Fragment af urartisk hestesele

Fragment af urartisk hestesele


En ordliste over seledele & Relaterede vilkår

Brugen af ​​et køreforklæde i dag er en overførsel fra de dage, hvor det var nødvendigt for at beskytte tøjet mod at blive snavset af tøjlerne eller snavs kastet op af hestens fødder. Forklædet er lavet til at fastgøre omkring taljen, er skåret længe nok til næsten at nå fødderne og er bredt nok til at stikke godt ind, når man sidder. Om sommeren kan det være et bomulds- eller linnedmateriale. Om vinteren tilføjer et tungere materiale, såsom uld, varme.

Rygstroppen forbinder crupper til en Dee på bagsiden af ​​sadlen. Den har normalt en åbning til en hoftebælte og kan justeres for den bedste placering af hoftebæltet og crupperen. Crupperen kan enten være bukket eller syet fast i bagstroppen. Se også Crupper.

Et mavebånd anses normalt for at være en rem, der passerer rundt om et dyrs mave og bruges til at holde et køretøjs aksler sikkert på plads.

Mavebåndet kan enten være en kort rem, der slutter med et spænde i hver ende, eller det kan have et spænde og en lang billet i hver ende. Det korte mavebånd er spændt til akselbugs, der har en billet som en del af slæbebåden. Kuglerne i det længere mavebånd bruges med åbne slæbebåde og vikles rundt om skaftene, før de spækkes tilbage i sig selv. Dette mavebånd omtales også som akselomviklinger, omslutningsstropper og fastspændinger.

Der er betydelig forvirring af dette udtryk. Udover forvirring mellem mavebåndets korte og akselformede stil, viser nogle referencer et mavebånd, der er synonymt med omkredsen. Dette er særlig let at forstå, da de fleste mavebånd er løst fastgjort til omkredsen med en eller to holder.

For bedre klarhed foreslår jeg at bruge (omkreds med a) mavebånd til at identificere det kortere mavebånd og (omkreds med) akselomslag for at identificere versionen med lange billets.

En billet synes at være udtrykket givet til remenden eller spidsen, stanset med hold, som er fastgjort i et spænde.


Brysttallerken bruges af nogle til at beskrive en brystkrave. Det bruges også til at beskrive en falsk martingale. Jeg ville helt undgå at bruge dette udtryk for at undgå denne forvirring.
Se også False Martingale and Collars.

Bøjning er en bred rem, der passerer rundt om bagenden af ​​en hest i seletøj. Det er en del af apparatet, der gør det muligt for hesten at stoppe eller bakke et påmonteret køretøj. Selebuksen holdes på plads af en hofte- eller lænderem, der løber hen over rumpen. Slyngen skal hænge næsten vandret og hvile omkring, hvor rumpen begynder at krumme ind i benet. Hvis den er for høj, har den en tendens til at køre op mod halen. Hvis det er for lavt, hæmmer det bevægelsesfriheden. Løbet skal justeres således, at der er plads til, at omkring fire fingre (en hånds bredde) kan passere mellem hestens bagside og ridebuksen, når hesten er i træk.

En breeching Dee er en beslag med "D" -form, der er fastgjort til undersiden af ​​hvert skaft. Slyngestropper føres gennem slyngen Dee, før de vikles rundt om skaftene.

Slyngestropper er stropper, der løber fra ringen på slyngen til akslerne. De passerer normalt gennem en breeching Dee eller footman's loop på skaftet, før de vikles rundt om skaftet. De bruges til at stoppe bevægelse fremad af en vogn, når hesten stopper, og kaldes derfor også almindeligt holdback -stropper. Bøjnings- eller holdestropper får også en vogn til at vende retning, når en hest bakker op.

Jeg har set udtrykket kvarterrem forvirrende brugt synonymt for både en hoftestrop og selebåndet. Jeg foretrækker at reservere brugen af ​​dette udtryk for en rem, der ligner en selerem, der forbinder selens ring med en ring i enden af ​​chokeremmen på en parring i halsen. Denne rem passerer under den bageste fjerdedel af dyrets mave og indeholder normalt en snap- og Conway -spænde til henholdsvis fastgørelse og justering.

En chokerrem defineres, ligesom en falsk martingale, som en rem, der løber mellem hestens forben, fra mavebåndet til kraven. Jeg tror dog, at den bruges oftere til at beskrive en lignende rem på en trækhestesele. På trækbæltet afsluttes denne rem normalt med et snap, der bruges til at forbinde til et nakkestykke og indirekte til kraven.


En krave er den del af en sele, der er monteret omkring en hests skuldre eller bryst. Hestens tryk mod kraven overføres til fremadrettet bevægelse af et køretøj eller en anden genstand. Halsbånd kan være en af ​​to generelle former: en halsbånd eller brystkrave.

En halsbånd kan også kaldes en rund eller fuld krave. En halsbånd er en polstret armatur, der helt omslutter en hests hals og hviler mod hans skulder. Halskraver har en rille, der rummer hames, hvortil sporene er fastgjort. En halsbånd bruges normalt til formelle køretøjer og til køretøjer med et tungt træk.

En brystkrave er en bred rem placeret rundt om hestens bryst eller bryst, snarere end omkring halsen. Sporene fastgøres direkte (enten spændet eller syet) til brystkraver. En brystkrave er ikke egnet til at trække tunge belastninger, fordi køretøjets vægt er lokaliseret frem for fordelt over hele skulderområdet. Brystkraver bruges mere hensigtsmæssigt til uformelle køretøjer med et let træk, f.eks. Vogne med to hjul. Et singletree skal bruges med en brystkrave. Skulder ømhed vil sandsynligvis forekomme ved normal skulderbevægelse mod en brystkrave, hvis faste sporfastgørelser er tilladt.

Come and Get er verbale tegn, der kan bruges til at hjælpe en drivende hest med at dreje. Come ville signalere en højresving, og Get ville blive brugt til at dreje til venstre. I første omgang har de fleste mennesker svært ved at huske, hvilken kommando der bruges til hvilken retning. Det kan være lettere, hvis man tænker på det fra førerens synspunkt, normalt sidder på højre side af en vogn. I dette tilfælde, tænk Kom, drej til højre mod mig, og Kom, til venstre, kom væk fra mig.
Se også Gee – Haw.

En koblingstøjle er den kortere af en par-hestes køre tøjle. Den løber fra den inderste bit af den ene hest til trækstøjlen på den modsatte hest. De to tøjler forbinder over hestens bagpart med et justerbart spænde.

To ordbogshenvisninger beskriver også et checkrein, der matcher definitionen af ​​en koblingstøjle. Jeg vil dog forbeholde brug af udtrykket checkrein til at være synonymt med bæretøjle for at reducere forvirring af begreber.
Se også Checkrein under hovedtøj.

En crupper er selestykket, der fastgør sadlen bagfra. Formålet med crupper er at forhindre sadlen i at blive skubbet frem langs en hests ryg, som det mest sandsynligt er, at der sker, når der ikke bruges en ridebøjning, eller når en checkrein er i spil.

Der er en vis forvirring i brugen af ​​dette udtryk. Generelt synes crupper i dag at blive brugt specifikt til at referere til det bløde, glatte (linfrede) halestykke, der passer under hestens hale. Der er imidlertid også en betydelig brug af crupper, der bruges til at referere til den komplette samling bestående af rygstroppen og bagstykket, og måske endda inklusive hoftestroppen.
Da hver del af denne samling er navngivet individuelt og tilstrækkeligt, foreslår jeg, at vi fortsat bruger crupper til at referere til det polstrede bagstykke.


En Dee er en metalbeslag, normalt "D" formet, gennem hvilken forskellige dele af en sele passerer.

Et dubletree er en bar, der bruges til at sele to heste til en vogn eller et andet køretøj. I tilfælde af en vogn er det dobbelte træ normalt fastgjort til stangen med en midterste drejning. Singletrees er fastgjort til hver ende af doubletree, igen med en drejeforbindelse. Sporene efter hver hest tilsluttes derefter et af singletræerne. Drejeforbindelserne muliggør en afbalancering eller aften af ​​hver hests træk. Se også Whiffletree

Et træk tøjle er den længste af par-hestens køre tøjler. Den løber lige fra hånden til ydersiden af ​​den relevante hest. (Venstre tøjle til venstre hest og højre tøjle til højre hest.)
Se også Kobling Rein.

En falsk martingale er en rem, der løber mellem hestens forben, fra omkredsen til kraven. Ifølge Kellogg, "De gør kun lidt undtagen for at forhindre kraven i at køre for højt op på brystet og er hovedsageligt til pynt-bestemt er de ikke en nødvendig del af den lette single-hestesele." Se også Martingale og Choke Strap.

Gee og Haw er verbale tegn, der kan bruges til at hjælpe en hest med at dreje. Gee ville signalere en højresving og Haw ville blive brugt til at dreje til venstre. Der er ingen rigtig nem måde at huske, hvilket udtryk repræsenterer højre, og hvilket repræsenterer venstre. Imidlertid kan simple foreninger hjælpe nogle. Tænk først på Haw som den kortere form, "Ha". Tænk derefter på de kortere ord, der går sammen, og de længere ord, der hører sammen. Det er nu lettere at huske, at Ha (Haw) er til venstre, og Gee har højre! Nogle foretrækker måske også at knytte ret til Gee, fordi højre har bogstavet "g" i det. Gee og Haw bruges måske oftere blandt trækhestefolk, mens Come and Get er mere tilbøjelige til at blive brugt med vognheste. Se også Come – Get.


En omkreds er et bånd eller en rem placeret omkring en hestes mave til sikring af en sadel osv. Relaterede termer er:
Omkreds & omviklingsstropper, akselomviklinger eller fastgøringsstropper
Omkreds med glidende mavebånd, dobbelt omkreds, Surcingle
Se også Bellyband

Selvom handsker er et påkrævet tilbehør i showringen, føler mange eksperter, at de er en daglig nødvendighed. De skal være rødbrune (naturlige) eller brune i farven for at forhindre farvestoffer af enhver anden farve i at plette hænderne. De skal være velsiddende og af et blødt, bøjeligt læder, såsom hjorte- eller gedeskind. Størrelse er vigtig, men lidt af en personlig beslutsomhed. Nogle hævder, at handsker i første omgang skal være en størrelse større end normalt. Selvom de skal overføre en god fornemmelse af tøjlerne, kan handsker, hvis de er for stramme, være restriktive og hindre den ønskede håndkontrol og følelse.

Hoftestroppen er en rem, der bruges til at understøtte ridebuksen. Det går over hestens hofter og passerer gennem en sløjfe i rygstroppen, inden det bukker sig ind i selen på hver side af hesten. Hver ende af hoftestroppen er normalt opdelt i to billets.

Jeg ville undgå at bruge kvartstrop i forbindelse med denne seledel for at reducere forvirring. Se også kvartstropper som nævnt under selerem.

Hames er buede stålarme, der er monteret i en rille på en halsbånd. De holdes sammen, øverst og nederst, af læderremme (hame stropper) eller andre sådanne armaturer (nyrelænker osv.). Enten faste eller fleksible terreter er normalt inkluderet nær toppen af ​​hver hame for at styre tøjlerne. Sporene er indirekte forbundet med et øje mod den nedre ende af hammerne. Dette fordeler træk eller træk af sporene ensartet langs hestens skulder.

Hames stropper er læderremme, der forbinder hames sammen i toppen og bunden. I nogle mere formelle valgdeltagelser bruges metalfastgørelser (nyreledd) i bunden af ​​hammerne, i stedet for en hammestrop.

Lazy stropper er læderstropper, der forbindes til ringene i slutningen af ​​ridebuksen. De bruges til at understøtte sporene, sædvanligvis efter et par seletøj.

En martingale er en rem, der løber mellem hestens forben, fra mavebåndet til hovedtøj. Det bruges til at forhindre hesten i at kaste hovedet op, eller muligvis fra at bære det for højt. Mest fornøjelse af at køre folk føler imidlertid, at martingalen ikke er en erstatning for ordentlig træning, og bør undværes så hurtigt som muligt.
Se også False Martingale.


Halsremmen er støtten til en brystkrave. Den går over halsen og fastgøres til brystkraven med spænder (normalt to pr. Side) til justering. Halsremmen indeholder normalt enten faste eller fleksible tøjletårne ​​for at lede tøjlerne til boret.

Et nakkestykke er en stang (normalt træ) fastgjort til kraverne på et par heste. Den har en bred læderkrave eller ring fastgjort omkring midten for at understøtte stangen på køretøjet, som de er udnyttet. En tilspidset metalbeslag (tunge) på enden af ​​stangen indsættes i halsens ågkrave. Det er gennem denne nakkestudsforbindelse, at køretøjet styres, stoppes og vendes.

Den "krabbe" type stanghoved, der bruges sammen med stangstropper eller kæder, erstatter halsens åg på nogle mere formelle køretøjer.

Halsbåndstropper er stærke læderstropper, der forbinder enderne af et nakkestykke med kraven på hver hest i et par.

Den off side af en hest er hans højre side. Se også Near Side.

En stang er (normalt) et træelement, der løber mellem et par heste, fra forakslen på en vogn til hestens hoved. Stangen er fastgjort til forsiden af ​​hestene og fungerer som en håndtag til at styre og stoppe køretøjet.

Selvom tungen undertiden bruges til at referere til den komplette stang, kan det være bedre at henvise til den koniske metalbeslag på enden af ​​en stang (også stanghætte), der er indsat i et nakkestykke. Se også Neck Yoke og Pole Crab.

En stangkæde er en metalkæde, der bruges til at forbinde en hest i dobbelt sele til forenden af ​​et køretøjs stang. Stangen vil have været udstyret med en stangkrabbe. Stangkæder ses typisk på "tjenerdrevne" køretøjstyper.

En stangkrabbe kan referere til forskellige metalender, der bruges til at fastgøre heste til stangen. Nogle accepterer stangstykker (læderremme), og nogle er lavet til stangkæder.

En stangrem er en læderrem, der bruges til at forbinde en hest i dobbelt sele til forenden af ​​en stang. Stangbånd ses typisk på "ejerdrevne" køretøjstyper.

"Putting to" er et begreb, der bruges til at definere processen med at forbinde en hest til et køretøj.

Jeg har set udtrykket kvarterrem forvirrende brugt synonymt for både en hoftestrop og selebåndet. Jeg foretrækker at forbeholde brugen af ​​dette udtryk for en rem, der ligner en selerem, der forbinder selens ring med en ring på enden af ​​chokeremmen på en parring i halsen. Denne rem passerer under den bageste fjerdedel af dyrets mave og indeholder normalt en snap- og Conway -spænde til henholdsvis fastgørelse og justering.


Tøjler er stropper fastgjort til en smule og bruges til at styre og kontrollere en hest. Tøjler bruges undertiden synonymt med linjer. Det har dog været min erfaring, at linjer og bånd ofte bruges af mennesker med en stærkere trækhestebaggrund. I en reference blev der angivet linjer for retning og kontrol - tøjler blev brugt til at henvise til "tjek tøjler".

Drivtøjler til både sort og brun sele (eller i det mindste håndstykker til drivstyret) er lavet af brunt eller rødbrunt (naturligt) læder. Brune tøjler bruges frem for sorte tøjler for at forhindre det sorte farvestof i at plette hænder, handsker og tøj.

Et spænde til kobling af håndstykket ender sammen er normalt inkluderet på et af tøjlerne. En sløjfe af læder er syet til dette spænde og er kroget over lillefingeren på venstre hånd for at holde tøjlerne væk fra køretøjets gulv.
Størrelsen på koblingsspændet skal være lille nok til, at den tilhørende billet er svag og let vil bryde, hvis den bliver stresset. I tilfælde af en ulykke foretrækkes det, at tøjlerne kommer frakoblet frem for at se noget eller nogen blive trukket.

En sadel er en velbygget, polstret lædersamling, placeret på hestens ryg. Det fungerer som det centrale seleanker, der har en checkrein -krog foran, en Dee bagpå og indeholder tøjler. Billets i enderne af hvert sidepanel er spændt fast i en omkreds for at holde sadlen på plads på hestens ryg. De fleste sadler fremstillet i dag indeholder generelt noget laklæder.

En af en sadels hovedfunktioner er at understøtte akslerne i en enkelt sele. Sadlen skal derfor være godt proppet på hvert sidepanel for at forhindre, at den hviler på hestens ryg. Mange referencer nævner et bagbånd til at bære akselbugserne. De taler også om det som en separat seledel, der passerer gennem slidser i sadelens sæde og for. Dagens sadler inkluderer generelt rygbåndets funktion som en integreret del af sadelmontagen. Det fremstår som et andet sæt billets, lidt højere end omkretsen. Skaftbugserne er spændt fast til hvert af dette andet sæt billets.

En Pad eller Backpad bruges normalt til at referere til den mindre lette "sadel" af et par seletøj. Det kan være lettere, fordi ingen (skaft) vægt bæres igennem det til hestenes ryg.

En Singletree er en svingbar (træ) stang på et køretøj, som sporene er knyttet til. Singletree overfører hestens træk og seletøj til køretøjet. Det gør det muligt for selen at have mere mobilitet på hestens skuldre end en solid sporfastgørelse. Det skal bruges med en brystkrave for at forhindre skuldre ømhed. Se også Whiffletree


Aksler er de to, formede, traditionelt træstykker, der strækker sig fra forsiden af ​​en vogn. Hesten er spændt mellem dem, hvilket giver styring og fremadgående bevægelse til køretøjet, normalt gennem et enkelt træ monteret på en tværstang mellem akslerne. Desuden stopper akslerne køretøjet og transmitterer den omvendte bevægelse, når du bakker op. På en tohjulet giver aksler også balance for køretøjet.

Brugen af ​​fyld, frem for aksler, ser ud til at være en forkert betegnelse eller i bedste fald en up -state New York -omgangstale. Det kan have stammer fra en forkert udtale af thills? Jeg ville undgå brug af fyld og den forvirring, det kan forårsage andre steder.

Akselstoppere er metalbeslag, der placeres på akslerne ved akselbugseringens placering. De giver akselbugserne en solid overflade at hvile eller skubbe imod og bruges til at forhindre slæbebådene i frit at glide tilbage på akslerne. De bruges i forbindelse med akselindpakninger og er en nødvendighed for at skabe bremsekraften, hvis der ikke bruges knæk.

Akselindpakninger refererer til et mavebånd med et spænde og en lang billet i hver ende. De passerer under hestens mave og vikles rundt om hvert skaft, når der bruges åbne slæbebåde. Skaftomviklinger bruges til at forhindre akslen i at stige, når en hest arbejder mod ridebuksen, eller i tilfælde af en tohjulet, går op ad bakke eller forkert afbalanceret osv. Skaftomviklinger kan også bruges til at sikre placeringen af slæbebådene til skaftet, især når der ikke bruges brugsele. Akselindpakninger holdes normalt løst til en omkreds med enten en eller to holdere.
Se også Bellyband og Shaft Stop.

Et reservedelssæt er en anbefalet samling af reservedele og værktøjer, der kan transporteres på et hestetrukket køretøj for at hjælpe med et sammenbrud eller en ulykke. De er normalt indeholdt i en eller anden form for rullet bærer eller anden indeslutning.

Halestykket er et blødt, glat, hørfrøfyldt rør af læder, der passer under hestens hale. Den er enten syet eller spændt fast i baglåsen. Det omtales ofte som crupper.
Se også Crupper.

Et hold anses normalt for at være to eller flere dyr, der arbejder sammen, især når de trækker et køretøj eller landbrugsudstyr. Men Pennsylvania Amish betragter deres enlige hest og vogn som et hold!


Terreter er metalringe fastgjort til selens sadel, hames eller nakkerem. De fungerer som tøjler. Nogle kan være fleksible, og andre kan være solide eller faste.

Spor er stropper, der forbinder en brystkrave, eller hames på en halsbånd, til en eller anden enhed, normalt singletree på et køretøj. De overfører dyrets skub mod kraven til et træk i køretøjet. I læderseler kan spor variere fra et til flere stykker læder syet sammen. I nogle tilfælde kan et lag syntetisk materiale være inkluderet i sandwich. Spor i nogle træk seler er simpelthen kæder, dækket for at beskytte dyret mod gnidning.
Læderspor er normalt lukket ind i brystkraven eller hames (indirekte gennem hame slæbebåde), hvor de kan justeres i længden. Hvis sporet er permanent fastgjort til kraven eller hammene, foretages justering ved singletree ved at vælge en af ​​normalt tre slots, der er lavet i sporenderne. Denne justeringsmetode ser ikke så elegant ud som med spænde-spor.

Sporbærer er et begreb, der bruges til at beskrive en løs rem, der går rundt om en aksel, cirka halvvejs mellem akselbugseren og singletree. Sporet passerer gennem denne rem for at reducere overdreven bevægelse under brug.


Strengt taget er en slæbebåd en kort læderrem eller sløjfe, der bruges til hårdt træk. Der er mange slæbebåde i en hestesele. Mest bemærkelsesværdigt er akselbugseren eller skaftløkken.

En akselbugsering er en spænde monteret sløjfe, der er fastgjort til sadlen for at understøtte akslerne på et enkelt hestetrukket køretøj. Åbne slæbebåde bruges med de fleste tohjulede køretøjer. En tankegang er, at når skaftene er korrekt afbalanceret, kører akslerne frit i slæbebådene, så de ikke overfører hestens joggingbevægelse til vognen. Lige populær, men let modstridende, er brugen af ​​akselindpakninger. De bruges til at forhindre akslerne i at flyde og stige, når en hest går op ad bakke, arbejder mod ridebuksen osv.

Franske eller Tilbury-slæbebåde er andre former for akselbugs, der kan bruges på mere formelle 4-hjulede køretøjer. De holder akslerne sikkert uden yderligere indpakning.

Hame or trace slæbebåde er korte spænder, der bruges til at fastgøre sporene til hammerne.

Op ad slæbebåde er på samme måde korte stropper, der ender med spænder til at holde dele af selen "oppe" på steder, f.eks. På brystkraven og knækket.

Fremmøde er det udtryk, der bruges til at beskrive den komplette hestetrukne samling. Det inkluderer førerens tøj og aftaler, ud over hesten, selen og køretøjet.

Åben slæbebåd og billet med Bellyband

Pisken holdes normalt ved sit balancepunkt i højre hånd, pegende fremad og til venstre (nogle siger mod venstre øre på din hest). Pisken er placeret cirka 45o over vandret og cirka 45o til venstre fra, hestens krop.
Nogle lader deres pisk gradvist glide til en position parallelt med deres krop (vinkelret på hesten). Denne praksis er rynket over, da den uhøfligt dingler piskens vippe i ansigtet på passagerer, fodgængere eller andre forbipasserende.

En pisk er også navnet givet til en person, der kører en hestevogn.

En piskekontakt er enten en træ- eller metalarmatur, der normalt er monteret på instrumentbrættet på et køretøj, til at holde en pisk.

Whoa er udtrykket, der normalt bruges til at befale et dyr at stoppe bevægelse (enten fremad eller bagud). Den skal bruges konsekvent og udelukkende til dette formål og bør gives i en umiskendeligt fast tone, helt klart forskellig fra den stemme, der bruges til at berolige eller berolige et dyr.

Whoa bør ikke bruges til at bremse hestens hastighed. Noget som "let", "langsomt" eller kommandoen til den næste langsommere port, "gå", bør bruges til sådanne nedadgående overgange.

Whoa bør ikke bruges til at stoppe fidgeting - for at få dyret til at slå sig ned. "Stand", "freeze" eller noget lignende, bør være kommandoen, der bruges, når der ønskes stille stående.

Man kan løst se på det på denne måde: Hvis du ikke tidligere har givet en hest en kommando om at flytte (Walk), skal du sandsynligvis ikke bede ham om at stoppe (Whoa). Du vil sandsynligvis bruge en anden kommando!

Whoa udtales (wo), ikke 'hoe' eller 'ho'. En hakke er det værktøj, der bruges til at dyrke din have. Flere ho er, hvad julemanden siger: "Ho! Ho! Ho! ” Hvis du ønsker at "gå en tur", foreslår jeg, at du "lærer at tale!" Beklager, jeg vil komme ud af min sæbekasse nu! 


Liverpool -bit er en af ​​de mest traditionelle bremsebider. Den eller en af ​​dens variationer er tilstrækkelig til de fleste applikationer. Tøjler kan være knyttet til en Liverpool i en af ​​flere (op til 5) positioner, hvilket giver en successivt større grad af gearing på kantstenen. De fleste Liverpool -bits har også en glat og grov side ved boret. Drejning af boret til den grove side kan give yderligere kontrol. Det er dog blevet sagt, at hvis en hest skal bruges med en af ​​de mere alvorlige kantsten, er han ikke blevet ordentligt uddannet!

Liverpool bits kan komme med enten en fast kind eller en drejelig kind. Det er følelsen af ​​nogle, at en drejelig kindbit giver mulighed for potentiel klemning af læberne.

En snaffelbit kan bruges, hvis en kantsten ikke ønskes. Det er helt i tråd med mindre formelle valgdeltagelser, ifølge Ryder. En sammenføjet køresnegle, som den bruges af mange Amish, kan være tilstrækkelig til den almindelige kørsel, der er bestemt. De fleste køreeksperter foretrækker imidlertid en dobbeltring, brudt snaffle, der normalt omtales som en Wilson Snaffle.

En checkbit er en sekundær bit, bruges udelukkende med en checkrein. En overkontrollebit er en slank, lige eller måske lidt trist mund. En bridon er ens, men en leddet bit. Check bits skal holdes på plads med tynde bærestropper, fastgjort til de øverste spænder på check stykkerne.

Blinders er de to klapper på et trense, der dækker en hests øjne. De bruges til at reducere hans perifere syn og begrænser dermed hans evne til at se objekter ved hans sider og bag ham. Man skal passe på, at øjnene er placeret i blinderens lodrette midte, og skyderierne berører ikke hestens øjenvipper.

Blinderne syes til kindstykker på siderne af ansigtet og til stropper, der er forbundet sammen i midten af ​​ansigtet. Stykket på ansigtet fortsætter derefter og fastgøres til et spænde i midten af ​​kronestykket. Disse stropper er normalt et dæksel til støttetråde, der gør det muligt at holde skyderne i en ønsket afstand fra hestens ansigt. Denne samling kaldes undertiden som et blinkende eller winker -ophold.

Blindere kan have flere former, f.eks. Firkantet, Dee, rund eller luge. Firkantede (med afrundede hjørner) eller Dee -former bruges typisk på en fornøjelseskørsel med et tohjulet køretøj.


Pandebåndet er en rem, der løber hen over panden, over øjnene og foran ørerne. Det kan være pyntet med en slags metaldekoration, der matcher resten af ​​selens hardware. Pandebåndet slutter normalt med en roset, der er fastgjort til kronestykket. Den kombinerede længde af kronestykket og pandebåndet skal være sådan, at ørerne er fri for gnidninger.

En checkrein er en kort tøjle, der løber fra en separat check eller bridon bit, til en krog på selens sadel. Det bruges til at forhindre en hest i at sænke hovedet. Det kan være en af ​​to typer: et overcheck eller et sidecheck.
En overkontrol er en enkelt tøjle, der løber fra sadlen og passerer gennem en slids i kronestykket. Den splittes på hestens ansigt, før den går til hver side af boret.

En sidecheck er to tøjler, der kommer fra sadlen, en på hver side af hestens hoved, der passerer gennem bærere på siderne af kronestykket, før de fortsætter til boret.

Overkontrol er ikke tilladt i de fleste ADS -godkendte begivenheder. Imidlertid er de acceptable, endda påkrævede, i nogle racerudstillinger. Selvom sidekontrol accepteres af ADS, træner de fleste mennesker til at køre uden behov for eller brug af en checkrein.


En kantsten er fastgjort under en hests hage, fra den ene side af en kantsten (Liverpool -type) til den anden side. Det bruges til at forårsage gearing på hestens kæbe i forhold til tøjlernes træk. Det er normalt snoet fladt. Hvis ikke, vil der blive oprettet en mere alvorlig dæmpning. En kantstenskæde skal have omkring to fingre mellem mellem kæden og hestens hage. Dette ville gøre det muligt at rotere borets skafter i en vinkel på cirka 45o med ansigtets linje, inden kantstenen bliver effektiv.

Kindstykker kan være almindelige eller mere typisk, understøtte skyder. Den øverste ende er spændt til kronestykket. Den nederste ende består af et spænde og billet til fastgørelse af boret. Kindstykker kan have kasser med værktøjsdesign eller almindelige holdere.

Kronstykket er en rem, der går over toppen (kronen) af hestens hoved og sidder behageligt bag ørerne. Det ender normalt med to billets på hver side, en til fastgørelse af kindstykker og den anden til halslås. Kronstykket kan også have syet Dees på hver side for at understøtte sidekontroller.

Ansigtsdråben er udelukkende et dekorativt stykke, der sidder på hestens pande og er fastgjort til midterspændet på kronestykket.

Næsebåndet holder kindstykkerne tæt på hestens hoved for at sikre, at han ikke har noget bagudseende forbi skyblindene. Det kan også hjælpe med at holde munden afhængig af dens længde og position. Næsebåndet er forbundet med et spænde under kæben, på venstre side af en enkelt sele. I nogle tilfælde kan næsebåndet være forbundet på begge sider af kæben. Højden på et næsebånd kan undertiden varieres ved at være forbundet med separate bærestropper, fastgjort til kindstykkernes øvre spænder. Næsebåndet, eller i det mindste en variation af næsebåndet, kaldes ofte en hulrum på et ridetøj.

Halslåsen er en rem, der passerer under hestens hals og spænder til billets på hver side af kronestykket. Halslåsen skal være spændt tæt nok til at forhindre hesten i at kaste eller gnide hovedtøjet. Et ledigt mellemrum på omkring to fingres bredde kan være et godt udgangspunkt for korrekt justering.

På boksesædet, af Tom Ryder, 1983
Kørsel af hesten i seletøj, af Charles Kellogg, 1978, (tidligere redaktør af Whip)
En guide til kørsel af heste, af Sallie Walrond, 1975
Breaking & Training the Driving Horse, af Doris Ganton, 1972
Officiel kørehåndbog (CCA), Redigeret af Tom Ryder
Lær din hest at køre, video af Mary Ruth Marks.
Smucker's selekatalog
Bowmans selekatalog
Websters niende nye kollegiale ordbog (1986)
MS Encarta Word English Dictionary (1999)
Forskellige artikler fra Driving Digest Magazine
Forskellige andre genoptryk
Gloria Austin, Continental Acres, Weirsdale, Florida
Bill Remely, Walnut Hill, Pittsford, NY
Jonni Jewel, CDL, Dallas, Texas
Dianna Taplin, CDL, Soldonta, Alaska
Don Grentzinger, NDS, Brockport, NY

1 Kørsel af hesten i seletøj, af Charles Kellogg, side 44-51
2 På boksesædet, af Tom Ryder, side 25
3 Harnessing & Hitching the Single Carriage Horse, af W. Craig Kellogg, DDM Reprints

Dette blev skrevet for at hjælpe med at reducere noget af den forvirring, der findes i flere nomenklaturer for forskellige seletøjsdele.

Det er en konsolidering af navne og beskrivelser, der er kopieret, parafraseret eller redigeret fra en række forskellige kilder.

Den ultimative beskrivelse af disse vilkår er skråt mod en enkelt, letvægts kørehest, udnyttet i henhold til ADS retningslinjer.


Evolution of Equine slynger: At tage et læs af, derefter og nu

Tak for din støtte. Seler til heste har været kritisk plejeudstyr til heste, der er kommet sig efter ortopædiske skader. Mange hestejere har aldrig set en, og håber, at deres heste aldrig vil vide, hvad det & kan lide at være i en. Here&aposs one of the top Thoroughbred stallions of the 1990s, Nureyev, who lived in a sling while recovering from a fracture in his hock after a paddock accident. (ટran Jurga photo)

What the world needs is a better mousetrap. Or so the saying goes. If you were to ask around the horse world, the answer would be different. A cat will take care of a mouse. What we really need are better options to help support horses who become unstable or need help because of orthopedic injury, neurological disease or overall weakness.

Slings have many uses in equine emergency services and hospital care. While occasionally a horse may be suspended in a sling for weeks at a time when recovering from a serious injury, many horses are in slings for short periods of time. Not only are orthopedic injuries looking for the ultimate sling slings are very useful for horses that have neurological disorders or diseases like West Nile Virus or even the neurological form of Equine Herpes Virus.

You may think of slings as high-priced emergency equipment relegated to critical care, but the concept of slings is an ancient one in the horse world, and even today there are multiple types of slings for different purposes. You just don’t see them very often, and horseowners should be thankful if they never see their horses suspended in one.

Slings are not just the marvels of engineering that you may see in a veterinary college or equine referral hospital. Many farms utilize more casual makeshift slings, especially when the residents may suffer from laminitis or even infirm older horses that need help, particularly for treatment or grooming.

Long ago, livestock owners learned that a sling could be useful. Oxen can&apost stand on three legs well, but may need shoes to work. The sling straps could be cranked up until one or all of the hooves were slightly off the ground and easier to lift. Stocks with slings are still used to shoe many heavy horses and oxen. (Diderot Encyclopedia plate, 1767 courtesy of the University of Chicago)

Using a belly sling to life a horse--or prevent it from bearing all or some of its weight, which is not always the same thing--seems to be a basic principle of physics. The abdomen joins the front and hinds of a horse. Lift it in the middle and the feel will leave the ground.

That much is true, but the construction of the animal&aposs vital organs need to be protected. Prolonged use of a sling must take into account what the pressure and/or compression has done to the organs.Some horse lean forward in a sling, putting more weight on the chest. 

Continued pressure on the hide and skin where the weightbearing stresses the straps of a sling will likely cause irritation and even lead to sores if not monitored and medicated.

And then there are horses who just don&apost want to be in a sling, and could even hurt themselves or their handlers. While the benefits of slings surely outweigh these negative attributes, the possibility of a sling being detrimental to a horse exist, and they are why so many veterinarians are cautious about prolonged use of a sling for a horse with a long-term therapy ahead.

One of the most simple uses of a sling, and probably the source of much that we know about slings, doesn’t even come from horses. Before the invention of hydraulic tilt tables to trim the feet of dairy cows and especially to shoe the hooves of oxen, a simple stock or 𠇌rush”, as it is called in some countries, with a sling was used. In France, these stout frames with slings are called "travails" and were outdoors many still remain in villages and rural areas as a testament to vernacular architecture of the most basic kind.

Cattle and oxen find it difficult to support their massive bodyweight on just three legs, and they can be difficult to control so a device needed to be used to both stabilize them and get their feet off the ground so they could be lifted and trimmed or shod. Using a sling in combination with stocks, one or two people could easily get the work done, instead of requiring a crew to restrain the animal for a prolonged period of time.

The travail in the courtyard at the National Veterinary College at Alfort in Paris, France is an architectural statement. This is what it looked like around 1900. Notice that the Percheron&aposs front feet are tied down while the farrier works on the left hind.

Did horses arrive in North America in a sling? Many sources credit a hoist-type sling from the deck of a Spanish ship as the mechanism used to get horses ashore when the Spanish explorers and conquistadors arrived. But moving horses by sling was a tedious, time-consuming and dangerous task. The horses may have been loaded from the dock in Europe that way, but unloading them in Mexico or the Caribbean was another matter entirely.

When the United States Cavalry needed to get its horses to Cuba during the Spanish-American War, they found no docks. They pushed the horses overboard. To their surprise, the horses didn’t swim to shore in one account, the horses drowned. In another, they swam out to sea, instead of toward the shore until a bugler on the beach fixed that by blowing “Right Wheel.” The obedient horses turned and swam to the beach.

Slings had two possible uses on a ship. One was to keep horses upright, as this stall design demonstrates.

Many ships that transported horses were equipped with slings in the 19th century. A Canadian patent in 1878 describes an elaborately-engineered sling system for the equine passengers. But the British, who were learning a lot by transporting horses to India and South Africa, found that the horses fared better without slings, since the slings prevented them from swaying with the ship.

It’s interesting that several recent patents have been filed for advanced sling systems in horse trailers.

Lowering horses one by one from the deck of a ship was tedious, time-consuming and dangerous. This scene shows horses being sent to shore via launch in Ponce, Puerto Rico, as illustrated in the cavalry history Horses, Saddles and Bridles by General William H. Carter, published in 1906. Carter goes into great detail on how to offload horses directly into the sea. "Arriving at destination, the animals should, if possible, be un-loaded at a dock by means of a gangway, the animals from below being led up on the ramps. If there are no ramps the unloading must be by means of slings or the flying stall, the latter being preferable. If the animals must be unloaded into the water to swim ashore, great care should be exercised.

Slings are often shown in old veterinary journals and books, but their use was limited to cases that could be treated in time for the sling to be of use, and the slings were often homemade. The US Cavalry issued a complete sling set up with all the hardware needed to every post, according to General Carter in his book. Over the years, horseowners and trainers continually re-invented the sling with different pulleys and straps people who had never even seen a horse in a sling suddenly wanted to design a better one. Their trial and error process ended with the horse’s success or failure, and the next injured horse had to be the subject of repeated trials somewhere down the road.

In 1859, George Dadd described using slings in a resigned tone that didn&apost bode well for his patients in those pre-sedative years: "If horses when they are fresh should be placed in this machine, most of them would either injure themselves or break through all restraint. However, by tying up their heads for three or four nights, their spirit is destroyed. The slings may then be applied without fear of resistance. In this fashion a horse may remain for months in the slings."

Army surplus horse slings were once sold by veterinary suppliers. This one could be purchased for $35--including the hoist. A state of the art sling today would cost 100 times that price.

In the United States, veterinary hospitals and surgeons were few and far between until the late 20th century. A horse that might have benefited from being in a sling might not be in any condition to be moved to a hospital with a high-quality sling system, and if it could be moved, a considerable time would pass before the surgeon could work on the injured limb.

An example of a successful graduate of sling use for orthopedic use is the great racehorse, Kentucky Derby winner Swaps. The 1956 Horse of the Year hung from a sling at Garden State Racetrack in New Jersey after injuring his hind leg during training after it was set, he broke the cast. Enter a sling. It took four veterinarians three hours to rig it and get the horse into it. His trainer was instructed to raise (or lower) the apparatus every 45 minutes in the horse’s best interest. He complied and did not leave the horse’s side for the first 36 hours. All questions about the horse were referred to his surgeon, Dr. Charles Raker of Penn Vet. 

Six weeks later, the therapy was deemed a success and Swaps was off to a long and successful stud career. Oddly enough, the sling apparatus was loaned to Swaps’ trainer by "Sunny Jim" Fitzsimmons, trainer of Nashua, who had defeated Swaps in a match race.

There is no shortage of patents on sling systems and no two are alike. Would a horse want to wear this one on a hot summer day before the invention of air conditioning?

Awareness and use of slings changed in the late 1900s, as equine surgery advanced out of the veterinary colleges and into referral hospitals that tended to be located close to the centers of horse breeding or competition. Equine ambulances were built to transport injured racehorses off the racetrack. More horses were insured, and owners had more reasons to want to give their horses a chance as the companion animal attitude toward horses blossomed.

At the same time, imaging and diagnostic equipment could evaluate the effectiveness of a sling compared to any ill effects, especially on a horse’s vital organs. A horse’s tolerance of a sling could be improved with the use of sedatives. Even with our advanced medications, some horses are claustrophobic in slings and careful case selection is critical. Vet students see slings routinely in use during their education Penn Vet is famed for using a sling and a powerful hoist to move a horse from the operating theater to the college’s innovative anesthesia recovery pool.

This horse enjoys the support of a modern sling in a stall at Cornell vet school. Notice the location of the padding to prevent rubbing of the straps. (Michael Wildenstein photo)

The golden age of horse slings really began when Charlie Anderson and a group of veterinarians and students at the University of California at Davis experimented with Anderson’s plans for a complex, but effective, sling system. While the Anderson Sling was a game-changer for equine hospitals, the developers foresaw another critical use for it: the airlifting of horses from the bottom of ravines or other difficult-to-reach locations where horses are disabled.

The sight of a horse dangled from a harness in the sky under a helicopter guaranteed the new product plenty of publicity. At the same time, it implanted in the horseowning public a new hope for horses to be able to recover from severe injuries and neurological disorders.

What we know about slings is constantly being tested and improved from outside the horse world. The transport of zoo animals and marine mammals requires expert sling mechanics, and zoo curators must always evaluate the safety considerations of transporting an animal before agreeing to acquire it. 

A group of first responders and trainees learn how to rescue a horse in the show using a rescue sling hoisted by heavy equipment. Rescue slings are usually based on straps that pass under the horse rather than a solid cloth sling. (Paul Morris photo)

This third category of sling use is the field of large animal rescue, where the sling has taken many forms. Some have been sophisticated, some have been primitive some have been brilliant solutions to difficult situations, and saved a horse&aposs life. The continuing education of emergency responders, usually through TLAER, has enabled them to strategically extricate a horse from a ditch, river, quicksand or snowbank (and many other situations). In the field, slings may be lifted by construction equipment or a tripod system, but trained responders understand how to support a horse before attempting to move it.

Rescue slings can be made of straps from old firehoses or be purpose-built rescue-intent systems like the Large Animal Lift that are designed to get straps around the horse for secure, safe lifting to safety. Cities and towns are learning the value of owning (or sharing) up-to-date equipment for large animal rescues, and working with veterinarians and horse owners to practice skills on model horses before the real situation calls them to action.

Slings aren&apost just for horses. This kangaroo was seen hanging around Penn Vet&aposs New Bolton Center in a customized sling suspension unit. (Photo: Pat Reilly)

A final and critically important area for sling use is in the relatively new, but burgeoning, field of welfare-based non-profit horse rescue and compassionate care. Many rescue horses may be weak or affected by chronic diseases like Equine Cushings Disease that leave them in need of support. Rescue organizations may not be able to afford, or have a place for, a complex sling like the ones found in vet hospitals. They may improvise, but they may also move the entire field forward with their ingenious--and often successful--support systems and workarounds.

For individual owners, a safe sling can be an important piece of equipment. Horses with laminitis can especially benefit they may not need to be in the sling all the time. Farriers especially appreciate working on a horse in a sling if it is properly restrained and quiet, since many lame horses find it very painful to put extra weight on an injured hoof while lifting the opposite one. Injured horses may ultimately show their appreciation by steadily improving until "hanging around" is something they no longer need to do.

We&aposre now in an era of great innovation and interest in the rehabilitation of horses, and the sling, in its many forms, is a central tool. The idea of a lame horse in a sling for the purpose of careful shoeing, medicating hooves, or changing boots and bandages at home brings the use of slings full circle from the earliest idea of a tool to help farriers safely shoe an ox or draft horse.

But the story doesn’t end there. Last week, the University of Saskatchewan shared news of an advanced sling support in use at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine there. 

The Canadians are combining technology, clinical experience and equine biomechanics to help perfect the suspension capabilities of a hospital sling. Their unit is remote controlled, so that tension of different parts of the horse’s abdomen or chest can be alleviated. The system allows the animal to be mobile with its weight partially or fully supported by the lift. 

While the unit has only been tested on healthy, uninjured horses so far, trials will help the team determine how the lift affects the horse’s behavior and basic physiological parameters, such as muscle enzyme levels and blood flow. They will also monitor the animals for pressure sores caused by the sling.

To review, three principle reasons to use a sling are: 

  1. Active horse rescue from a ditch or in deep mud or snow the University of California at Davis even utilizes a sling for air rescue of horses trapped at the bottom of canyons.
  2. Prolonged and variable weightbearing relief: Hospitalization of horses with severe orthopedic injuries in a critical care situation.
  3. Compassionate care of chronically sore or laminitic horses at home to provide temporary relief or ease in treatment without causing undue stress for the horse.

Slings have been the first line of assistance for hospitalized horses that need to get off their feet, but not be recumbent continually to achieve weightbearing relief. They also have a myriad of uses in layup situations or chronic nursing care on farms. They&aposre not perfect, and they won&apost be the answer for every injured horse. 

Building a better sling is still a challenge that inventive people tackle with the best intentions. But the challenge of Henry Ford, revived by Steve Jobs of Apple, comes to mind. He (allegedly) quipped that, when he invented the mass-produced motor car, he changed the paradigm by ikke asking the public to envision what they wanted their future transportation to be like: “If I had asked people what they wanted, they would have saidꃺster horses,” he said. Instead, he gave them the future.

Can that train of thought be applied to slings? Are there other ways to get horses off their feet, or is it possible to create a support mechanism that is less bulky, easier to remove one that doesn&apost rub, cause sores and create stress? Is someone, somewhere designing a wearable sensor that will monitor pressure of a sling on different locations on the horse&aposs body? Perhaps the sling paradigm as we know it is as good as that mechanical concept is likely to get. Is there another way?

Bemærk:There&aposs no question that stocks and slings can be helpful to injured or unstable horses, but there are situations where they are not warranted, as well. Always consult with a veterinarian on the appropriateness of a sling for your horse, and how often you would use it. Slings can also hurt a horse and the people around it if used improperly, are attached to structures that can&apost support their weight, or are used on an uncooperative horse. Horses in slings should not be left alone and the harness should be checked for rubbing and soreness at pressure points.

To learn more:

Carter, William H. Horses, Saddles and Bridles. Baltimore, Maryland: Lord Baltimore Press, 1906.

Ishihara A, Madigan JE, Hubert JD, McConnico RS

Slings, bedding materials and stall design
Donald M. Walsh
Proceedings of 2007 International Equine Conference on Laminitis and Diseases of the Foot

Trimming and shoeing the recumbent horse
Michael J. Wildenstein
Proceedings of 2007 International Equine Conference on Laminitis and Diseases of the Foot


New York's Fire Horses

At first, horses were not popular with the New York Fire Department. In the 1800s, firemen resisted getting horses to pull the fire wagons because they thought it would put men out of work, since the fire wagons were pulled by humans, not horses.

In 1832, a cholera epidemic in New York limited the availability of firemen to pull the trucks, so they brought in the first fire horse. A rival neighborhood&aposs fire crew broke into the stable, shaved the horse&aposs mane and tail, and painted a skunk-like stripe down the horse&aposs back. It took more than 20 years before another NY fire station dared use a horse.

Once the fire department adopted the horse idea, the New York fire horses were among the finest in America they were even shown in the National Horse Show in Madison Square Garden. They also had farrier wagons that raced to the scene of a fire in the event that the fire horses threw shoes in their haste to get to the fire. And that did happen. A thrown shoe from a fast-galloping fire horse once broke a third-story window.

The well-kept fire horses of New York probably never knew the irony of their frequent calls to stable fires throughout the city, especially lower Manhattan. The area around the site of the World Trade Center was dense with horse barns. Horses were kept at night on the upper floors of barns, with carriages and harness on the ground floor.

When the stables of a lower Manhattan ferry company burned, 1,200 horses were trapped inside. The New York Fire Department was prompted to write a report expressing its frustration at not being able to save helpless horses during the frequent stable fires.

An epidemic of distemper (called simply "the epizootic", or epidemic) hit the United States in 1872, bringing the nation&aposs transport to a halt. In Boston, four fire horses died and virtually all the city&aposs fire horses were declared unfit for service. It was not safe to bring fresh horses into the city until the disease died down, so firefighters were pressed to pull their own fire wagons only one fire station had a team of horses healthy enough to answer the call.

The timing was bad on November 9, what would come to be known as the Great Boston Fire broke out, destroying 776 buildings and killing 14 people, including 11 firefighters. Historically, the lack of horses is blamed for the city&aposs inability to contain the fire.

The three-abreast hitch was popular with fire departments. Interestingly, the middle horse was recorded as the one first to break down and have lameness problems. Once this happened, the entire team was retired, since firemen believed that a replacement in the hitch would be a bad omen.

A startling feature of looking at archives of fire horse photos is that they usually did not wear blinkers, as most driving horses do.

Firemen were known to be very attached to their horses and maintained accounts to pay the retirement expenses of their horses. They were even known to parade horses through the streets when one of the horses died, to let the city&aposs people know of their loss.


Roswell UFO Crash: There Were 2 Crashes, Not 1, Says Ex-Air Force Official

The 1947 UFO controversy of Roswell, N.M. is like a bad penny: It keeps turning up.

The legend, rehashed by conspiracy theorists in countless documentaries, revolves around allegations that an unusual object fell from the sky -- an object so bizarre that the U.S. Air Force issued a press release that a flying saucer had crashed.

That story was quickly recanted, creating what would become one of the greatest urban legends in American history.

Until now, most debunkers doubted that there was even one crash. Now, in an exclusive interview, retired Air Force Lt. Col. Richard French told The Huffington Post that there were actually two crashes.

This revelation is especially remarkable considering that French was known in the past to debunk UFO stories.

"There were actually two crashes at Roswell, which most people don't know," French told HuffPost. "The first one was shot down by an experimental U.S. airplane that was flying out of White Sands, N.M., and it shot what was effectively an electronic pulse-type weapon that disabled and took away all the controls of the UFO, and that's why it crashed."

French -- an Air Force pilot who was in Alamagordo, N.M., in 1947, being tested in an altitude chamber, an annual requirement for rated officers -- was very specific in how the military allegedly brought down what he believes was a spacecraft from another world.

"When they hit it with that electromagnetic pulse -- bingo! -- there goes all their electronics and, consequently, the UFO was uncontrollable," said French, who flew hundreds of combat missions in Korea and Southeast Asia, and who held several positions working for Military Intelligence.

Another retired officer doubts French's story.

"No chance! Zero chance!" said Army Col. John Alexander, whose own top-secret clearance gave him access in the 1980s to official documents and UFO accounts. He created a top-level group of government officials and scientists who determined that, while UFOs are real, they couldn't find evidence of an official cover-up.

"In the 1980s, I was the guy developing all of the pulse-power weapons systems. We couldn't have done it then. In the 60s, they had a laser system, but your range was extremely limited, and we didn't have operational laser weapons in that time frame," said Alexander, who is working to get amnesty for military personnel who wish to talk about their UFO experiences.

Except for the initial newspaper headline declaring the military had captured a flying saucer outside of Roswell, the Air Force closed the books on Roswell, claiming that the true identity of the object was a high-altitude surveillance balloon, code-named "Mogul."

But after eyewitnesses -- including numerous military personnel -- began to tell stories of their participation in an alleged cover-up of the Roswell incident, some researchers insisted that it was, in fact, an alien ship that crashed at Roswell.

Watch this video of Ret. Air Force Lt. Col. Richard French

French says he was told about the UFO "shootdown" by another military officer -- a confidential source -- from White Sands Proving Grounds, an area of the New Mexico desert where the U.S. military tested many weapons systems.

His source told French there was a second UFO crash near Roswell a few days after the first one.

"It was within a few miles of where the original crash was," French said. "We think that the reason they were in there at that time was to try and recover parts and any survivors of the first crash. I'm [referring to] the people from outer space -- the guys whose UFO it was."

While French offered no further details on what he says was a second UFO crash, he teased something else.

"I had seen photographs of parts of the UFO that had inscriptions on it that looked like it was in an Arabic language -- it was like a part number on each one of them. They were photographs in a folder that I just thumbed through."

That's an interesting parallel to the recent story of ex-CIA agent Chase Brandon, who claimed he found a box at CIA headquarters in the 1990s -- a box labeled "Roswell."

Brandon told HuffPost he looked in the box and went through written materials and photographs confirming his suspicions that the object which crashed at Roswell, "was a craft that clearly did not come from this planet."

That story set off a fury of controversy between those who believed and didn't believe Brandon's story.

Watch this 1997 news report on the Air Force's 'Case Closed: Final Report on the Roswell Crash'

And now we have French, who served more than 27 years in the military, including as an investigator and debunker for the Air Force's famous study of UFOs, known as Project Blue Book, which began in 1947.

"I'm one of the authors of Project Blue Book, and started with the Air Force Office of Special Investigations, stationed in Spokane, Wash. One of the duties I had in 1952 was to debunk UFO stories," French said.

"In other words, if someone had a UFO sighting, I and another agent would try to come up with some logical explanation for this strange aerial appearance. Most of the reports were from civilians than military. We gave our analysis and tried to debunk it by saying it was swamp fog or that the thing they saw was actually hanging on wires. It went up through channels all the way to the presidential level."

But why was French ordered to debunk UFO reports in the first place?

"They never give you an explanation, but I'll tell you what my analysis of it is: If they accepted the fact that there are creatures coming to Earth from other universes or from wherever, it basically would destroy religions, and the fact that our military's helpless against them would destroy the reputation of the military," French said. "You're talking about military, national defense and religious reasons."

As it often turns out with eye-opening UFO stories, it comes down to who you believe.

Antonio Huneeus is a 30-year veteran UFO investigative reporter who recently spent time with French and is trying to uncover more facts about the information the former Military Intelligence officer would have us believe.

"We did a search and found his name on an official Air Force page that confirmed he was a combat pilot, but that page had nothing to do with UFOs," Huneeus, editor of Open Minds Magazine, told HuffPost.

"My reservations are about some of the claims that he makes, and because of his age, his memory isn't as good as it used to be," Huneeus said. "It's clear to me that he's fairly well read on the subject of UFOs, or he might have heard stories or talked to people. So, I'm trying to separate exactly what he lived and saw directly from what he heard and read."

Sixty years after French began investigating UFOs for Project Blue Book, he still thinks there's a cover-up.

"It's going on today. There's no question about it. I've listened to their denials many times and, at that time, I was in direct opposition to their position. In my mind, there wasn't any question that UFOs were real."


History of the Orlov Trotter, Orlov-Rostopchin Breeds

Eighteenth century Count Alexei Orlov bred Arabian stallions with royal Spanish and Danish mares, as well as English Thoroughbreds, Dutch Friesians and other breeds, to produce the Orlov Trotter in the late 1700s.

But in addition to his Trotters, Count Orlov also used some of his same foundation Arabians to produce a saddle horse in the first decades of the 19th century. Orlov Riding Horses, as they were called, averaged about 16 hands with strong, athletic bodies, but also featured dished heads, swanlike necks and an elegant look. They were predominantly black.

At the same time, a rival breeder, Count F.V. Rostopchin was crossing his own Arabian stallions with Persian, Thoroughbred and Russian mares to produce a riding horse of this own. Rostopchin&aposs horses were smaller, with shorter necks, but they were known for speed his horses, too, were predominantly black.

In the 1840s, after their deaths, both breeders&apos studs were purchased by the state, and the two lines were combined into one breed, called the Orlov-Rostopchin (also called the Russian Saddle Horse). Many were lost during the wars of the 20th century, but enthusiasts have sought out survivors and are rebuilding the breed.

For more information on the Orlov-Rostopchin, go to www.imh.org/imh/bw/rsaddnew.html. For more on the Orlov Trotter, visit www.imh.org/imh/bw/orlov.html.

To read more about the Orlov Trotter in print, see "From Russia, With Love" in the June 2005 issue of EQUUS magazine.


10 Facts: Civil War Artillery

Transporting and distributing supplies required depots at various ports. These Union troops gathered near a massive artillery park at Yorktown. Note the ships at the dock in the background.

Artillery played an important role in many battles during the Civil War, and reflected how advances in technology could fundamentally change how wars and battles are fought. Please consider these quick facts about artillery to expand your knowledge and think more deeply about the role technology can play in changing history.

Fact #1: You need a team of ten to shoot a cannon.

Most artillery pieces were manned by teams of at least 9 soldiers, though only 2 were needed in a pinch. Multiple men were needed to sponge the barrel to prevent unplanned explosions, carry projectiles from the rear, ram the powder and shell to the back of the tube, and at least one, the gunner, for each piece was needed to judge the distance and position of the target and aim the weapon.

Fact #2: Artillery pieces were extraordinarily heavy.

While relatively mobile compared to siege or naval guns, field artillery pieces were still incredibly heavy. A gun meant to fire only 10-pound projectiles could weigh well over half a ton.

Transporting and distributing supplies required depots at various ports. These Union troops gathered near a massive artillery park at Yorktown. Note the ships at the dock in the background.

Fact #3: Horses were also important to the use of artillery in battle.

Artillery teams would need about six animals per gun to move it into position, and about six or eight to move the caissons, the carriages that carried powder and ammunition.

Fact #4: The Civil War saw the widespread use of rifled artillery pieces with grooves running down the tube.

These grooves would force a projectile to rapidly spin as it flew through the air, like a large, metal football, which would stabilize it. The guns, therefore, could fire further and much more accurately than the older style of smoothbore cannon.

Fact #5: Like previous wars, Civil War artillery could fire multiple types of ammunition.

Cannonballs were solid, round objects that would ricochet off the ground and often used to target fortifications and enemy artillery. Case shot was an anti-personnel projectile, meaning it was used against soldiers. It was a hollow shell filled with scraps of metal called shrapnel. Once fired at an approaching formation, the shell could explode in mid-air, spreading the shrapnel across a large radius. As the enemy got closer, gunners would switch to canister or grapeshot. The crew would load the gun with a coffee can-sized container filled with small metal balls. Once fired, the can would disintegrate, spreading the balls outward in a fan, essentially like a giant shotgun.

20 pounder Parrott Rifle (Wikipedia)

Fact #6: Accidents and misfires were common, and often fatal, on the Civil War battlefield.

Caisson carriages, which carried extra black powder, were also prone to explode if hit by an enemy shell, as one Confederate gunner who fought at Gettysburg attests. The Parrott Rifle, an experimental gun developed for the union, was also somewhat unreliable due to the cast iron used to make it, but it was still widely used given how cheap it was to produce.

Fact #7: The Union held a distinct advantage in artillery over the Confederacy thanks to its superior industrial infrastructure.

More than a thousand new artillery pieces were created in Union factories from 1861-1865, the most famous of which was the Phoenix Iron Works in Phoenixville, Pennsylvania.

Fact #8: The largest use of field artillery in the Civil War was the bombardment preceeding Pickett's Charge.

On the last day of Gettysburg, before thousands of Confederate troops advanced towards the Union line in a massive, classic infantry assault, General Lee ordered a massive artillery bombardment to help clear the way for his men. This quickly triggered a Union response, and the two sides fired on each other for over 90 minutes. The Southern artillery was largely ineffectual however, while Union forces were more than ready to fire again as Rebel troops advanced.

Fact #9: Artillery crews also developed a brand new technique in targeting the enemy during the Civil War.

One of the stranger developments in artillery was the use of hot-air balloons as viewing platforms that could communicate with artillery teams via flag signals and allow them to hit targets they could not actually see. This is a form of fire we have termed indirect fire.

View of the earth and sandbag position from where the rifled artillery piece named "The Swamp Angel" was operated from. Built upon marshy ground, the Swamp Angel was able to fire upon the city of Charleston. The enormous 200-pounder Parrott Rifle was one of the largest artillery pieces used in the war, and fired 36 rounds on Charleston before exploding, inspiring the Herman Melville poem of the same name. Congress of Library

Fact #10: Many Civil War Battlefields feature original guns mounted on replica carriages.

Battlefield visitors today can often see real guns from the 1860's on display. By closely examining a gun, you can often see things like which side deployed it, which factory created it and when it was cast, when the design was patented, an even the initials of the inspector that examined it. With this information, we know that many guns on display may have been at the battlefields where they are now held.


Amish made Saddles & Tack

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Warranty

All of our trail riding saddles have a one-year warranty on materials and workmanship under normal use and a limited five-year warranty on the tree under normal use. The customer is responsible for all shipping charges.


STANDARDBRED BREEDING FOR ALL.

First of all let me give you a little background about myself. I am a small breeder who breeds to race. I come from a clinical background where evidence of proven data was paramount. The same can be said when choosing a sire for your mare.

The more proven data the better the outcome.

The idea is to breed a foal with a bigger percentage of making the racetrack.

When we look at standardbred foals, only 60% of foals will race at sometime in their life, and of these approx 55% will win races.

Why are the percentages so low? good question..

Could be the foal was injured as a weanling or yearling,

Did not have the mental ability to race or incorrectly bred etc etc.

This is where Standardbred Breeding For All will give you proven sire data over bloodline broodmares.

Also in the site you will find other racing and breeding information

located in the breeding extras box above.

Please read the Directory notes before you start your search for your choice of sire,

A Big THANK YOU to Dr Ron Groves and Simon Morris

for the use of Classic Families and Data,

Also B4BREEDING for related breeding and sire information.

HRNZ and USTA for the link pages to leading sire reports.

The Meadowlands and Woodbine Entertainment Group for live racing links.

Also to Heather Vitale for permission to link to her website and TV shows.

The websites objective is to increase breeding and ownership of standardbreds worldwide, and to attract new personal to the industry. The website is an information centre where you can access data and information on sires,breeding,articles etc etc.
The site is not for personal gain, nor does it suggest sires for your mares, the idea is the data and information contained in the website will help you research your choice of bloodline sire with your bloodline mare with proven data and information, hoping that your progeny bred is the best result for your mare.

Just click on the bloodline sire box's on the top of page for classic winners and pedigrees.


Fragment of Urartian Horse Harness - History

Get ready to score big with our new 6V NCAA Plush Ride-Ons! Your favorite team mascot will be available exclusively at Walmart on August 31st!

A celebrated fairy tale comes to life with the 24-Volt Disney Princess Carriage! Once a pumpkin, this elegant coach is ready to whisk your little princess off to the ball or to her next big adventure.

The beautiful pink carriage is thoughtfully designed with graphics of her favorite Disney Princesses, gold accents, working doors and ornate interior details. The spacious coach is large enough to bring along a friend, and features a detachable "wear and share" tiara, heart-shaped steering wheel and luxurious curtains.

Girls will love the magical light-up wand and enchanting fairy tale sounds. With the iconic Disney Princess Carriage, your little princess can ride wherever her biggest dreams take her.

Do you have warranty questions or need replacement parts? Take advantage of everything the Dynacraft universe has to offer!

By registering your ride, our team can provide you with faster service if you ever need it.

Registration is quick and easy. Should any issues arise with your favorite set of wheels, we have your product information available.

We will also make sure to keep you in the loop about new products, promotions and special events.


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