En del af Tablet V, Epic of Gilgamesh

En del af Tablet V, Epic of Gilgamesh


Tabt 'Epic of Gilgamesh' vers skildrer kakofonisk gudens bolig

Det nye fund, en lertavle, afslører et tidligere ukendt "kapitel" af det episke digt fra det gamle Mesopotamien. Denne nye sektion bringer både støj og farve til en skov for guderne, der blev anset for at være et roligt sted i litteraturens arbejde. Det nyfundne vers afslører også detaljer om den indre konflikt, digtets helte udholdt.

I 2011 købte Sulaymaniyah -museet i Slemani, i Kurdistan -regionen i Irak, et sæt med 80 til 90 lertabletter af en kendt smugler. Museet har deltaget i disse baglokaler som en måde at genvinde værdifulde artefakter, der forsvandt fra irakiske historiske steder og museer siden starten på den amerikansk-ledede invasion af dette land, ifølge online-nonprofit-publikationen Ancient History Et Cetera.

Blandt de forskellige indkøbte tablets skilte den ene sig ud til Farouk Al-Rawi, professor i Institut for Sprog og Kulturer i Nær- og Mellemøsten ved School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) ved University of London. Den store lerblok, ætset med kileskrift, var stadig klemt i mudder, da Al-Rawi rådede Sulaymaniyah-museet til at købe artefakt for de aftalte $ 800. [I fotos: Se skatte i Mesopotamien]

Ved hjælp af Andrew George, associeret dekan for sprog og kultur på SOAS og oversætter af "The Epic of Gilgamesh: A New Translation" (Penguin Classics, 2000), oversatte Al-Rawi tabletten på bare fem dage. Lerartefakten kunne datere så langt tilbage til den gamle babyloniske periode (2003-1595 f.Kr.), ifølge Sulaymaniyah-museet. Al-Rawi og George sagde imidlertid, at de synes, det er lidt yngre og blev indskrevet i den neo-babylonske periode (626-539 f.Kr.).

Al-Rawi og George opdagede hurtigt, at den stjålne tablet fortalte en velkendt historie: historien om Gilgamesh, hovedpersonen i den gamle babylonske fortælling, "The Epic of Gilgamesh", der i vid udstrækning betragtes som det første episke digt nogensinde og det første stort litteraturværk, der nogensinde er skabt. På grund af den periode, hvor historien blev skrevet, var historien sandsynligvis indskrevet på "tabletter", hvor hver tablet fortalte en anden del af historien (ligesom moderne kapitler eller vers).

Hvad Al-Rawi og George oversatte er en tidligere ukendt del af den femte tablet, der fortæller historien om Gilgamesh, kongen af ​​Uruk og Enkidu (den vilde mand skabt af guderne for at holde Gilgamesh i kø), mens de rejser til Cedertræet Skov (gudernes hjem) for at besejre ogren Humbaba.

Den nye tablet tilføjer 20 tidligere ukendte linjer til den episke historie og udfylder nogle af detaljerne om, hvordan skoven så ud og lød.

"Den nye tablet fortsætter, hvor andre kilder bryder af, og vi erfarer, at Cedertræet ikke er et sted med fredfyldte og rolige stråler. Den er fuld af larmende fugle og cikader, og aber skriger og råber i træerne," sagde George til WordsSideKick.com i en e -mail.

I en parodi på et hofligt liv behandler den uhyrlige Humbaba kakofonien i junglelyde som en slags underholdning, "som kong Louie i 'The Jungle Book'", sagde George. En så levende beskrivelse af de naturlige landskaber er "meget sjælden" i babylonisk fortællende poesi, tilføjede han

Andre nyfundne linjer i digtet bekræfter detaljer, der hentydes til i andre dele af værket. For eksempel viser det, at Enkidu og Humbaba var barndomsvenner, og at historiens helte efter at have dræbt ogren følte sig lidt angerfulde, i det mindste for at ødelægge den dejlige skov.

"Gilgamesh og Enkidu fældede cedertræet for at tage hjem til Babylonia, og den nye tekst bærer en streg, der synes at udtrykke Enkidus erkendelse af, at det er en dårlig ting at reducere skoven til et ødemark og vil forstyrre guderne," George sagde. Ligesom beskrivelsen af ​​skoven er denne form for økologisk bevidsthed meget sjælden i gammel poesi, tilføjede han.

Tabletten, nu mudderfri og fuldt oversat, vises i øjeblikket på Sulaymaniyah-museet. Et papir med en beskrivelse af Al-Rawi og Georges resultater blev offentliggjort i 2014 i Journal of Cuneiform Studies.


Diskussion

Hele eposet kan med rette opdeles i to halvdele, hvor begyndelsen hovedsageligt udforsker bedrifterne af de to legender, der arbejder sammen. Heroisme forklares fra deres erobringer af den gigantiske Humbaba og gudernes sendebud (Himlens tyr).

Deres venskab og sammenhold (enhedens formål) er grundlæggende, da de støtter hinanden for at ødelægge en fælles fjende (Humbaba og tyren). I dette undtagen “Skynd dig, træd op til ham, lad ham ikke gå. Klatre op i skoven, vær ikke bange. ” (Tablet IV, kolonne V, 43-44). Vi ser, hvordan de to samarbejder og "De skar hovedet af Humbaba af" (Sandars, 47).

Denne død gør vrede på de guder, der nu lover at ødelægge Enkidu. Enkidu dør til sidst, og dette markerer vendepunktet i Gilgameshs liv, han er bekymret og er tvunget til at ændre sine fjollerier, hans livsstil og overbevisning, han indser nu, at han tog fejl af at forestille sig, at han ville leve for evigt.

Guderne beslutter bevidst at tage sin nærmeste ledsager væk for at advare ham om, at han også snart skal dø. Forvirret og bekymret over sandheden befinder Gilgamesh sig i fornægtelse. Med liget af sin kollega foran sig i henhold til (Tablet VIII, kolonne II, 15-16) står der: "Jeg rørte ved hans hjerte, det banker ikke"

Han begiver sig ud på en søgen efter at finde udødelighed og omvendt død, ”mig! Vil jeg også ikke dø som Enkidu? Sorgen kom ind i min mave. Jeg frygter døden, jeg vandrer over bakkerne. Jeg vil gribe vejen hurtigt, jeg vil gå til huset til Utnapishiti afkom af Ubaratutu. Jeg nærmer mig indgangen til bjerget om natten. Løver ser jeg, og er bange. Jeg løfter mit hoved for at bede til stemningen gudssynd: For en drøm går jeg til guderne i bøn ... bevar mig! ” (Tablet IX, kolonne I, 3-12).

Døden er permanent uundgåelig, og mennesket kan aldrig opnå evigheden. Gilgamesh indser dette endelig, selvom det var sent i epikken. En legende, der tidligere blev portrætteret som en helt og erobrer af mange, kan nu ikke erobre udødelighed, hele hans livsstil ændres fra en modig og selvsikker kriger til en frygtindgydende personlighed i fuldstændig benægtelse af livets fakta.

Hans første liv med tapperhed var ubrugeligt, da han endelig opdager i de sidste afsnit af teksten. Det svar, han modtager fra Utnapishitim, tømmer hans ambition og bringer ham tilbage til jorden. "Aldrig har en dødelig mand gjort det Gilgamesh" (tablet IX kolonne III, 8).

Hans kollegas død ydmyger ham, da han oprindeligt havde placeret sig på samme status med guderne uden at vide, at han var en dødelig mand. “Menneskehedens skæbne overhalede ham ... i frygt for døden vandrer jeg rundt i ørkenen…. Jeg skal ikke ligge som ham, aldrig bevæge mig? ” (Tablet X kolonne II, 3, 8, 13-14) endelig går det op for ham, at "Fra begyndelsen er der ingen permanenthed" (Tablet X, spalte VII, 32).

I begyndelsen havde den store krigerkonge Gilgamesh tilegnet sig stor visdom og erfaring inden for kamp. Til sidst er han imidlertid ikke i stand til at oversætte sin dygtighed i krig og kamp for at erobre udødelighed.

I begyndelsen blev Gilgamesh også set som en konge, der satte sine undersåtter under et undertrykkende regime, det er grunden til, at guderne sendte Enkidu for at hjælpe med at imødegå hans undertrykkende regime, men i stedet samarbejder de med Enkidu om at ødelægge og dræbe gudernes sendebud, guder er utilfredse og vil kommunikere til ham om, at han ikke kan erobre udødelighed, men de gør dette indirekte ved at dræbe Enkidu, og det formår at indgyde frygt i hans liv. Således kommer hans undertrykkende regime i begyndelsen endelig til at hjemsøge ham i hans sidste år.

Han var undertrykkende over for sine undersåtter, men nu undertrykker tanken om, at han også endelig skal dø, ham og sætter ham på samme niveau som de mennesker, han regerede. Ingen er specielle i livet døden er for alle og gør alle mennesker lige, konge eller tjener, kriger eller underlagt.

Fra begyndelsen ses krigerkongen som eventyrlysten, selvgod og en der er motiveret af berømmelse. Havde partnerskabet mellem ham og hans kammerat Enkidu vedvaret, ville han aldrig have ændret sin livsstil og overbevisning, men hans medskyldiges død gør alvorligt at overveje hans hensigt med at leve.

Han begynder at stille spørgsmål om sin egen moral, han accepterer ikke sandheden og forsøger at afvise den, men indser, at hans bestræbelser på at retfærdiggøre sig selv er forgæves, det er det, der forårsagede kongens vandring faretruende på jagt efter moral og personlig vækst (Sparknotes, 45).

I det væsentlige understreger Gilgameshs epos betydningen af ​​et enkelt liv. Det er vigtigt for en at leve inden for deres midler uden at kæmpe for at opnå det, der er umuligt eller uopnåeligt. Livet i sig selv er begrænset til dødelighed, og en forståelse af denne kendsgerning skal føre til at leve det ærligt og moralsk.

Det lærer os vigtigheden af ​​ydmyghed og demonstrerer, hvor svært det er for en at opnå storhed og berømmelse med ydmyghed. Mennesker opfordres til at finde en balance mellem storhed og ydmyghed i lige så høj grad, de to er i modsætning til hinanden. Kong Gilgamesh ved at være en stor legende i kamp mistede sit menneskelige perspektiv på moral og ydmyghed. Han var for fuld af sig selv og ville placere sig ved siden af ​​guderne, fordi han havde glemt, at han var et dødeligt væsen.


New York domstol beordrer Gilgamesh tablet tilbage til Irak

Et gammelt stykke litteratur fra nutidens Irak blev ulovligt bragt til USA og skal fortabes, fastslog en domstol i New York i dag.

En tablet, der indeholder en del af Epic of Gilgamesh - en fortælling fra den antikke civilisation i Sumerien og et af verdens ældste litteraturstykker - kom ulovligt til USA og blev derefter solgt, Justitsministeriet, US Attorney's office for Eastern District of Det oplyste New York i en pressemeddelelse mandag.

»Hver gang der findes plyndrede kulturelle ejendomme i dette land, vil den amerikanske regering gøre alt, hvad den kan for at bevare arven ved at returnere sådanne artefakter, hvor de hører hjemme,« sagde distriktsadvokaten Richard Donghue.

The Epic of Gilgamesh er et langt digt skrevet på det akkadniske sprog, der blev fundet i 1853 i ruinerne af et bibliotek af den assyriske kong Assurbanipal, der ligger i den moderne Nineve-provins i det nordlige Irak. Historien om en konge er en af ​​de ældste kendte epos i menneskets historie.

Den pågældende tablet er en lune kileskriftstabel, der bærer en del af eposet om en drøm, der bliver tilbagekaldt til hovedpersonens mor. Det sarte stykke er en af ​​hundredtusinder af artefakter plyndret fra Irak siden 1990'erne, ifølge retsdokumenter.

Problemet med tabletten begyndte i 2003, året hvor USA invaderede Irak. På det tidspunkt købte en ukendt antikvitetshandler tabletten fra en antikvitetshandler i Mellemøsten i London. Det blev afsløret at være en del af Gilgamesh -eposet efter at være blevet renset. I 2007 oplyste forhandleren fejlagtigt, at tabletten var blevet erhvervet via en auktion i 1981 og solgt et auktionshus. I 2014 købte den amerikanske kunsthåndværksbutik Hobby Lobby tabletten, og den blev derefter vist på Museum of the Bible i Washington, DC, ifølge udgivelsen.

Reuters afslørede i går, at det internationale auktionshus Christie's solgte tabletten til Hobby Lobby med henvisning til et svindelkrav fra Hobby Lobby mod Christie's.

Christies fortalte Reuters, at virksomheden ikke havde kendskab til ulovligheden af ​​købet. Bibelmuseet samarbejdede med undersøgelsen, oplyser justitsministeriet.

Tabletten blev beslaglagt af amerikanske embedsmænd tilbage i september, men den tabte ordre blev indgivet mandag ifølge meddelelsen.

Plyndringen af ​​antikviteter er et stort spørgsmål i Irak, og regeringen har i årevis arbejdet på at hente genstande fra dens rige kulturarv. Dårlige økonomiske og sikkerhedsmæssige forhold har bidraget til tyveri af artefakter i landet.

Irakisk lov bestemmer, at genstande som tabletten er statens ejendom. USA har også love, der forbyder overførsel af sådanne genstande fra Irak, ifølge retsdokumenterne.


Hvad definerer et epos?

Klassificeringen af ​​et epos er en interessant analyse. Eksempler på epos omfatter dem, der er fortalt eller skrevet af Homer eller Virgil eller historierne i Indien, fortalt gennem Ramayana eller Mahabarata.

Etymologien for & quotepic & quot stammer fra det græske ord & quotepos & quot, hvilket betyder ord eller sang. Definitionen på episk af Oxford Dictionary er & kvote langt digt, typisk et stammer fra gammel mundtlig tradition, der fortæller heroiske eller legendariske figurers gerninger og eventyr eller en nations historie. & Quot 3 Generelt indeholder et af nøgleelementerne en samspil mellem guder og dødelige. Der er også et eksplicit tema, der ser på grundlæggelsen af ​​en kultur, enten i den samlede verden, en by eller en civilisation.

I tilfælde af Gilgamesh er det meget interessant for kerneelementerne, der inkorporerer et epos. For eksempel er der mødet mellem den primitive (Enkidu) med den civiliserede (Gilgamesh). Der er et billede af evolution, hvor Enkidu ser på at komme ind i civilisationen - og gennemgå en overgang mellem livet i naturen kontra livet i byen kontra livet med guderne. Der er en væsentlig vigtig tilskrives rollen som det guddommelige og den rolle, som guder spiller i enten den succes eller fiaskoer, som både Enkidu og Gilgamesh oplever. (Se også afsnittet om & quotDivine Intervention & quot).

Et spørgsmål, der opstår med analysen af ​​Epics, er den episke heltes rolle. Hvilke elementer ville i dette tilfælde være nødvendige for at Gilgamesh kunne klassificeres som en helt? I et meget berømt litterært værk skriver Joseph Campbell i "The Hero of a Thousand Faces",

En helt begiver sig ud fra almindelig dag i en region med overnaturlig undren: fabelagtige kræfter støder på, og en afgørende sejr vindes: helten vender tilbage fra dette mystiske eventyr med magten til at skænke sine medmennesker velsignelser. 4

Med dette bliver det klart, at Gilgamesh bestemt repræsenterer en helt. Han tager på eventyr og søger at finde udødelighed. Han ender ikke med at lykkes, men han kommer i stedet tilbage og indser, at en af ​​hans største legender har været at efterlade byen, som den har gjort krav på, og brugt alle disse år på at udvikle og bygge. Byen er hans meget & quotboon & quot til sin medmenneske. Under et epos gennemgår helten også normalt en karakterovergang og vækst, og i dette tilfælde gennemgår Gilgamesh også forskellige karakterudviklinger og forbedringer.


Deo Proximo

Epic of Gilgamesh, er måske den første historie, der er skrevet ned. Den tidligste version af den blev skrevet på sumeriske tabletter, skrevet i cuniform, fundet i Nippur i Mesopotamien, og den blev skrevet ned omkring 2000 f.Kr. Forfatteren til den originale historie er ukendt, og historien blev omarbejdet af forskellige kulturer i Mesopotamien, herunder sumererne, akkadierne, babylonierne og assyrerne. Den standard syntetiske version er den 12 tablette akkadiske version af digtet, der findes på 25.000 tabletbiblioteket i den assyriske konge Ashurbanipal (668-627) f.Kr. i Nineveh. Epic of Gilgamesh er baseret på kong Gilgamesh af Uruk i omkring 2700 f.Kr. Gilgamesh -eposet er vigtigt af to grunde. Den første er, at det er den første historie, der nogensinde er skrevet, og den anden er, at den har paralleller med oversvømmelseshistorien i Første Mosebog. Mange akademikere og andre mennesker har konkluderet, at forfatterne af Første Mosebog havde plageriseret Gilgamesh -eposet, og dette har givet modstandere af Bibelen. Men at foreslå, at forfatterne af Første Mosebog plageriserede Gilgamesh -eposet er forenklet, fordi de fleste civilisationer og religioner tager historier, viden, skrift, begreber osv. Fra andre civilisationer og tidligere civilisationer og omarbejdningen af ​​Gilgamesh -eposet af forskellige civilisationer i Mesopotamien er et godt eksempel på det.

For eksempel har den buddhistiske religion mange elementer fra den hinduistiske religion, fordi den kom ud af hinduismen i den region, hvor den startede. Et andet eksempel er, at aztekernes civilisation i Mellemamerika havde mange elementer fra den tidligere maya -civilisation, og Maya -civilisationen tog ligeledes ting fra civilisationer, der kom før den. Den romerske civilisation tog mange ting fra den græske civilisation, og romerne havde taget så mange elementer fra de gamle grækere, at det blev kaldt det græsk -romerske imperium. Men grækerne selv tog ting fra den phoneciske civilisation, især bogstaverne.

Ingen civilisation opstår uafhængigt og isoleret fra andre civilisationer, fortid og nutid til den. Hvis mennesker i en civilisation ser noget, de kan lide i en anden civilisation, vil de oftere end ikke tage det og assimilere det i deres egen kultur. Selv de mennesker, der skabte statuerne på Påskeøen, som var den mest isolerede civilisation på Jorden, kom ud af den polynesiske kultur og beholdt elementer af den. En civilisation, der bliver påvirket af en anden civilisation, fortid og nutid, og vedtager elementer af den, kaldes emergent symbiose. Ordet emergent betyder, at det altid udvikler sig, forfiner ting og tilføjer flere detaljer til tidligere viden og ordet symbiose betyder, at civilisationer påvirker og tager ting fra hinanden. Når en civilisation tager en historie fra en anden civilisation, vil de normalt ændre detaljer og temaer for steder og mennesker for at matche den kultur, de er i, men kernen i historien vil forblive.

Ligheden mellem Første Mosebog og Epos om Gilgamesh er en spirende symbiose og ikke plagerisme. Første Mosebog har tilføjet flere detaljer, og der er mange elementer i den, der ikke er i Gilgamesh -eposet. Slangen i Tablet XI i Gilgamesh -eposet viser sig f.eks. Kun kort, men i Første Mosebog har slangen meget mere etail og symbolik omkring sig, så forfatteren af ​​Genesis Bog forfinede historien om slange og tilføjede flere detaljer til den. Slangen i Gilgamesh -eposet og Første Mosebog vil blive diskuteret senere.

I Første Mosebog nævnes det, at patriarken Abraham kom fra Sumerien fra byen Ur, og som beskrevet på siden, Melkisedeks orden, var Abraham fra eliten i denne by. Det er ikke overraskende, at der ville være nogle sumeriske elementer i Første Mosebog, og det er det, spirende symbiose handler om.

Det overordnede tema for Gilgamesh -eposet er en degeneration af menneskeheden, meget som Første Mosebog. Dette er et punkt, som akademikere og andre forskere ser ud til at savne. I starten af ​​Gilgamesh -eposet er hovedpersonen og hans ven, Enkidu, 2 tredjedels gud, 1 tredjemand, med supermenneskelige kræfter og intelligens. På deres rejse fældede de et træ, der når himlen, Daniels Bog har et lignende billede, og de dræber himlens tyr, som kunne repræsentere Taurus tidsalder. Gilgamesh -eposet blev skrevet i Taurus tidsalder, og det nævner precessionsnummeret 72, der normalt er en kode i mange kulturer, som en historie eller et billede har et pressionelt tema for sig. Se kapitlet kaldet Osiris Numbers in Fingerprints of the Gods af Graham Hancock for at forstå betydningen af ​​tallet 72. Fældning af træet, der når himlen, tyder på, at de afskærer sig fra himlen. I slutningen af ​​Gilgamesh -eposet mister Gilgamesh sin udødelighed, når slangen stjæler den plante, der giver ham udødelighed, hvilket ligner det, der skete i Første Mosebog.

En anden grund til, at Gilgamesh -eposet er vigtigt, er, at mens der er mere end 500 oversvømmelsesbutikker over hele verden, hvoraf 62 er helt uafhængige af MEsopotamian og hebraiske beretninger, er Gilgamesh -epos den første, der er registreret. Oversvømmelsesmyter kan have været videregivet verbalt før det, og Gilgamesh -eposet kan selv have været påvirket af en oversvømmelseshistorie, der er gået mundtligt igennem, men der er ikke beviser for det. De første få linjer i Gilgamesh -eposet tyder helt sikkert på, at forfatteren vidste, at han var den første, der skrev en oversvømmelseshistorie ned.

Den, der har set alt, vil jeg gøre landene bekendt med. Jeg vil lære om ham, der oplevede alle ting,. på samme måde gav Anu ham den samlede viden om alle. Han så hemmeligheden, opdagede det skjulte, han bragte oplysninger om (tiden) før oversvømmelsen. Han tog på en fjern rejse og pressede sig selv til udmattelse, men blev derefter bragt til fred. Han huggede alle sine slid på en stenstela.

Arten af ​​Gilgamesh og Enkidu.

Epic of Gilgamesh gør det klart, at Gilgamesh og Enkidu er overmenneskelige, der også er 2 tredjedele gud, 1 tredjedel mennesker. Der er en dobbelt natur mellem Gilgamesh og Enkidu, Gilgamesh er civiliseret og er hersker over en by, hvorimod Enkidu er vild og lever sammen med dyrene og opfører sig som dem. Selvom Gilgamesh og Enkidu har meget forskellige baggrunde, bliver de meget tætte venner, de er ligesom Yin og Yang.

Denne del taler om Gilgamesh, "Højeste i forhold til andre konger, herrelig i udseende, han er helten, født af Uruk, den vildsomme vildtyr. Gilgamesh er stærk til perfektion,. Gilgamesh er fantastisk til perfektion. To-thrids af ham er gud, en tredjedel af ham er menneske ... Som en vild tyr gør han sig mægtig, hovedet hævet (over andre). Der er ingen rival, der kan løfte sit våben mod ham. "

Enkidu, der bliver Gilgameshs ven i det episke, er også ligesom Gilgamesh: "Far, en bestemt fyr er kommet fra bjergene. Han er den mægtigste i landet, hans styrke er lige så mægtig som meteoritten Anu!"

Gilgamesh og Enkidu var giganter.

I mange kulturer og religioner er der historier om giganter, især Goliath og Nemphilim i Bibelen, og Epic of Gilgamesh har også sine egne giganter i den.

Hyrderne samledes rundt omkring ham, de undrede sig over sig selv: "Hvordan ungdommen ligner Gilgamesh-høj i statur og tårner sig op til kantene over muren!" . Med Enkidu som vagt kunne hyrderne lægge sig. En vågen mand, en unik ungdom, han var dobbelt så høj som normale mænd.

Himlens tyr.

"han er helten, født af Uruk, den vildsomme vildtyr. Som en vild tyr gør han sig mægtig. som strutter sin magt over menneskene som en vild tyr."

"Og den drøm, jeg havde-så slående, så. Så foruroligende! Jeg kæmpede med en vild tyr i ørkenen, med bælgen splittede han jorden, en støvsky. Til himlen ... Min ven, guden til hvem vi går, er ikke vildtyren? Han er helt anderledes? Den vilde tyr, du så, er shamash, beskytteren, i vanskeligheder holder han vores hånd. "

Denne særlige passage er interessant, fordi den identificerer shamash eller solguden med at være en tyr. Hvorfor identificerer denne passage solen med at være en tyr? Fordi det repræsenterer Taurusens alder, da Gilgamesh -eposet blev skrevet. En astrologi defineres, når Solen stiger op til et tegn på stjernetegn ved forårsjævndøgn. Solen vil stige ind i stjernetegnet på forårsjævndøgn i lidt over 2000 år, og tegnet på, at Solen stiger op, vil være den alder, verden vil være i.

Tablet VI i Gilgamesh -eposet handler om, at Ishtar sender himlens tyr ned for at dræbe Gilgamesh for at have fornærmet hende, men Gilgamesh ender med at dræbe det i stedet. Drabet på Himmelens Tyr kan repræsentere afslutningen på Taurus tidsalder. Gilgamesh -eposet blev skrevet af de tidlige babylonere, der stadig talte det gamle sumeriske sprog, og dette epos blev skrevet i begyndelsen af ​​Aeries -tiden.

Ishtar talte til sin far, Anu, og sagde: "Far, giv mig Himlens Tyr, så han kan dræbe Gilgamesh i hans bolig ... Da Anu hørte hendes ord, lagde han himlens tyr noserope i hendes hånd. Ishtar førte tyrhimmelen ned til jorden. Da den nåede Uruk, klatrede den ned til Eufrat. Ved snørren fra tyren af ​​himlen åbnede en kæmpe hul sig, og 100 unge mænd fra Uruk faldt i. Ved hans anden snorret kom en kæmpe grube åbnede sig, og Unge Mænd fra Uruk faldt i. Ved hans tredje snort åbnede en kæmpe hul sig, og Enkidu faldt ind til hans talje. Så sprang Enkidu ud og greb Himmelens Tyr ved dens horn. Tyren spyttede sin spyt ind foran ham,. Enkidu forfulgte og jagtede Himlens Tyr. Han greb den i tykkelsen af ​​halen og holdt fast i den med begge hænder, mens Gilgamesh, ligesom og ekspert slagter, modigt og sikkert nærmede sig Himlens tyr. Mellem nakken, hornene og. Han stak sit sværd. Efter at de havde dræbt Himlens tyr, rev de det ud kunst og præsenterede den for Shamash.

I denne del af Tablet VI ser det ud til at nævne et andet precessionsnummer, efter at himlens tyr er blevet dræbt.

(Alle) håndværkerne beundrede tykkelsen af ​​dets horn, hver fremstillet af 30 minas lapis lazuli!

Tallet 30 er antallet af grader i en forudgående alder, og dette tal nævnes, efter at himlens tyr er blevet slagtet. Tallet 30 er også fremtrædende i Det Nye Testamente med Jesus forrådt for 30 sølvstykker.

Fældningen af ​​Cedertræet, der nåede himlen.

"De stod ved skovkanten og stirrede på toppen af ​​Cedertræet. Så så de Cedertræet, gudernes bolig. På tværs af bjerget frembragte Cedar luksuriøst folie, dets skygge var god, ekstremt behageligt. "

Efter at have dræbt Humbaba, der vogter skoven med Cedertræet, fældede de Cedertræet, "De skar gennem Cedertræet, Mens Gilgamesh fældede træerne, søgte Enkidu gennem urmazallu. Enkidu henvendte sig til Gilgamesh og sagde:" Min ven, vi har skåret den tårnhøje Cedar ned, hvis top skraber himlen. Lav af den en dør 72 alen høj, 24 alen bred, en alen tyk,. Lad dem bære det til Nippur, Eufrat vil bære det ned, Nippur vil glæde sig. "

Cedertræet, hvis top skraber himlen, kan repræsentere, at Jorden er forbundet med himlen. Bibelen anvender et lignende billede i Daniel 4: 10-16, hvor kong Nebukadnesar repræsenterede et træ, der nåede himlen i en drøm, men det blev hugget ned, og kong Nebukadnesar udviklede et dyrs sind. Da kong Nebukadnesar udviklede sindet på et dyr, mistede han forbindelsen til himlen. Træet, der når himlen i Gilgamesh -eposet og Bibelen, kan have den samme betydning. Se siden kaldet The Babel Tower for at lære mere om begrebet, hvad betydningen af ​​tårnet og træet, der når himlen, handler om.

Den anden interessante del af denne passage er, at den omtaler precessionsnummeret 72, som også optræder i mange andre kulturer. 24 er også et precessionsnummer, det består af 2 gange 12. Kapitlet kaldet The Osiris Numbers i bogen Fingeraftryk af guderne af Graham Hancock går ind på dette emne i mange detaljer. Tallet 72 er antallet af år, det tager at flytte 1 grad af recession, og det er inkluderet i Epic of Gilgamesh, som er den første historie, der er skrevet, kan indikere, at Epic of Gilgamesh har et pressionelt tema. Dette forstærkes af betydningen af ​​himmelens tyr i Gilgamesh -eposet og med, hvordan Gilgamesh og solguden Shamesh også kaldes tyre. Tyren i Gilgamesh -eposet repræsenterer Taurusens alder, det var da denne historie blev skrevet.

12 astrologiske tidsaldre, der førte til en sumerisk Edens Have?

I Tablet IX skal Gilgamesh gennem bjergene i mørke i 12 ligaer for at komme til en smuk have, der er i lys. I betragtning af at Epic of Gilgamesh nævner præessionelle tal som 72 og Himmelens Tyr repræsenterer Taurusens alder, så kan mørkets 12 ligaer repræsentere de 12 astrologiske tidsaldre. De 12 ligaer i mørket kan repræsentere, at den fysiske verden er åndeligt mørk, det vil sige blottet for lys, og i slutningen af ​​det kommer Gilgamesh ud af det til det strålende lys ind i en smuk have. Grunden til, at Gilgamesh rejser gennem de 12 mørkebjerge, er for at møde oversvømmelseshelten og hans forfader, Utnapishtim, der overlevede syndfloden, for at få udødelighed.

"Jeg er kommet på grund af min forfader Utnapishtim, der sluttede sig til gudernes forsamling og fik evigt liv. Om død og liv må jeg spørge ham!" Skorpionvæsnet talte til Gilgamesh. siger: "Aldrig har der været, Gilgamesh, en dødelig mand, der kunne gøre det. Ingen er krydset gennem bjergene, for tolv ligaer er det mørke igennem-tæt er mørket, og lys er der ingen."

Springe videre til slutningen af ​​rejsen gennem bjergene, "Elleve ligaer rejste han og kom ud før solen (stå op). Tolv ligaer rejste han, og det blev strålende.. Det bærer lapis lazuli som løv og bærer frugt, en fryd for se på."

Femogtyve linjer, der beskriver haven i detaljer, mangler, men resten af ​​den, som er duftende, viser, at den er et paradis, ". Cedertræ. Agat. Af havet. Lapis lazuli, som torner og brænder. Karneol, rubiner, hæmatit . som. smaragder. "

Tablet X nævner tallet 360, eller 300 og 60. 360 er det samlede antal grader i precessionscyklussen på 26 000 år og i betragtning af det faktum, at Gilgamesh -epos har andre precessionsnumre, som 72, tyder på, at denne passage i Tablet X handler om 360 grader i den forudgående cyklus.

"Gilgamesh, tag øksen i din hånd, gå ned i skoven, og fæld 300 stangstænger hver 60 alen i længden."

Den sumeriske Atlantis og den tabte istidens landmasse i Den Persiske Golf.

Tablet XI giver et fingerpeg om, hvor Utnapishtim er, det er, hvad han siger til Gilgamesh, efter at han fortalte ham om oversvømmelseshistorien, "Enlil gik op inde i båden og fik mig til at gå op. Han lod min kone gå op og knælede ved min side. Han rørte ved vores pande og stod imellem os og velsignede os: Tidligere var Utnapishtim et menneske. Men lad nu Utnapishtim og hans kone blive som os, guderne! Lad Utnapishtim bo langt væk, ved Flodernes mund. ' De tog os langt væk og bosatte os ved flodens mund. " Henviser flodmundingen til mundingen af ​​floderne Tigris og Euphraties? Var det ikke her Edens Have og de sumeriske byer lå?

Måske er Utnapishtim, som Gilgamesh stammer fra, fra et af de andre områder af landmasse, der lå over vandet i istiden.

Arkæologer ignorerer elefanten i stuen, som er de ekstra landområder, der eksisterede under istiden. For arkæologerne fungerede disse ekstra landområder som landbroer, der tillod mennesker at kolonisere alle dele af verden, men de overvejer ikke, at mennesker, der levede på disse ekstra landområder, før de blev nedsænket under havet. To the archaelogists and other people who study the pre historic world these extra areas of land are insignificant and they have no relevance the the history of Man and no one, aside from alternative researchers, is interested in investigating these extra areas of land and since most historians presume that pre historic man was primitive and uncivilized they never consider the fact that there maybe man made monuments in these areas which have been submerged. Is it a coincidence that the cradle of civilization started at the top of the landmass that was submerged at the end of the ice age? Since civilizations tend to be close to water, if there was a civilization in the Mesopotamian area in the ice age it would have been on the landmass that was exposed in the Persian Gulf. Archaeologists don't consider the fact that the rise in sea levels at the end of the ice age had an effect on the emergence of civilization, or to put it another way, the remergence of civilization.

The Dilmun civilization was in the region of the Persian Gulf during this time period and it traded between the Sumerian and Indian civilizations. It is thought that the Dilmun civilization was located on Bahrain, but this website says that the Dilmun civilization was located within the Persian Gulf itself in a time period where there was less water with fertile areas that would have allowed people to settle down and develop culture. This area existed from about 100 000 to 8000 years ago:

The maps below shows the rivers and lakes that existed in the landmass that was covered over by water, this place was more than habitable. The general rule is that people live near water and they would've lived on this landmass.

The question of why the cradle of civilization started in this part of the world is stated in the Epic of Gilgamesh itself, it's not that civilization emerged in Mesopotamia, it moved to Mesopotamia. But from where? If that question can be answered definitively then what happened in prehistory will become clear and will no longer be murky anymore. There will be a connection between history and the prehistoric world and the 5000 year old "Berlin Wall" of ignorance, that separates history and prehistory will crumble.

The Matrix theme.

In Tablet X Gilgamesh meets the flood hero Utnapishtim and there is a statement in Tablet X that correlates with statements in other writings like the Gnostic gospels where it compares being in the body to the soul being asleep. Also the Book of Genesis says that Adam went into a deep sleep but it never says he woke up out of it. This is the statement that Utnapishtim makes to Gilgamesh, "How alike are the sleeping and the dead." There is a similar statement in Matthew 9:23, "Go away. The girl is not dead but asleep." Tablet X shows that Gilgamesh is at the end of his life and Utnapishtim seems to be describing the physical world to him.

"Through toil you wear yourself out, you fill your body with grief, your long lifetime you are bringing near (to a premature end)! Mankind, whose offshoot is snapped off like a reed in a canebreak, the fine youth and lovely girl . death. No one can see death, no one can see the face of death, no one can hear the voice of death, yet there is savage death that snaps off mankind. . The face that could gaze upon the face of the Sun has never existed ever. How alike are the sleeping and the dead. The image of Death cannot be depicted. (Yes, you are a) human being, a man! After Enlil had pronounced the blessing, the Anunnaki, the Great Gods, assembled. Mammetum, she who forms destiny, determined destiny with them. They established Death and Life, but they did not make known 'the days of death."

In Tablet XI, after the flood story told by Utnapishtim to Gilgamesh, the theme of sleep and life occurs again and this occurs just before the snake steals the plant that will give Gilgamesh immortality. This passage also occurs in the area where the Garden of Eden was said to have been and the numbers 6 and 7 also occur in it, just like in the Book of Genesis. This is the passage, "Now then, who will convene the gods on your behalf, that you may find the life that you are seeking! Wait! You must not lie down for six days and seven nights." soon as he sat down (with his head) between his legs sleep, like a fog, blew upon him. Utnapishtim said to his wife: "Look there! The man, the youth who wanted (eternal) life! Sleep, like a fog, blew over him." This passage seems to be saying that sleep denied Gilgamesh immortality. In the Book of Genesis Adam was put into a deep sleep, but Genesis never said he woke up, and then he loses his immortality because of a snake as well.

The flood story and the breaking up of the continents.

Most people who have read the flood story in Tablet XI in the Epic of Gilgamesh fail to notice that there was something else happening on the Earth beside the flood and this matches what Plato said about what happened to Atlantis. The Epic of Gilgamesh says that there was severe tectonic activity with the continents breaking up. This is what is meant by the statement that "The. land shattered like a. pot." Plato said that Atlantis sunk beneath the sea in a single day, it wasn't the city of Atlantis that sunk but the whole continent it was on that sunk. The statement that "The Annunaki lifted up the torches, setting the land ablaze with their flare." may refer to lava coming out of the ground all over the world. If the continents were breaking up like a pot being shattered, then it would make sense that there would be lots of lava coming out and volcanic activity because of that. If there's lots of volcanic activity all over the world then that would put enormous amounts of volcanic ash into the atmosphere and that would explain the next statement, "and turn to blackness all that had been light." Tablet XI then says, "All day long the South Wind blew . blowing fast, submerging the mountain in water, overwhelming the people like an attack." If the continents were breaking up and submerging then a mountain could be submerged in the water. The flood story in the Epic of Gilgamesh isn't just a flood story, it is a story about the breaking up of continents and sinking into the sea. Massive rainfall by itself wouldn't flood the world, the continents breaking up and servere disturbances in the tectonic plates are what caused the flood.

There wasn't any volcanic eruptions or lava coming out of the ground in Mesopotamia in the time period when the Epic of Gilgamesh was written or in any other period of the ancient world. They didn't have lots of volcanic ash in the atmosphere that made everything dark, like in Pompeii. They may have had Earthquakes but there are no cracks in the ground like the San Andreas fault in California and the statement that "The. land shattered like a. pot." certaintly sounds like it's talking about the land cracking up in many places. Where did the writer of the Epic of Gilgamesh get the idea of describing severe seismic activity? If there was severe seismic activity very far back in the past before the Epic of Gilgamesh was written descriptions of those events could've been passed down orally for thousands of years so the writer of the Epic of Gilgamesh could have described lava, volcanic activity and the land shattering without ever seeing any such things.

There's another flood story that also talks about the Sun disappearing because of the volcanic ash in the atmosphere. Japan has known underwater megaliths at Yonaguni which would have only been above water in the ice age and the Shinto religion in Japan has it's own flood story that involves the Sun disappearing after the sea levels rise. The thing that Japan has in common with Mesopotamia is that they both have very ancient cultures that go back well into the prehistoric world. The Jomon culture in Japan is 16 000 years old and they were making intricate pottery during that time period, but strangley enough the Jomon culture hardly gets any attention in the West. There's no mention of them in the school history books and there hasn't been that many documentaries made about them. This is a culture that goes right back into the prehistoric world but because it doesn't fit into the historical paradigm of the West that prehistoric people were dumb half human, half apes who couldn't possibly have civilization and because Western historians are Eurocentric in general they don't give the Jomon any attention.

This is the flood story in Tablet XI as recounted by Utnapishtim to Gilgamesh.

"I watched the appearance of the wearther--the weather was frightful to behold! I went into the boat and sealed the entry. For the caulking of the boat, to Puzuramurri, the boatman, I gave the palace together with its contents. Just as dawn began to glow there arose from the horizon a black cloud. . Erragal pulled out the mooring poles, forth went Ninurta and made the dikes overflow. The Annunaki lifted up the torches, setting the land ablaze with their flare. Stunned shock over Adad's deeds overtook the heavens, and turned to blackness all that had been light. The. land shattered like a. pot. All day long the South Wind blew . blowing fast, submerging the mountain in water, overwhelming the people like an attack. No one could see his fellow, they could not recognize each other in the torrent. The gods were frightened by the Flood, and retreated, ascending to the heaven of Anu. The gods were cowering like dogs, crounching by the outer wall. Ishtar shrieked like a woman in childbirth, the sweet-voiced Mistress of the Gods wailed: 'The olden days have alas turned to clay, because I said evil things in the Assembly of the Gods! How could I say evil things in the Assembly of the Gods, ordering a catastrophe to destroy my people! No sooner have I given birth to my dear people than they fill the sea like so many fish! The gods--those of the Annunaki--were weeping with her, the gods humbly sat weeping, sobbing with grief, their lips burning, parched with thirst. Six days and seven nights came the wind and flood, the storm flattening the land. When the seventh day arrived, the storm was pounding, the flood was a war--struggling with itself like a woman writhing (in labor). The sea calmed, fell still, the whrilwind (and) flood stopped up. I looked around all day long--quiet had set in and all the human beings had turned to clay! The terrain was as flat as a roof. I opened a vent and fresh air (daylight!) fell upon the side of my nose. I fell to my knees and sat weeping, tears streaming down the side of my nose. I looked around for coastlines in the expanse of the sea, and at twelve leagues there emerged a region (of land). On Mt. Nimush the boat lodged firm, Mt. Nimush held the boat, allowing no sway. One day and a second Mt. Nimush held the boat, allowing no sway. A third day, a fourth, Mt. Nimush held the boat, allowing no sway. A fifth day, a sixth, Mt. Nimush held the boat, allowing no sway. When a seventh day arrived I sent forth a dove and released it. The dove went off, but came back to me no perch was visible so it circled back to me I sent forth a swallow and released it. The swallow went off, but came back to me no perch was visible so it circled back to me. I sent forth a raven and released it. The raven went off, and saw the waters slither back. It eats, it scratches, it bobs, but does not circle back to me. Then I sent out everything in all directions and sacrificed (a sheep). I offered incense in front of the mountain-ziggurat. Seven and seven cult vessels I put in place, and (into the fire) underneath (or: into their bowls) I poured reeds, cedar, and myrtle. The gods smelled the savor, the gods smelled the sweet savor, and collected like flies over a (sheep) sacrifice."

The parts in this flood story that says, "Ishtar shriked like a woman in childbirth, . the flood was a war--struggling with itself like a woman writhing (in labor)." is similar to a passage in Matthew 24:3-9, "What will be the signal for your coming and the end of this world? . You will hear of wars and rumours of wars-but don't be alarmed. Such things must indeed happen, but that is not the end. For one nation will rise in arms against another, and one kingdom against another, and there will be famines and earthquakes in different parts of the world. But all that is only the beginning of the birth-pangs." The Epic of Gilgamesh and the Bible both compare the end of a world to a woman in labor. The end of one world is the birth of another.

The snake that steals the plant that can give Gilgamesh immortality.

At the end of Tablet XI of the Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh is told get a plant that can give him immortality but the snake steals that plant and now he will die like everyone else. The snake in the Book of Genesis is also responsible for removing the immortality of Adam and Eve, except in Genesis more detail has been added in with the snake. This page explains the symbolism in the Book of Genesis in more detail. This is the passage in Tablet XI that talks about the snake, "Utnapishtim spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: "Gilgamesh, you came here exhausted and worn out. What can I give you so you can return to your land? I will disclose to you a thing that is hidden, Gilgamesh, a. I will tell you. There is a plant. like a boxthorn, whose thorns will prick your hand like a rose. If your hands reach that plant you will become a young man again." Hearing this, Gilgamesh opened a conduit (to the Apsu) and attached heavy stones to his feet. They dragged him down, to the Apsu they pulled him. He took the plant, though it pricked his hand, and cut the heavy stones from his feet, letting the waves throw him onto its shores. Gilgamesh spoke to Urshanabi, the ferryman, saying: "Urshanabi, this plant is a plant against decay! by which a man can attain his survival!. I will bring it to Uruk-Haven, and have an old man eat the plant to test it. The plant's name is 'The Old Man Becomes a Young Man.'" At twenty leagues they broke for some food, at thirty leagues they stopped for the night. Seeing a spring and how cool its waters were, Gilgamesh went down and was bathing in the water. A snake smelled the fragrance of the plant, Silently came up and carried off the plant. While going back it sloughed off its casing."

The map on the left shows the extra land mass, shown in brown that existed in the ice age. The Persian Gulf used to be free of water, the whole Gulf was a large landmass. The flooding of this landmass may explain the sudden emergence of the Sumerian civilization fully formed with 100 of the worlds firsts without a gradual development over time. Does the statement by Utnapishtim in Tablet XI, which says, "Let Utnapishtim reside far away, at the Mouth of the Rivers.' They took us far away and settled us at the Mouth of the Rivers.", mean that Utnapishtim and his wife relocated from a landmass that disappeared and moved to the mouth of the rivers where the Sumerican civilization first started?

This map shows three early civilizations, Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civiization. These three civilizations are in close poximity to each other, but in the ice age, these civilizations or the people on them were even closer to each other, especially considering the fact that the Persian Gulf was one big landmass and any people there would've lived near the sea. The Indus Valley civilization in India is an early civilization that was like Egypt and Sumeria, and this civilization pre dates the Vedas and it was distinctly different to the later Indian civilization. The underwater city Dwarka is off the coastline of where the Indus Valley civilization was.


APPENDIX: SOURCES

THE main sources for this version of the Epic have already been given (see pp. 50&mdash57 ff.). Full bibliographies will be found in Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, edited by James B. Pritchard, and Gilgame&scaron et sa légende, Cahiers du Groupe François-Thureau-Dangin, and in the Reallexikon der Assyriologie what follows here is a short note on the distribution of the material between the different tablets.

(i) The Sumerian poem &lsquoGilgamesh and the Land of the Living&rsquo text from fourteen tablets found at Nippur, one at Kish, and two of unknown provenance, giving 175 lines extant. All date from the first half of the second millennium. The following incidents are covered: the friendship of the Lord Gilgamesh and his servant Enkidu, the need to set up a lasting name, entreaty of Utu (Shamash), who appoints supernatural helpers, arming of Gilgamesh and Enkidu, departure with fifty companions, felling of the cedar, Gilgamesh overcome with weakness, dusk on the mountain, dialogue with Enkidu, Huwawa (Humbaba) found in his house, Gilgamesh uproots trees, goes to the house of Huwawa who pleads for his life and is refused on the advice of Enkidu, Huwawa is killed and his body presented to a furious Enlil. Here the Sumerian text breaks off.

(ii) The Sumerian &lsquoDeath of Gilgamesh&rsquo is still very fragmentary and it is not clear what is its relation to the other Gilgamesh poems, and especially to &lsquoGilgamesh and the Land of the Living&rsquo. The text followed here is taken from the three tablets found at Nippur, dated to the first half of the second millennium. Two fragments, &lsquoA&rsquo and &lsquoB&rsquo, give Enlil&rsquos &lsquoDestiny&rsquo of Gilgamesh, and the lament for the dead king and account of the funeral offerings but recently Professor Kramer has identified other fragments which indicate that the &lsquoDeath&rsquo was inscribed on a tablet with at least 450 lines.

(iii) Old Babylonian versions, dating from the first dynasty of Babylon, first half of the second millennium: the so-called &lsquoPennsylvania Tablet&rsquo gives the coming of Enkidu and the dreams of Gilgamesh concerning him. The &lsquoYale Tablet&rsquo has the preparation for the forest journey up to the departure from Uruk.The &lsquoMeissner&rsquo fragment, from Sippar, gives the Siduri episode and the meeting with the ferryman Sursunabu (Urshanabi). An independent publication of the Old Babylonian material was made by M. Jastrow and A. T. Clay in 1920 as An Old Babylonian Version of the Epic of Gilgamesh. Recently another Old Babylonian fragment from Tell I&scarončali has been published by T. Bauer (see now Ancient Near Eastern Texts referring to the Old Testament). It deals with the death of Humbaba and does not differ from the Sumerian account so much as do the later Akkadian versions. From the Ur tablets in the British Museum (UET VI), we now have a slightly fuller Middle Babylonian version of Enkidu&rsquos sickness: C. J. Gadd, Irak, 28, 1966, 105&mdash21 and Old Babylonian fragments (published by A. R. Millard, Irak, 26, 1964, 99) provide some additions to Tablet IX.

(iv) Hittite version, from tablets found at Boghazköy in central Anatolia, dated to the middle of the second millennium these contain fragments of the description of Gilgamesh and of his endowments, the forest episode with the felling of the cedar, Enkidu&rsquos dream when he is sick and dying, and part of the journey to find Utnapishtim with the Siduri incident and the meeting with Urshanabi. From this point the story appears to diverge widely from other versions. The translation was published by J. Friedrich in the Zeitschrift für Assyriologie, 39, 1929, and H. Otten, Instanbuler Mitteilungen 8, 1958, 93&mdash125. Another fragment from the Hittite tablets from Boghazköy (KUB VIII, 48, 1924) published now by R. Stefanini, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 28, 1968, gives a slightly different version of the Council of Gods in Enkidu&rsquos deathbed dream.

(v) A Hurrian language fragment, also from Boghazköy, gives part of the journey to Utnapishtim. It was published in the Zeitschrift für Assyriologie, 35, 1923.

(vi) Semitic versions. An Akkadian version was used in the Hittite Empire and fragments have been found at Boghazköy but the fullest of all versions is the Assyrian. Originally it was written on twelve tablets of six columns and approximately three hundred lines to each tablet parts of all twelve still exist. Nearly all are from the palace library at Nineveh, and are seventh century B.C. Based on earlier material, these cover all the incidents of the story up to the return from the search for Utnapishtim. The material is divided as follows: Tablet I, the descriptions of Gilgamesh and of Enkidu up to the end of Gilgamesh&rsquos second dream concerning Enkidu. Tablet II, very fragmentary, probably covered the encounter of Gilgamesh and Enkidu and the first mention of the cedar forest. Tablet III, also very fragmentary, probably has Gilgamesh&rsquos interviews with the counsellors, with Ninsun, and the commission to Enkidu. Tablet IV, of which only a few lines survive, probably covered the journey to the forest and the arrival at the gate. Tablet V had the description of the forest, the dreams on the mountain, and probably the meeting with and killing of Humbaba.Tablet VI had the encounter of Gilgamesh and Ishtar, the incident of the Bull of Heaven, and the beginning of Enkidu&rsquos sickness.Tablet VII had Enkidu&rsquos sickness continued, his dreams and death. Tablet VIII had the lament over Enkidu and probably a description of the funeral.Tablet IX covers Gilgamesh&rsquos journey to find Utnapishtim up to the meeting with Sidur.Tablet X covers the Siduri incident, Urshanabi, and the finding of Utnapishtim. Tablet XI is the fullest and best preserved of all, with over three hundred extant lines. It describes the Deluge, the testings of Gilgamesh, and his return to Uruk. There is no death of Gilgamesh in the Assyrian recension, and the twelfth and last tablet recounts a separate incident, an alternative to the death of Enkidu as recounted in Tablet VII. Tablet XII is a direct translation from a Sumerian original, which has also survived in part. The relationship between the two has been discussed by Prof. Kramer in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, 64, 1944 and by several writers, especially L. Matou&scaron in Gilgame&scaron et sa légende.

(vii) The Sultantepe Akkadian fragment. This was excavated by Mr Seton Lloyd and Bay Nuri Gökçe in 1951. Two one-column tablets were found, one a fragment with Enkidu&rsquos sickness, and the other with Gilgamesh&rsquos lament over Enkidu and probably also a description of the funeral, and the statue of Enkidu raised by Gilgamesh. Although very short, both fragments fill gaps in the Nineveh recension from which they differ slightly, and Dr Gurney, who has published them in the Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 8, 1954, and Anatolske studier, II, 1952, thinks they are schoolboys&rsquo work with characteristic mistakes.


Ancient Babylonia by R. Russell

2 Kin 24:13-14 "And Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon carried out from there all the treasures of the house of the LORD and the treasures of the king's house, and he cut in pieces all the articles of gold which Solomon king of Israel had made in the temple of the LORD, as the LORD had said. Also he carried into captivity all Jerusalem: all the captains and all the mighty men of valor, ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and smiths. None remained except the poorest people of the land."


The Institute for Creation Research

The Epic of Gilgamesh has been of interest to Christians ever since its discovery in the mid-nineteenth century in the ruins of the great library at Nineveh, with its account of a universal flood with significant parallels to the Flood of Noah's day. 1, 2 The rest of the Epic, which dates back to possibly third millennium B.C., contains little of value for Christians, since it concerns typical polytheistic myths associated with the pagan peoples of the time. However, some Christians have studied the ideas of creation and the afterlife presented in the Epic. Even secular scholars have recognized the parallels between the Babylonian, Phoenician, and Hebrew accounts, although not all are willing to label the connections as anything more than shared mythology. 3

There have been numerous flood stories identified from ancient sources scattered around the world. 4 The stories that were discovered on cuneiform tablets, which comprise some of the earliest surviving writing, have obvious similarities. Cuneiform writing was invented by the Sumerians and carried on by the Akkadians. Babylonian and Assyrian are two dialects of the Akkadian, and both contain a flood account. While there are differences between the original Sumerian and later Babylonian and Assyrian flood accounts, many of the similarities are strikingly close to the Genesis flood account. 5 The Babylonian account is the most intact, with only seven of 205 lines missing. 6 It was also the first discovered, making it the most studied of the early flood accounts.

The Epic of Gilgamesh is contained on twelve large tablets, and since the original discovery, it has been found on others, as well as having been translated into other early languages. 7 The actual tablets date back to around 650 B.C. and are obviously not originals since fragments of the flood story have been found on tablets dated around 2,000 B.C. 8 Linguistic experts believe that the story was composed well before 2,000 B.C. compiled from material that was much older than that date. 9 The Sumerian cuneiform writing has been estimated to go as far back as 3,300 B.C. 10

The Epic was composed in the form of a poem. The main figure is Gilgamesh, who actually may have been an historical person. The Sumerian King List shows Gilgamesh in the first dynasty of Uruk reigning for 126 years. 11 This length of time is not a problem when compared with the age of the pre-flood patriarchs of the Bible. Indeed, after Gilgamesh, the kings lived a normal life span as compared with today. 12 The King List is also of interest as it mentions the flood specifically&mdash"the deluge overthrew the land." 13

The story starts by introducing the deeds of the hero Gilgamesh. He was one who had great knowledge and wisdom, and preserved information of the days before the flood. Gilgamesh wrote on tablets of stone all that he had done, including building the city walls of Uruk and its temple for Eanna. He was an oppressive ruler, however, which caused his subjects to cry out to the "gods" to create a nemesis to cause Gilgamesh strife. 14

After one fight, this nemesis&mdashEnkidu&mdashbecame best friends with Gilgamesh. The two set off to win fame by going on many dangerous adventures in which Enkidu is eventually killed. Gilgamesh then determines to find immortality since he now fears death. It is upon this search that he meets Utnapishtim, the character most like the Biblical Noah. 15

In brief, Utnapishtim had become immortal after building a ship to weather the Great Deluge that destroyed mankind. He brought all of his relatives and all species of creatures aboard the vessel. Utnapishtim released birds to find land, and the ship landed upon a mountain after the flood. The story then ends with tales of Enkidu's visit to the underworld. 16 Even though many similarities exist between the two accounts, there still are serious differences.

The table below presents a comparison of the main aspects of the two accounts of the flood as presented in the Book of Genesis and in the Epic of Gilgamesh.

Some comments need to be made about the comparisons in the table. Some of the similarities are very striking, while others are very general. The command for Utnapishtim to build the boat is remarkable: "O man of Shuruppak, son of Ubar-Tutu, tear down thy house, build a ship abandon wealth, seek after life scorn possessions, save thy life. Bring up the seed of all kinds of living things into the ship which thou shalt build. Let its dimensions be well measured." 17 The cause of the flood as sent in judgment on man's sins is striking also. The eleventh tablet, line 180 reads, "Lay upon the sinner his sin lay upon the transgressor his transgression." 18 A study of these parallels to Genesis 6-9, as well as the many others, demonstrate the non-coincidental nature of these similarities.

The meanings of the names of the heroes, however, have absolutely no common root or connection. Noah means "rest," while Utnapishtim means "finder of life." 19 Neither was perfect, but both were considered righteous and relatively faultless compared to those around them.

Utnapishtim also took a pilot for the boat, and some craftsmen, not just his family in the ark. It is also interesting that both accounts trace the landing spot to the same general region of the Middle East however, Mt. Ararat and Mt. Nisir are about 300 miles apart. The blessing that each hero received after the flood was also quite different. Utnapishtim was granted eternal life while Noah was to multiply and fill the earth and have dominion over the animals.

Conclusions

From the early days of the comparative study of these two flood accounts, it has been generally agreed that there is an obvious relationship. The widespread nature of flood traditions throughout the entire human race is excellent evidence for the existence of a great flood from a legal/historical point of view. 20 Dating of the oldest fragments of the Gilgamesh account originally indicated that it was older than the assumed dating of Genesis. 21 However, the probability exists that the Biblical account had been preserved either as an oral tradition, or in written form handed down from Noah, through the patriarchs and eventually to Moses, thereby making it actually older than the Sumerian accounts which were restatements (with alterations) to the original.

A popular theory, proposed by liberal "scholars," said that the Hebrews "borrowed" from the Babylonians, but no conclusive proof has ever been offered. 22 The differences, including religious, ethical, and sheer quantity of details, make it unlikely that the Biblical account was dependent on any extant source from the Sumerian traditions. This still does not stop these liberal and secular scholars from advocating such a theory. The most accepted theory among evangelicals is that both have one common source, predating all the Sumerian forms. 23 The divine inspiration of the Bible would demand that the Genesis account is the correct version. Indeed the Hebrews were known for handing down their records and tradition. 24 The Book of Genesis is viewed for the most part as an historical work, even by many liberal scholars, while the Epic of Gilgamesh is viewed as mythological. The One-source Theory must, therefore, lead back to the historical event of the Flood and Noah's Ark. 25 To those who believe in the inspiration and infallibility of the Bible, it should not be a surprise that God would preserve the true account of the Flood in the traditions of His people. The Genesis account was kept pure and accurate throughout the centuries by the providence of God until it was finally compiled, edited, and written down by Moses. 26 The Epic of Gilgamesh, then, contains the corrupted account as preserved and embellished by peoples who did not follow the God of the Hebrews.

  1. Keller, Werner, The Bible as History, (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1956), p. 32.
  2. Sanders, N.K., The Epic of Gilgamesh ,(an English translation with introduction) (London: Penguin Books, 1964), p. 9.
  3. Graves, Robert, The Creek Myths, Volume 1,(London: Penguin Books, 1960), pp. 138-143.
  4. Rehwinkel, Alfred M., The Flood in the Light of the Bible, Geology, and Archaeology, (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing, 1951), p. 129.
  5. O'Brien, J. Randall, "Flood Stories of the Ancient Near East", Biblical Illustrator, (Fall 1986, volume 13, number 1), p. 61.
  6. Barton, George A., Archaeology and the Bible, (Philadelphia: American Sunday School Union, 1916), pp. 273-277
  7. Keller, The Bible as History, s. s. 33.
  8. Whitcomb, John C. and Morris, Henry M., The Genesis Flood, (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1961), p. 38.
  9. Heidel, Alexander, The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949), p. 13.
  10. O'Brien, "Flood Stories of the Ancient Near East", p. 61.
  11. Heidel, The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallel, s. s. 13.
  12. Sanders, The Epic of Gilgamesh, s. s. 21.
  13. Vos, Howard F., Genesis and Archaeology, (Chicago: Moody Press, 1963), p. 35.
  14. Sanders, The Epic of Gilgamesh, pp. 20-23.
  15. Ibid., pp. 30 39.
  16. Ibid., pp. 39-42.
  17. The Bible as History, s. s. 33.
  18. Sanders, The Epic of Gilgamesh, s. s. 109.
  19. O'Brien, "Flood Stories of the Ancient Near East", pp. 62, 63.
  20. Morris, Henry M., Science and the Bible, (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986), p. 85.
  21. O'Brien, "Flood Stories of the Ancient Near East", p. 64.
  22. Ibid.
  23. Ibid.
  24. Morris, Science and the Bible, s. s. 92.
  25. Ibid., S. 85.
  26. Whitcomb, John C., The Early Earth (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1986), p. 134 Whitcomb and Morris, The Genesis Flood, s. s. 488.

* Mr. Lorey is a Registered Historical Archaeologist.

Cite this article: Lorey, F. 1997. The Flood of Noah and the Flood of Gilgamesh. Acts & Facts. 26 (3).


Where to read Gilgamesh

Since Gilgamesh&rsquos reappearance into popular awareness in the last hundred years, the Standard Babylonian Version of the epic has become accessible in numerous translations. This version was originally compiled by the priest, scribe and exorcist, Sin-leqi-uninni, around 1100 BCE.

The scholarly standard among modern translations is Andrew George&rsquos The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic: Introduction, Critical Edition and Cuneiform Texts (2003).

Despite its all-around excellence, the two-volume work is decidedly unwieldly, and the less muscle-bound reader would be well directed to The Epic of Gilgamesh: A New Translation (1999), by the same author. Most readable among modern treatments is David Ferry&rsquos Gilgamesh: A New Rendering in English Verse (1992), which gives a potent, poetic interpretation of the material.

Like the snake that steals Gilgamesh&rsquos rejuvenation plant, the Epic of Gilgamesh has aged well. Its themes - exploring the tension between the natural and civilised worlds, the potency of true love, and the question of what makes a good life &ndash are as relevant today as they were 4,000 years ago.

Note: Translations are sourced from Andrew R. George 2003. The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic: Introduction, Critical Edition and Cuneiform Texts, Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

This article was originally published on Samtalen. Read the original article.

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Se videoen: New Discovery: Tablet V of the Epic of Gilgamesh!