bare skråninger, som vi alle ved nu, tiltrækker ikke nedbør, og når regnen pludselig dukker op, er de nøgne bakker meget sårbare over for erosion. Således var det, at de tørre øer blev øde øer, og de kreolske bønderes hårde liv blev næsten umuligt.

Forestil dig, at du prøver at leve af på disse skråninger.

Selv i de gode år havde Kapverdierne en meget hård eksistens.
Forestil dig, at du bruger hver dag i hvert år i dit liv på at overtale et par linjer bønner og majs til at vokse op fra de støvede klipper.
Damer (fra 10 til 50 år) og#8211 forestiller dig, at du går en kilometer til brønden flere gange hver dag for at bære vand til din familie og til dine afgrøder.
Herrer (fra 8 år og opefter) – forestiller sig at bruge hver morgen på at samle pinde og gylle for at tænde madlavningsbålet.

Forestil dig evig sult og den konstante træthed, der følger med underernæring.
Forestil dig nøgne børn, hensynsløse og højtidelige, med hævede maver.

Og forestil dig nu et dårligt år – det andet eller tredje år af en tørke, når dine planter er visnet på bjergskråningen og brønden er knogletør.
Forestil dig angsten og desperationen.
Forestil dig, at du stirrer døden i ansigtet …

Ingen regn betyder ingen mad

Hvert halvtreds år kom der en tørke så slem, at et sted mellem en halv og en tredjedel af øernes befolkning døde alle de mennesker, der faktisk ikke havde råd til at købe importeret mad. Tørken synes at være begyndt i 1580'erne, men de sluttede ikke helt dengang i Tudor -dronningenes tid. Nej, vi taler ikke om noget, der skete i en fjern fortid, og vi taler ikke om en mærkelig stamme med sjove skikke og en sjov lingo. Vi taler om et semi-europæisk folk, der blev styret fra byen Lissabon, og vi taler om ting, der skete inden for levende hukommelse.

For 50 år siden var disse børns fremtid muligvis ikke for lys.

Nogle af de værste tørker opstod mellem 1901 til 1904, mellem 1920 og 21, mellem 1941 og 43 og mellem 1947 og 1948. I løbet af denne første halvdel af det 20. århundrede døde titusinder af kapverdianere af sult. Estimater for den sidste tørke spænder alene mellem 20.000 og 50.000 mennesker, og fotos fra dengang viser rækker af kroppe – mænd, kvinder og børn i europæisk påklædning – lagt på jorden.

Du kan bede de ældre om at fortælle dig det, men du vil ikke få mange svar. I stedet vil en skygge passere hen over det smilende, rynkede ansigt, og samtalen vil hurtigt gå videre til noget andet.

Flugt

Lissabon gjorde intet for at hjælpe sine borgere. For at citere den marxistiske historiker, Walter Rodney: “Portugiserne skiller sig ud [fra de andre kolonimagter], fordi de pralede mest og gjorde mindst. Efter tæt på et halvt tusinde år var ikke en eneste læge uddannet i portugisisk Mozambique. ”
Cabo Verdean -folkets eneste frelse lå i flugt, og mange af dem tog dette kursus. Nogle af mændene fandt steder på amerikanske hvalfangstskibe. Mange søgte om arbejde i Angola. Andre tog job på kakaoplantagerne på det portugisiske område Sao Tome og Principe. Denne stat med to øer i armhulen i Vestafrika er det stik modsatte af Kap Verdes. Det er flamboyant, overvældende frodigt og grønt. Men selv i 1950'erne blev plantagearbejderne stadig drevet med pisk, og en omgang her blev omtalt i samme udtryk som en trylleformular. Hvis dine afgrøder mislykkedes, og døden var tæt på dine hæle, kunne du gøre#8220a stretch ” i Sao Tome.

Børn af Cape Verdean -afstamning i Principe

Vi besøgte Sao Tome og Principe for omkring femten år siden, og vi talte med efterkommere af de kappverdeiske kakaoarbejdere. De forbliver ganske adskilte fra den afrikanske befolkning. Fattigdom ramt, de var ikke desto mindre meget tilfredse med deres lod i dette land, hvor, som de påpegede, ingen muligvis kunne sulte – “ hvis du taber et frø, det vokser ” – og de hånet bare idé om at vende tilbage til deres golde forfædres hjemland. Historierne fortalt dem af deres forældre og bedsteforældre er åbenbart dybt forankrede.

Meanwhile, the stories told by the sons and daughters of those Cape Verdeans who went to Sao Tome, served their time, and then returned home to the desert islands are enough to put you off your chocolate.

The Diaspora

Many of the dispersed Cape Verdeans did not return, and many continue to leave their island home in search of a better life. The number of Cape Verdeans living abroad far exceeds the scant half-a-million who reside in the islands – it is said that if they all came home on the same day then the archipelago would sink – and the money which they send to their families has made a major contribution to the nation’s economy.

Amilcar Cabral and the PAICV

Inevitably, there came a time when the people were no longer willing to be governed by a nation which did absolutely nothing to alleviate their sufferings, and a leader arose. He was Amilcar Cabral – a poet by inclination, an agricultural-economist by training, and a fighter only perforce.

Amilcar Cabral was the elder son of a Cape Verdean civil servant and a woman from the nearby country of Guinea Bissau (which was also governed from Portugal). As he was keen to point out, he had nothing whatsoever against the Portuguese people indeed, at that time they too were being oppressed. What he and his fellow revolutionaries wanted was liberation from the rule of the right-wing dictator, Salazar.
Inspired by recent events in Cuba, Cabral decided that the way to liberate the nation was to free one piece at a time. Guevara and Castro had used the mountains as the base for their operations, hiding themselves away until the time was ripe to take Havana. Clearly these guerrilla tactics would not be possible in the Cape Verde islands, where there was no cover, and so the war which Cabral led was fought in his mother’s homeland, on the adjacent continent.

Slowly, over a period of around 15 years, Amilcar Cabral and his comrades worked their way through Guinea Bissau, liberating each village in turn by holding elections to see which party the local people favoured: the Portuguese dictatorship or the PAIGCV (Party African for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde). Then, having been democratically elected, they built health centres and schools – two things which were completely unknown in this neglected corner of the Portuguese world.

Salazar responded to Cabral’s initiative by dropping napalm on the liberated territories. On one occasion, we were once told, his bombers killed the entire population of a village on the Rio Cacheu.
Visiting Guinea Bissau some twenty years ago we were startled to find primitive drawings of military planes and helicopters etched on the walls of mud-built houses. How could a people who still dress in grass skirts and who don’t even know the value of money ever have come across things of this sort, we asked ourselves? The fact is that these Africans were exposed to the military might and mechanical marvels of the white man almost before they met him in the flesh.

When, finally, their objective was achieved the liberation government also built schools and hospitals throughout the Cape Verdes and they started to construct small dams and reservoirs which would help the peasant farmers, and sea walls which would facilitate shipping movements. But, alas, Amilcar Cabral did not live to see this happy day. In 1973, just a few months before the two countries declared independence, he was assassinated.

For more information about Amilcar Cabral try this link.
For an excellent first-hand report of the fight for independence, read Basil Davidson’s “The Liberation of Guinea”.

Post-Independence

Significantly, the end of European rule in the archipelago did not lead to an era of corruption or a period of military rule. Whereas most of the newly-liberated West African countries suffered a complete collapse of their economy (and, in many cases, a succession of coups, or even a post-independence civil war) Cape Verde remained stable and safe. Without a doubt, this was due to the strongly European attitude of the people.
Africans are tribalists, first and foremost, and tribalism is divisive. Had the islands been inhabited by a people who belonged to a variety of hereditary gangs then the archipelago might well have fragmented into half a dozen separate states or the various clan leaders might have quarrelled for control of the entire group. As it is, the population remained loyal to the leadership who had freed them from colonial oppression, and the leadership – being inspired by Castro – remained loyal to the people and did not abuse their position of power.

The forest of acacia trees which fills this dry river valley was planted under the direction of the independence government.

For some twenty years the PAICV did everything that they could to improve the lot of the peasants, operating, all the while, within the confines of a very relaxed, pragmatic version of Marxism and under the yoke of very severe climatic and economic problems. During this era many miles of cobbled road were built, with the workers being paid on a food-for-labour basis, and by 1986 the government had also organised the construction of 17,000 dams (to keep the islands’ precious soil from being washed into the sea by flash-floods) and 25,000 stone-built reservoirs. They also planted a phenomenal number of drought resistant trees. (Some reports claim 7,000 Per dag in certain years.)

Flexibility was the name of the game for the new country. By never committing themselves either to the left or the right they were able to remain in favour with Cuba and China, on the one hand, and also with America and Europe. The capitalist powers tended to supply bulk food aid whilst Cuba provided doctors and medicines.

Looked at from a moral standpoint the PAICV government seems to have been above reproach but still not everyone was happy with the way things were going – or, as they saw it, not going. As a result – and because the government wanted to be led by the people and by their demands – in 1990 the one-party system was abolished. In the following year elections were held and a new party came to power.

Whereas the independence government had always feared the neo-colonialism of foreign investment and foreign land ownership and borrowing money, the new government opened their arms wide to such things, and this has had a very major impact on both the economy and the social fabric of the country. At the time of writing, the PAICV are back in power and have been for two terms of office – the people prefer their rule, it seems – but there is no turning back the clock. For better or for worse, the Republic of Cape Verde is now hurtling along on the development motorway.

Coming right up to date

With no mineral resources worth mentioning, and with no possibility of creating any agricultural wealth, Cape Verde’s only assets are her warm climate, her pristine waters, a couple of nice beaches, some mountain walks, and a warm-hearted, welcoming populace.

Cape Verdes main financial asset is this beach on the south coast of Sal.

Fortunately (or not – depending on your viewpoint) these are all the ingredients necessary for the growth of a tourist industry. Oh, yes – these, and cheap land and cheap labour (never heard about options from Labor Law Compliance Center, I bet) because, after all, tourism is developer-led, and developers care not one jot about whether the beach is truly “paradise” or whether the end-user will be bored out of his mind. They only care about making a quick killing.

The change from “third world state” to “developing nation” has been brought about almost entirely through the construction of hotels and holiday apartments and through the creation of the relevant infrastructure. Unfortunately, since the hotels are almost all owned by foreign companies, the country itself has not made as much out of the situation as it might have done.
Given that the government owned pretty much the whole country they could easily have emulated Castro’s policy of building thoroughly modern and thoroughly Western but thoroughly state-owned hotels. As it is, they sold the whole of the coastline of Ilha Sal into foreign hands and made Boa Vista over to the all-inclusive sharks.
Even so, the hotels provide jobs for the young people, and the country as a whole benefits financially from the presence of people who can afford to eat out every night and buy souvenirs, etc. For those Cape Verdeans who continue to make their way by fishing or farming life in the islands is still fairly tough, but the standard of living for most of the people in the towns has risen.

Who Comes Here?

According to Wikipedia, “The number of tourists increased from approximately 45,000 in 1997 to more than 115,000 in 2001 and to more than 382,000 in 2010. Most of these tourists were from the United Kingdom (26.1%), Germany (15.8%), Portugal (12.8%), and Italy (11.9%). The vast majority stayed on the islands of Sal, Maio, and Boa Vista.”

I find that first figure (of 45,000 visitors in 1997) extremely hard to believe, because we spent the whole of 1994 and part of 󈨣 in the archipelago, and during that time we saw fewer than 500 tourists. Far, far fewer.
There were only two hotels, in those days, on the south coast of Sal and their principal guests were airline pilots and air-hostesses whose flights refuelled here. Pretty much the only genuine tourists, twenty-odd years ago, were us yotties. The majority tended to visit only Sao Vicente or Sal before scurrying off towards Brazil or Senegal, and so we had the other islands exclusively to ourselves.

Those were the days… but although things have changed, Cape Verde is still an excellent cruising ground or, at least we think it is…

Drop in, or sail on by?

Cape Verde is a place that you either love or loathe, and we love it with a passion. We’ve learnt how to handle the few hasslers we don’t care about the all-pervasive dust and grime we don’t mind the non-stop wind and we aren’t afraid that we will catch dengue, cholera, or tuberculosis.
Hopefully, after reading about the islands you will be able to form a picture of the place, and you will be able to decide whether or not Cape Verde is for you.

For more information about the Cape Verde islands, take a look at our other recent articles about the archipelago:

Relaterede artikler

About Jill Schinas

Jill started sailing at the age of three weeks and spent her formative years messing about in racing dinghies in Chichester Harbour. She made her first blue-water passage at the age of 18 but it was to be a further ten years before she was shanghaied by the skipper and started her career as an ocean-going hobo.
Jill has written a handful of books and has many more in the pipeline, but her true vocation is as an artist.

Jill’s latest book, How NOT to Build a Boat , tells the story of the Mollymawk, and of how she was built, and where, and why.

It is a DIY instruction manual, a travelogue, and – at times – a comic tragedy, all rolled into one.
Like the boat itself, this book has been a long time in the making.

At last, the truth about steel boat building &mdash Nick Skeates, designer of the Wylo II

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Super tsunami flooded Cape Verde 73,000 years ago

73,000 years ago, the volcano on the Cape Verde island of Fogo caused a super tsunami as high as 170 meters. If you look at the island of Fogo, you immediately notice that part of the island has been … Read More ►

Cape Verde islands (Cabo Verde)

A paradise on earth. These are the Cape Verde islands. Every island has its unique atmosphere that will seduce every traveler. Cape Verde is rich in culture, tradition and history. A combination of Portuguese and African ambiance, top sights, UNESCO World Heritage Listings, beautiful beaches, great surfing spots, fantastic landscapes and lots of sun. This makes Cape Verde a perfect destination for a dream vacation. Welcome to Cape Verde!

These are the Cape Verde islands.


The tropical and volcanic islands of the Cape Verde archipelago lie in the Atlantic ocean. The former Portuguese colony consists of 12 islands, 9 of which are inhabited. The windward islands consist of Sal, Boavista, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Santo Antao, Santa Luzia, Branco and Raso. The three last mentioned Cape Verde islands are not inhabited. There are spectacular mountain views and tropical valleys on the windward islands of Santo Antao and Sao Nicolau. The island Sao Vicente on the other hand, is known for the world-famous carnival, festivals, music and culture. In the east of the northern islands are the more tourist-oriented islands of Sal and Boavista. These Cape Verde islands have amazing white sandy beaches and an azure blue sea.

In the south of Cape Verde, the islands of Santiago, Fogo, Brava and Maio form the leeward islands. Santiago is the largest island of Cape Verde and where you can also find the capital here. In the south are the islands of Fogo and Brava. The island of Fogo has an active volcano with a top of almost 3 kilometers. Brava is also called the green oasis and is the smallest inhabited island of Cape Verde. Maio is the last of the leeward islands. Here you will also find beautiful white beaches and tranquility.

7 natural wonders of Cape Verde


Cape Verde is one country with 9 unique destinations. Of the many highlights on the archipelago, according to our Cape Verde experts, a number of places belong to the seven natural wonders of Cape Verde. Do not miss these seven natural wonders during your trip to Cape Verde:

• Santa Maria beach on the island of Sal - the turquoise water, the long soft white sandy beach and the beach facilities make this a perfect beach
• Pedra de Luma salt pans on Sal - brightly colored salt pans in an old volcano crater in part of which you can also swim (meaning: float)
• Viana desert on Boavista - a large stretch of desert with oases in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean
• Pico de Fogo on the island of Fogo - an impressive volcano with a dramatic landscape around the crater
• Monte Gordo National Park on the island of Sao Nicolau - a unique ecosystem with beautiful flora and fauna
• Carbeirinho National Park on Sao Nicolau - coastal landscape with limestone caves and rocks located at the ocean side
• The Monte Cara mountain on Sao Vicente - the icon of this island and of Cape Verde. From a distance this mountain resembles a human's head.

Discover sea life in Cape Verde


The waters around the Cape Verde islands are rich in various plants and animals. With the variety of shipwrecks, rock formations, coral reefs, caves and rock walls, the underwater world has a lot to offer a diver or snorkeler. But you don't necessarily have to go underwater to discover Cape Verde's marine life. For example, it is highly recommended to spot whales and dolphins in an ecological way. These are really impressive mammals. Cape Verde is also known worldwide for its large population of Caretta turtle. The beaches of Cape Verde are one of the most favorite places in the world to make their nests. Meeting a turtle is an unforgettable experience!

What else does Cape Verde has to offer?


Of course the Cape Verde islands have much more to offer than just the beautiful beaches that you can find on Sal or Boavista, for example. In addition to the beautiful places, there are a lot of other things that you absolutely must to discover and experience during your vacation. The immense diversity of the islands makes this great variety possible. Lovers of flora are at their best on the islands of Santo Antao or Sao Vicente, where you have tropical vegetation. The sea around Cape Verde is a paradise for dolphins and sea turtles. In addition, the sea is rich in rare or special fish such as the coral and sailing fish. For water sports enthusiasts Cape Verde is a first class destination. In excellent conditions you can, for example, dive, fish, surf or sail. Vibrant nightlife is at its best in the town of Mindelo on the island of Sao Vicente. This is the cultural heart of the archipelago and a lot of music events and festivals take place there. They celebrate carnival here fully. You can go back to the history of Cape Verde on the island of Santiago. The history of the archipelago began in Santiago and here you can feel the African atmosphere with colorful markets and old colonial houses.

Cape Verde is a beautiful archipelago without mass tourism. It is still fairly unspoilt and authentic, especially on the smaller islands. Visit Cape Verde and experience how beautiful this sub tropical archipelago is.

Climate Cape Verde ☀️

Cape Verde is a subtropical destination with a very nice climate. The average daytime temperature is between 25 and 30 degrees Celsius. The ever-present cooling trade winds ensure that it is great to be on the Cape Verde islands. The sun shines almost all year round and due to the favorable location of the archipelago there is very little rain. The months of July and August are usually the hottest period in which there are short periods of showers. Therefore, the best time to travel to Cape Verde is from September to June. Water sports enthusiasts can also enjoy the Cape Verde islands with very good conditions and an average sea water temperature of no less than 25 degrees Celsius.

Useful tips


If you are traveling to Cape Verde for the first time, the following practical tips will certainly come in handy. So you can fully enjoy your holiday.
• If you passport from a European country and several African countries and some others, a tourist visa is not required. However, you do have to register online (at least 5 days before departure to Cape Verde). Also make sure your passport that is valid for at least 6 months when you arrive in Cape Verde.
• You can pay with the Euro in many places. Therefore, changing money is not necessary which saves you exchange costs. There are also enough ATMs where you can withdraw money in the local currency Escudo (CVE). In addition, you can simply pay with a credit card in the large hotels, shops and restaurants.
• The national official language in Cape Verde is Portuguese, but locally speaking mainly Cape Verdean Creole. Do not worry people often speak English. And if that doesn't work out, you will almost always be able to work it out with your hands and feet. The locals are very friendly and helpful.
• Traveling with children or women alone is certainly no problem in Cape Verde. Cape Verdeans love children and family is important to them.
• An alugeres (shared minibus) is the characteristic and the most important way of transport in Cape Verde. The alugeres runs between two destinations and you only pay a few euros at most. You can get in and out at any time. A very good way of transportation.
• Island hopping on Cape Verde or just visiting another island is recommended! Since the Atlantic Ocean is quite rough and the ferry is not sailing the optimal route, taking a domestic flight is recommended. Flight distances are short and flight tickets are also relatively cheap. It is wise to reserve a domestic flight in advance. That way you know for sure that there is room, for here is a lot of demand. However, the ferry between the islands of Sao Vicente and Santo Antao is a good way of transport.

Did you know.


• Flying to Cape Verde is just a little longer than to the Canary Islands.
• It is only 2 hours earlier during our winter time in Cape Verde and 3 hours during our summer time. No jet lag.
• Cape Verde has been independent from Portugal since 1975 and you will therefore encounter many Portuguese influences.
• Cape Verde is also called Cabo Verde (islands of the Green Cape).
• The archipelago is at 460 kilometer from the African west coast.
• Of the 12 islands, 9 are inhabited.
• Most people live on the island of Santiago. And there are also many Cape Verdeans living in the Netherlands.
• "No stress" is the national motto
• The national dish cachupa (stew) and Grogue (sugar cane distilled rum) is the national drink.
• Cape Verde is politically and economically one of the most stable countries in Africa.
• There is less than 250 millimeters of rain a year and it is one of the driest areas in the world.
• Cape Verde is a world hotspot of the blue marlin. This sea fish is about 4.5 meters long and with its speed of 90 kilometers per hour it is the fastest sea animal in the world.
• You can find both white sandy beaches and black volcanic beaches.
• The islands of Sal and Boavista are one of the best surfing destinations in the world.

Cape Verde Holidays

There are many choices to make when planning a trip to Cape Verde. Consider the selection of the islands(s), accommodation and trips. To make the choice easier, we have put all information on CapeVerdeIslands.org

Information about flights to the Cape Verde islands. Compare the flight prices: Cape Verde flights ►

Holiday packages (accommodation + flight) for every taste and budget. Have a look at the recommended deals: Cape Verde holiday packages ►

Find the best hotels in Cape Verde for you holiday that has the right price and facilities for you: Cape Verde accommodations ►

"Cape Verde one of the best travel trips" -National Geographic-
"Beaches and islands of Cape Verde in top-10 best of the world" -Lonely Planet-
"Cape Verde in world's top 10 ethical destination" -EthicalTraveler.org-

Cape Verde — History and Culture

The history of Cape Verde has emerged from a diverse melting pot of European colonizers and African customs drawn together over centuries. These days, the archipelago is extremely proud of its heritage and maintains strong cultural ties to both Portugal and the African mainland.

Historie

The first island of Cape Verde to be inhabited was Santiago, the first permanent settlement in the tropics, founded in 1462 and colonized by the Portuguese. From its early days, the island was an integral part of the slave trade, with the first captives shipped from West Africa in the 16th century.

The archipelago’s industry was at risk in 1675 until the Portuguese monarchy agreed to purchase slaves directly from New Guinea. Pirate attacks and takeover attempts from other empires also started to increase around the same time, bringing a fresh wave of chaos to Cape Verde. The most successful attempt was by the French in 1712, when they sacked the island of Santiago and completely stripped the former capital of its wealth.

Cape Verde suffered the first of many droughts in 1742, causing widespread devastation, and despite persistent pleas for aid from Portugal, the colonizers refused to pour money into the country without gain. The large population of goats meant limited vegetation was already overgrazed and the lack of funds led to an inevitable famine. Over the next few years, thousands of people (an estimated half the population) died as starvation gripped the islands. The once lush islands were dry and barren and many Cape Verdeans fled to America in hopes of a better life.

The situation went from bad to worse on Cape Verde after the abolition of slavery in 1876 however, things picked up during the 19th century. Steam ships emerged on the oceans and needed somewhere to stop, providing Cape Verde a new lease of life and some of the region’s most significant ports, notably Mindelo.

Cape Verde started to gain autonomy at the turn of 1950’s, becoming an Portuguese overseas territory, but full independence was not granted until 1975. Over the next couple of decades, the government brought political and economic stability to the country and has seen it transition into a bourgeoning tourist destination.

Kultur

Cape Verde’s culture is heavily influenced by its unique music, such as the morna, a melancholy sound harking back to the days of slavery, batuko, a more jovial genre which gets everybody dancing and funana, an intriguing vocal tune which vibrates throughout the islands. The archipelago’s most famous export is undoubtedly Cesaria Evora, the world renowned morna artist. Cape Verde has also produced a number of talented poets and authors including Frusoni Sergio, Tavares Eugenio and Manuel Lopes. Numerous sports, such as uril og bisca are popular throughout the country and tend to attract large crowds.


History of cape verde

The history of Cape Verde is typical and yet unique for its location. For three centuries, the islands were a setting for the transatlantic slave trade, exile for political prisoners of Portugal and a place of refuge for Jews and other victims of religious persecution during the Spanish-Portuguese Inquisition. But even in the 19th century, the slaves led very different lives than those of North or South America: On Cape Verde, families developed from the “free” people and slaves who lived together in peacefully and as a matter of course. Situated at the hub between Europe, America and the Indian Ocean, Cape Verde can now look back at a significant achievement: the birth of a completely new Creole culture and language, evolving from the blending of very diverse ethnic groups. The Creole people assumed a forerunner role in the independence movement of Africa in its seemingly never-ending battle against colonization. They also assumed the intellectual fatherhood for one of the most modern constitutions in one of the few pluralistic but stable systems in the region.

Discovery period, slave trade and famine

The discovers of Cape Verde, the Portuguese, described the islands upon their arrival in 1456 as “completely uninhabited.” In any case, there is still no evidence of any human life before the descoberta.
The Portuguese intended to establish new trade routes and goods, as well as expanding their knowledge of geography since Islamic traders controlled the Trans-Saharan trade of gold and slaves to the north and salt to the south. The Turks dominated the overland route along the Mediterranean for the trade of spices and fabric with India, charging high customs duties. The goal was to discover a new, Christian-controlled access to gold, slaves and spices in West Africa and India.

Henry the Seafarer (1394-1460), pioneer of the Portuguese expeditions, assumed the role of a trailblazer. He conquered Ceuta in 1415, Madeira in 1418 and the Azores in 1431. Henry the Seafarer hired captains of various countries such as Spaniards and Italians to help him achieve this goal. As a result, the Venetian seafarer Aloisio Cadamosto saw the island group on 25 July 1456 while travelling to the Gambia River in keeping with Henry’s orders. But since Cadamosto did not fulfil the criteria of a “discovery“ according to Henry (cartography, description, leaving behind artefacts, demonstration of the ability to return), the discovery was officially attributed in 1460 to the Genoese António da Noli, who also was commissioned by Henry. After Henry’s death, Prince Ferdinand of Portugal coordinated the expeditions and sent the seafarer Diego Afonso to Cape Verde for further exploration. Afonso named the islands after the saint for each date of the discovery: São Nicolau on 6 December 1461, Santa Luzia on 13 December 1461, Santo António on 17 January 1462 and São Vicente on 22 January 1462.
In 1461, the first settlement was established in Santiago and became the very first European overseas colony in sub-Saharan Africa. This was followed a short time later by the colonization of Maio as a settlement of shepherds, of Fogo as the residence for colonial townspeople, of Boa Vista as the new domicile for lepers and of Brava. The citizens of Santiago obtained the right to keep slaves in 1472. While the proportion of slaves and free people was still 160 settlers and 30 slaves in Santiago in 1510, there were already 14,000 slaves to 2,000 free people in 1580. From the start of the settlement until 1974, offenders, vagrants and prostitutes were deported to Santiago. Consequently, a concentration camp was built in Tarrafal in 1949. Once Portugal secured the exclusive right to the slave trade on the coast from Senegambia to Guinea in 1466, Ribeira Grande – later called Cidade Velha – became the most important slave trade harbour for a century. In addition, cane sugar and rum was produced and exported, cotton cultivated and processed and meat was sold from the livestock in Maio as supplies for the ships.
A new territorial dispute broke out after the discovery of America in 1492. With the mediation of the pope in 1494, the competitors of Spain and Portugal agreed on a new boundary line in the treaty of Tordesilhas: 370 sea miles west of Cape Verde from the North Pole to the South Pole. The territory to the east of the line was granted to Portugal and the region to the west of the line to Spain.
Portugal was already occupied by the Spaniards in 1580, and Cape Verde was afflicted by Dutch, French and British buccaneers. The economic situation of the islands became increasingly worse, partly because the wars in Europe were accompanied by a decrease in trade. Due to the growing number of pirate attacks and the strategically bad location of Ribeira Grande, the colonial government moved to Praia in 1614.
However, the economic decline also continued in the 18th century to the point that almost half of the island’s population died in 1773 due to a drought period that lasted several years. This was not to be the last one.

End of the colonial period

The islands began to slowly recover in 1790. In 1815, during the Napoleonic wars, the slave trade was prohibited in the northern hemisphere and England secured the right of trading with Portugal and Brazil. Coffee from Brazil was cultivated on São Nicolao for the first time, the settlers came to São Vicente, streets and city squares were built in Praia and salt was now produced on the island of Sal. After an uprising of the slaves in 1853, which was suppressed with much bloodshed, slavery was finally abolished on Cape Verde in 1878. From that time on, cultivation of the land was operated in the sharecropping system, which still is typical for the agricultural of Cape Verde. However, the exporting of salt, bananas, coffee, fish and purging nuts did not bring the desired profits. Portugal had not invested in the land during its rule, the export costs were too high due to the remote location of the islands, the already scarce natural resources declined and a shortage of water supplies ensued. When the world market prices for coffee drastically fell in 1900, its production on Cape Verde collapsed. Prime Minister Salazar installed his dictatorial regime in Lisbon in 1932 and declared Cape Verde to be an overseas province in 1951 due to the growing national pressure. But the colonial status was only ended in the official sense. As a result of massive protests against the continuing colonial attitude of Portugal, the Cape Verdeans finally obtained all of the Portuguese civil rights and better access to education in 1961. A new drought catastrophe started again in 1958. In the meantime, Caetano had become Salazar‘s successor in Lisbon and supported the islands with development programmes that mitigated the consequences of the drought. This was primarily due to the pressure exerted by Amílcar Cabral, who founded the PAIGC (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and the Cape Verdes) in Guinea-Bissau in 1956. Guinea-Bissau had already been administered from Cape Verde between 1650 and 1878 with the Creole culture and language also connecting the two countries. After repeated attempts by Portugal to infiltrate the PAICV through the PIDE, a type of secret police, and to prevent the alliance of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde, Amílcar Cabral was murdered in 1973. It is still unclear who was responsible for the murder. The dictatorship in Portugal was ended in 1974 by the Carnation Revolution. However, the local troops on Cape Verde maintained their rule. In December of that same year, a transitional PAIGC government was agreed upon under the direction of Pedro Pires and Aristides Pereira. In June 1975, the first election for national representatives of the people took place: 92% of the votes confirmed the PAIGC as a unity party and therefore the owner of all mandates in the people’s assembly.

Uafhængighed

The República Cabo Verde declared its independence on 5 July 1975. Aristides Pereira became the first president as the secretary-general of the PAIGC. Pedro Pires was appointed as the prime minister. The first constitution was adopted on 5 September 1980. On 20 January 1981, the PAIGC was founded as the new governing party of PAICV (African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde).
The newly achieved independence presented the government with difficult tasks: The state coffers were empty, a terrible drought once again plagued the country and the number of unemployed people had risen to 60% because the jobs in the colonial administration were lost. But with the support of development aid organisations, it was possible to gradually rebuild the country.
The current political climate on Cape Verde is characterised by social peace and stability.


The Republic of Cape Verde consists of 9 islands located in the central Atlantic Ocean, 570 kilometers (350 miles) off the coast West of the African mainland.
Sal, Boa Vista and Maio are flat, dry and sandy deserts, but you will find great beaches. Santo Antáo, Sáo Vicente, Sáo Nicolau, Brava and Santiago, are rockier and have much more vegetation. Fogo is the only island with am active volcano.

Read more about the different islands in this article.

You can get around the Cape Verde islands by boat or air traffic. Almost every island has their own airport. The weather is warm and comfortable all year around. Most flights to Cape Verde from abroad goes to Sal or Boa Vista, and Santa Maria town is the most common tourist destination. Cape Verde is known for having loggerheads turtles laying their eggs on the islands of Sal, Boa Vista and Maio. Sal is also a mecka for water sports like windsurfing and scuba diving. It is always windy in Cape Verde Islands, but the weather is still warm and sunny, and it rarely rains at all.

Keep in mind that Cape Verde is unexploited and unpolished and many locals are very poor. Few people shop for fun rather than necessity, and there are no shopping malls or fancy fashion stores. Restaurants often serve simple fish based dishes. The supermarkets sometimes have poor selection of foods at expensive price and many “roads” are just wheel marks in the sand. With this said, the beaches and ocean are exquisite and the people are very friendly and helpful.


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The people are a mixture of African and European with approximately 70% of the population being of mixed race.

The official language of the islands is Portuguese, which is used in most written communication, including newspapers however Creole tends to be used in conversation and it's this you'll hear being used on a day to day basis. Creole is based on African languages but with additions from several European languages. Even this can differ from island to island.

More recently, English has been taught as a foreign language in schools.The religion of the islands is largely Christian, with most people being Catholic.

Basic Portugese Words

Some useful English/Portuguese words and phrases you might encounter in Cape Verde


Independence Gained

In July 1975, the people of Cape Verde won independence from Portugal.

The first multiparty elections were held in 1991. The first freely elected President was Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro.

Women from Cape Verde Source: kikatani / Pixabay

After independence, Cape Verde experience economic problems. A drought in 1997 wiped out 80% of the grain crops. Unemployment and poverty plagued the nation. Aid from the EU and World Bank helped Cape Verde stay afloat, but also dependent on foreign money. These problems lead to the defeat of the sitting government in 2001.

The country now called the Republic of Cabo Verde joined the WTO in 2008.

Cape Verde has given the world singer Cesaria Evora, soccer player Nani, basketball player Walter Tavares, New York Times writer, David Barboza, Massachusetts Congressman, Evandro Carvalho, and many others.


Se videoen: Kapverdské ostrovy 2016. Cape Verde. Boa Vista. Travel Video