Howard Carter

Howard Carter


Howard Carter: Fakta og information

Her er nogle fakta om Howard Carter, den engelske arkæolog, der opdagede Tutankhmuns grav.

  • Howard Carter blev født den 9. maj 1874 i Kensington, London.
  • Hans far, Samuel John Carter, var en kunstner.
  • Som barn var Howard Carter ofte utilpas, og han tilbragte meget tid i Swaffham i Norfolk.
  • Han var hjemmeskolet.
  • Da han var 17 år, arbejdede Carter i Egypten som arkæologisk kunstner. Han fremstillede tegninger og diagrammer over vigtige gamle egyptiske fund og lokaliteter for Egypt Exploration Fund.
  • I 1899 blev han den første inspektør for den egyptiske antikvitetstjeneste. Han overvågede en række arkæologiske udgravninger og udførte flere udgravninger af sine egne og opdagede gravene til Thutmose I og Thutmose III.
  • I 1907 hyrede Lord Carnarvon, en velhavende engelsk aristokrat, Howard Carter til at lede en udgravning af en gammel egyptisk grav.
  • I 1914 fik Lord Carnarvon retten til at grave på stedet KV62. Dette var den formodede placering af Tutankhamuns grav, og Howard Carter blev valgt til at styre projektet.
  • Carter sammensatte et team af arbejdere, men udbruddet af 1. verdenskrig afbrød projektet. Arbejdet genoptog i 1917 og fortsatte i flere år.
  • I 1922 frustreret over, at Tutankhamuns grav endnu ikke var blevet opdaget, sagde Lord Carnarvon, at han ville stoppe med at finansiere udgravningen om et år, hvis der ikke var gjort flere fremskridt.
  • Den 4. november 1922 opdagede en af ​​Howard Carter's team et stentrin i sandet. En hel trappe blev hurtigt afsløret, og de førte til Tutanhhamuns grav.
  • Graven blev forseglet af en stendør, og den 26. november 1922 mejslede Howard Carter et lille hul i døren og kiggede ind. Som svar på et spørgsmål fra Lord Carnarvon sagde Carter berømt, at han kunne se vidunderlige ting i forkammeret.
  • Howard Carter brugte måneder på at tegne, katalogisere og fjerne artefakterne, mange af dem lavet af guld, fra forkammeret, før han åbnede døren fra forkammeret til Tutankhamuns gravkammer.
  • Gravkammeret indeholdt sarkofagen i Tutankhamun.
  • Tutankhamuns grav var den mest velbevarede faraos grav, der er fundet i Egyptens Kongenes dal og Carter arbejdede på den indtil 1932.
  • Howard Carter blev en berømthed, og han turnerede i USA og holdt foredrag om sine fund.
  • Howard Carter døde den 2. marts 1939, 64 år gammel. Han led af lymfekræft.
  • Lord Carnarvon døde af en inficeret myggestik den 5. april 1923. Dette førte til, at aviser talte om faraos sygeplejerske og#8217 forårsagede dødsfald for dem, der forstyrrede mumien fra en gammel egytpisk farao. Howard Carter selv troede ikke på eksistensen af ​​en forbandelse, og det gør de fleste moderne historikere heller ikke.

Hvad er det næste? Opdag flere antikke egyptiske fakta ved at besøge vores side for gamle egyptiske ressourcer.


Howard Carter blev født i Kensington den 9. maj 1874, det yngste barn (af elleve) af kunstneren og illustratoren Samuel John Carter og Martha Joyce (født Sands). Hans far hjalp med at træne og udvikle hans kunstneriske talenter. [1]

Carter tilbragte meget af sin barndom med slægtninge i købstaden Norfolk i Swaffham, fødestedet for begge hans forældre. [2] [3] Da han kun modtog begrænset formel uddannelse på Swaffham, viste han talent som kunstner. Det nærliggende palæ i familien Amherst, Didlington Hall, indeholdt en betydelig samling af egyptiske antikviteter, hvilket vakte Carters interesse for dette emne. Lady Amherst var imponeret over hans kunstneriske evner, og i 1891 fik hun Egypt Exploration Fund (EEF) til at sende Carter for at hjælpe en Amherst -familieven, Percy Newberry, med udgravningen og optagelsen af ​​grave i Mellemriget ved Beni Hasan. [4]

Selvom Carter kun var 17, var han innovativ med hensyn til at forbedre metoderne til kopiering af gravdekorationer. I 1892 arbejdede han under ledelse af Flinders Petrie i en sæson i Amarna, hovedstaden grundlagt af faraoen Akhenaten. Fra 1894 til 1899 arbejdede han sammen med Édouard Naville på Deir el-Bahari, hvor han optog vægreliefferne i templet i Hatshepsut. [5]

I 1899 blev Carter udnævnt til inspektør for monumenter for Øvre Egypten i Egyptian Antiquities Service (EAS). [6] Med udgangspunkt i Luxor havde han tilsyn med en række udgravninger og restaureringer i nærheden af ​​Theben, mens han i Kongernes dal overvågede den amerikanske arkæolog Theodore Davis systematisk udforskning af dalen. [5] I 1904, efter en strid med lokalbefolkningen om gravtyveri, blev han overført til inspektionen i Nedre Egypten. [7] Carter blev rost for sine forbedringer i beskyttelsen af ​​og tilgængeligheden til eksisterende udgravningssteder [8] og hans udvikling af et gitterbloksystem til søgning efter grave. Antiquities Service gav også finansiering til Carter til at lede sine egne udgravningsprojekter.

Carter trådte tilbage fra Antiquities Service i 1905 efter en formel undersøgelse af det, der blev kendt som Saqqara -affæren, en voldelig konfrontation mellem egyptiske stedvagter og en gruppe franske turister. Carter stod på side med det egyptiske personale og nægtede at undskylde, da de franske myndigheder indgav en officiel klage. [9] Når han flyttede tilbage til Luxor, var Carter uden formel ansættelse i næsten tre år. Han levede af at male og sælge akvareller til turister og i 1906 fungerede han som freelance tegner for Theodore Davis. [10]

I 1907 begyndte han at arbejde for Lord Carnarvon, der ansatte ham til at føre tilsyn med udgravningen af ​​adelsgrave i Deir el-Bahri, nær Theben. [11] Gaston Maspero, leder af den egyptiske antikvitetstjeneste, havde anbefalet Carter til Carnarvon, da han vidste, at han ville anvende moderne arkæologiske metoder og optagelsessystemer. [12] Carter udviklede hurtigt et godt arbejdsforhold med sin protektor, med Lady Burghclere, Carnarvons søster, der bemærkede, at "i de næste seksten år arbejdede de to mænd sammen med varierende formue, men alligevel aldrig forenet ikke mere efter deres fælles mål end ved deres gensidig respekt og kærlighed ". [13]

I 1914 modtog Lord Carnarvon indrømmelsen for at grave i Kongernes dal. [14] Carter ledede arbejdet og foretog en systematisk søgning efter eventuelle grave, som tidligere ekspeditioner havde savnet, især Farao Tutankhamons. Imidlertid blev udgravninger hurtigt afbrudt af Første Verdenskrig, Carter tilbragte krigsårene for at arbejde for den britiske regering som diplomatisk kurer og oversætter. Han genoptog begejstret sit udgravningsarbejde mod slutningen af ​​1917. [15]

I 1922 var Lord Carnarvon blevet utilfreds med manglen på resultater efter flere års at finde lidt. Efter at have overvejet at trække sin finansiering tilbage, accepterede Carnarvon efter en diskussion med Carter, at han ville finansiere endnu en sæson med arbejde i Kongernes dal. [16]

Carter vendte tilbage til Kongernes dal og undersøgte en række hytter, som han havde forladt et par sæsoner tidligere. Besætningen ryddede nedenunder hytter og stenrester. Den 4. november 1922 snublede deres unge vanddreng ved et uheld på en sten, der viste sig at være toppen af ​​et trin, der blev skåret ned i grundfjeldet. [17] Carter fik delvist gravet trinene ud, indtil toppen af ​​en mudderpudset døråbning blev fundet. Døren blev stemplet med utydelige cartouches (ovale sæler med hieroglyfisk skrift). Carter beordrede trappen til at blive genopfyldt og sendte et telegram til Carnarvon, der ankom fra England to og en halv uge senere den 23. november ledsaget af sin datter Lady Evelyn Herbert. [18]

Den 24. november 1922 blev trappens fulde omfang ryddet, og der blev fundet et segl indeholdende Tutankhamuns cartouche på den ydre døråbning. Denne dør blev fjernet, og den murbrokkede gang bagved blev ryddet og afslørede døren til selve graven. [19] Den 26. november lavede Carter, med Carnarvon, Lady Evelyn og assistent Arthur Callender til stede, et "lille brud i øverste venstre hjørne" af døren ved hjælp af en mejsel, som hans bedstemor havde givet ham til sin 17-års fødselsdag . Han var i stand til at kigge ind ved lyset af et stearinlys og se, at mange af guld- og ibenholtskatte stadig var på plads. Han vidste endnu ikke, om det var "en grav eller blot en gammel cache", men han så en lovende forseglet døråbning mellem to vagtposter. Carnarvon spurgte: "Kan du se noget?" Carter svarede: "Ja, vidunderlige ting!" [20] Carter havde faktisk opdaget Tutankhamuns grav (efterfølgende betegnet KV62). [21] Graven blev derefter sikret, for at blive indtastet i overværelse af en embedsmand fra det egyptiske ministerium for antikviteter den næste dag. [22] Men den nat foretog Carter, Carnarvon, Lady Evelyn og Callender tilsyneladende et uautoriseret besøg og blev de første mennesker i moderne tid til at komme ind i graven. [23] [24] [25] Nogle kilder tyder på, at gruppen også kom ind i det indre gravkammer. [26] I denne beretning blev der fundet et lille hul i kammerets lukkede døråbning, og Carter, Carnarvon og Lady Evelyn kravlede igennem. [25]

Næste morgen, den 27. november, blev der inspiceret af graven i nærværelse af en egyptisk embedsmand. Callender riggede op til elektrisk belysning og belyste en lang række ting, herunder forgyldte sofaer, kister, troner og helligdomme. De så også tegn på to yderligere kamre, herunder den forseglede døråbning til det indre gravkammer, bevogtet af to statuer af Tutankhamun i naturlig størrelse. [27] På trods af tegn på indbrud i oldtiden var graven praktisk talt intakt og ville i sidste ende blive fundet at indeholde over 5.000 genstande.

Den 29. november blev graven officielt åbnet i overværelse af en række inviterede dignitarer og egyptiske embedsmænd. [28]

Da Carter indså størrelsen og omfanget af den opgave, der venter, søgte han hjælp fra Albert Lythgoe fra Metropolitan Museums udgravningsteam, der let accepterede at låne en række af sine medarbejdere, herunder Arthur Mace og arkæologiske fotograf Harry Burton, [29] den egyptiske regering lånte analytisk kemiker Alfred Lucas. [30] De næste adskillige måneder blev brugt på at katalogisere og bevare indholdet i forkammeret under "ofte stressende" tilsyn af Pierre Lacau, generaldirektør for Antikviteter. [31] Den 16. februar 1923 åbnede Carter den forseglede døråbning og bekræftede, at det førte til et gravkammer, der indeholdt sarkofagen i Tutankhamun. Graven blev betragtet som den bedst bevarede og mest intakte faraoniske grav, der nogensinde er fundet i Kongernes dal, og opdagelsen blev ivrigt dækket af verdens presse. Men til stor ærgrelse for andre aviser solgte Lord Carnarvon eksklusive rapporteringsrettigheder til Tiderne. Kun Arthur Merton af dette papir var tilladt på scenen, og hans levende beskrivelser var med til at etablere Carters ry hos den britiske offentlighed. [32]

I slutningen af ​​februar 1923 stoppede udbruddet midlertidigt en kløft mellem Lord Carnarvon og Carter, sandsynligvis forårsaget af en uenighed om, hvordan de tilsynsførende egyptiske myndigheder skulle håndteres. Arbejdet begyndte igen i begyndelsen af ​​marts, efter at Lord Carnarvon undskyldte Carter. [33] Senere samme måned fik Lord Carnarvon blodforgiftning, mens han opholdt sig i Luxor nær gravstedet. Han døde i Kairo den 5. april 1923. [34] Lady Carnarvon beholdt sin afdøde mands indrømmelse i Kongernes dal, hvilket tillod Carter at fortsætte sit arbejde.

Carters omhyggelige vurdering og katalogisering af de tusinder af objekter i graven tog næsten ti år, de fleste blev flyttet til det egyptiske museum i Kairo. Der var flere pauser i arbejdet, herunder en varighed på næsten et år i 1924–25, forårsaget af en strid om, hvad Carter så som overdreven kontrol af udgravningen af ​​den egyptiske antikvitetstjeneste. De egyptiske myndigheder blev til sidst enige om, at Carter skulle fuldføre gravens rydning. [35] Dette fortsatte indtil 1929, med en del sidste arbejde, der varede indtil februar 1932. [36]

På trods af betydningen af ​​hans arkæologiske fund modtog Carter ingen ære fra den britiske regering. Men i 1926 modtog han Nilen, tredje klasse, fra kong Fuad I af Egypten. [37] Han blev også tildelt en æresgrad i doktorgrad fra Yale University og æresmedlemskab i Real Academia de la Historia i Madrid, Spanien. [38]

Carter skrev en række bøger om egyptologi i løbet af sin karriere, [39] inklusive Fem års opdagelse i Theben, skrevet sammen med Lord Carnarvon i 1912, der beskriver deres tidlige udgravninger [40] og en populær beretning i tre bind om opdagelsen og udgravningen af ​​Tutankhamuns grav. [41] Han leverede også en række illustrerede foredrag om udgravningen, herunder en rundvisning i Storbritannien, Frankrig, Spanien og USA i 1924. [42] Dem i New York og andre amerikanske byer deltog i et stort og entusiastisk publikum, der udløste amerikansk egyptomani, [43] med præsident Coolidge, der anmodede om et privat foredrag. [44]

Carter kunne være akavet i selskabet, især med dem med en højere social status. [45] Ofte slibende indrømmede han at have et varmt temperament, [46] som ofte forværrede tvister, herunder Saqqara -affæren fra 1905 og striden med egyptiske myndigheder fra 1924–25.

Forslaget om, at Carter havde en affære med Lady Evelyn Herbert, [47] datter af 5. jarl af Carnarvon, blev senere afvist af Lady Evelyn selv, der fortalte datteren Patricia, at "først var jeg ærefrygt for ham, senere jeg var temmelig bange for ham ", og ærgrede sig over Carters" beslutsomhed "om at komme mellem hende og hendes far. [48] ​​For nylig afviste 8. jarl ideen og beskrev Carter som en "stoisk enspænder". [49] Harold Plenderleith, en tidligere medarbejder ved Carters på British Museum, blev citeret for at sige, at han vidste "noget om Carter, der ikke var egnet til at oplyse", hvilket måske tyder på, at Plenderleith mente, at Carter var homoseksuel. [50] Der er imidlertid ingen tegn på, at Carter havde et nært forhold gennem hele sit liv, [51] og at han aldrig giftede sig eller havde børn. [43]

Efter at rydningen af ​​graven var afsluttet i 1932, trak Carter sig fra gravearbejde. Han fortsatte med at bo i sit hus nær Luxor om vinteren og beholdt en lejlighed i London, men da interessen for Tutankhamun faldt, levede han en ret isoleret tilværelse med få nære venner. [52]

Han havde i en årrække fungeret som deltidshandler for både samlere og museer. [53] Han fortsatte i denne rolle, herunder skuespil for Cleveland Museum of Art og Detroit Institute of Arts.

Carter døde i sin London -lejlighed på 49 Albert Court, ved siden af ​​Royal Albert Hall, den 2. marts 1939, 64 år gammel fra Hodgkins sygdom. [54] [55] [56] [57] Han blev begravet på Putney Vale Cemetery i London den 6. marts, hvor ni mennesker deltog i hans begravelse. [58]

Epitafiet på hans gravsten lyder: "Må din ånd leve, må du bruge millioner af år, du, der elsker Theben, siddende med ansigtet mod nordvind og dine øjne se lykke", et citat hentet fra Wishing Cup i Tutankhamun, [59] og "O nat, bred dine vinger ud over mig som de uforgængelige stjerner". [60]

Skifte blev givet den 5. juli 1939 til egyptologen Henry Burton og til forlaget Bruce Sterling Ingram. Carter beskrives som Howard Carter fra Luxor, Øvre Egypten, Afrika og af 49 Albert Court, Kensington Grove, Kensington, London. Hans ejendom blev værdiansat til £ 2.002. Den anden bevilling af skifte blev udstedt i Kairo den 1. september 1939. [61] I sin rolle som bobestyrer identificerede Burton mindst 18 genstande i Carters antikviteter, der var blevet taget fra Tutankhamuns grav uden tilladelse. Da dette var et følsomt spørgsmål, der kunne påvirke de anglo-egyptiske forhold, søgte Burton bredere råd og anbefalede endelig, at emnerne diskret blev præsenteret eller solgt til Metropolitan Museum of Art, hvor de fleste i sidste ende skulle gå enten der eller til det egyptiske museum i Kairo. [62] Metropolitan Museums genstande blev senere returneret til Egypten. [63]

  • Opdagelsen af ​​Tutankhamens grav (1923) (skrevet sammen med A.C. Mace)
  • Tutankhamuns grav: bind I - søgning, opdagelse og rydning af forkammeret (1923) (skrevet sammen med A.C. Mace)
  • The Tomb of Tutankhamun: Volume II - Burial Chamber & amp Mummy (1927)
  • The Tomb of Tutankhamun: Volume III - Treasury & amp Annex (1933)

Carters opdagelse af Tutankhamons grav genoplivede populær interesse for det gamle Egypten - 'Egyptomania' - og skabte "Tutmania", som påvirkede populær sang og mode. [64] Carter brugte denne øgede interesse til at promovere sine bøger om opdagelsen og sine foredragsture i Storbritannien, Amerika og Europa. [42] Mens interessen var aftaget i midten af ​​1930'erne, [65] fra begyndelsen af ​​1970'erne førte turnéudstillinger af gravens artefakter til en vedvarende stigning i popularitet. Dette er blevet afspejlet i tv -dramaer, film og bøger, med Carters søgen og opdagelse af graven skildret med varierende nøjagtighed. [66]

Et fælles element i populære repræsentationer af udgravningen er tanken om en 'forbandelse'. Carter afviste konsekvent forslaget som 'tommy-rot' og kommenterede, at "egyptologens stemning ikke er frygt, men respekt og ærefrygt. Fuldstændig modstander af tåbelige overtro". [67]

Dramaer Rediger

Carter er blevet portrætteret eller omtalt i mange film-, tv- og radioproduktioner: [68]


Howard Carter - Historie

Gale Encyclopedia of Biography:

Howard Carter (1874-1939), den berømte arkæolog, der opdagede kong Tutankhamuns grav, var et individ udover et stædig menneske, hvis perfektionisme ofte fik ham i problemer. Havde han været i større udstrækning end diplomatisk, ville han mægtigt tage vedligeholde undgået meget personlig elendighed, men derfor ville han aldrig tage vedligeholde opdagede graven.

Howard Carter blev født i London, England, den 9. maj 1874 i en lavere mellemgradsfamilie. Den yngste af elleve børn af Samuel John Carter, en maler af dyr udover en illustrator for Illustrated London News, udover Martha Joyce Sands, blev han opvokset indad i den lille engelske sproglige kommunikationsby af Swaffham yesteryear ii tanter. Fordi han ofte var syg som ung, blev han delvist undervist derhjemme. Hans søn lærte ham at tegne. Carter følte sin lære at leve minimal, hvilket ofte frustrerede ham. Hans defensivitet ud over pludselighed blandt menneskers mægtighed tager vedligeholdelse stammede fra hans usikkerhed tæt på denne mangel på en formel uddannelse.

Carters kunstneriske talent blev lagt mærke til tidligere egyptolog, Percy Newberry, som 17 -årig. Carter tog til Den Arabiske Republik Egypten for at hjælpe Newberry med at skildre grave fra 1892 til 1893. I 1892 arbejdede Carter også på Tell el Amarna blandt den berømte arkæolog, William Flinders Petrie. På siden siden i fjor arbejdede man som tegner for den schweiziske egyptolog, Edouard Naville, på det udsøgte dødshus for en kvinde, farao Hatshepsut i Thebes.

Arbejdede for den egyptiske regering

På grund af hans potentiale ud over efter al sandsynlighed på grund af anbefaling fra Naville udnævnte Gaston Maspero, caput for egyptiske antikviteter, Carter til det nyetablerede sæde for generalinspektør for monumenter i Øvre (sydlige) Egypten. På dette tidspunkt begyndte Carter at opretholde en aktiv involvering indad på de store kirkegårde på Thebes Vestbred, der kender hverken Theban -nekropolen.

Som inspektør overvågede han rydningen af ​​flere nyopdagede grave, herunder Hatshepsut, i udelukkende iv kvindelige faraoer, der regerede fra 1478 til 1458 f.Kr., ud over den for kong Tuthmosis IV, der regerede fra 1401 til 1390 f.Kr. På dette tidspunkt arbejdede Carter ikke kun for Antiquities Service for også for den rige amerikaner, Theodore Davis. Carter var således interesseret i at arbejde indad i Thebans nekropolis, at da Maspero ønskede at udnævne ham til et større omfang end det prestigefyldte sæde for generalinspektør for monumenter i Nedre (nordlige) Egypten, faldt Carter i et år.

Mens Carter var baseret inde i det nordlige ved Saqqara, blev Carter involveret i en hændelse i større omfang end eller mindre franske turister, der skulle ændre hans liv. På grund af sin stædighed ud over sin følelse af anstændighed skubbede han i større grad ud end eller mindre franske turister, der var boozer udover at have kæmpet blandt de egyptiske vagter ved de hellige tyres gravhvelv. Da de franske turister klagede, blev Carter bedt om at give en undskyldning, hvilket han afvisende nægtede at gøre. Maspero blev til sidst tvunget til at overføre Carter til deltaet, vidden, hvor Nilen flød ud i Middelhavet, hvorfra Carter fratrådte sit sæde blandt den egyptiske regering.

For siden sidste år ud over en halv, levede Carter hver især en akvarelist ud over hver en antikvitetshandler. Han solgte scener af både gamle ud over den moderne arabiske republik Egypten til turister, foruden at sælge antikviteter overvejende til velhavende engelske sproglige kommunikationsfolk. Selv om en sådan aktivitet i dag ville leve rynket på eller tugtet, ved ploven i det tyvende århundrede blev sådan adfærd godkendt.

Carter foruden Carnarvon

Da 5. jarl af Carnarvon, en englænder, der var indad i den arabiske republik Egypten for sit helbred, ville grave ved Theben, anbefalede Maspero Carter. I deres kickoff -smag sammen indad 1907 udgravede Carter graven til en forsinket borgmester fra 1500 -tallet f.Kr. ud over en skrevet tablet, der omhandler udvisningen fra Den Arabiske Republik Egypten af ​​Hyksos, der var usædvanlige angribere. I de efterfølgende år gjorde Carter ud over Carnarvon andre imponerende opdagelser. Disse omfattede ii såkaldte "tabte" templer, Hatshepsuts foruden Rameses IV (ca. 1154-1148 f.Kr.), hver en god bit hver en eksponering af gravide adelsgrave fra 2000-1500 f.Kr. H5N1 overdådig offentliggørelse indadgående velvære, kaldet Five Years 'Explorations at Thebe, et bånd af go gjort 1907-1911, dukkede indad 1912.

I 1912 besluttede Carter ud over Carnarvon at forlænge deres grave ved Theben til at omfatte steder indad i deltaet. Resultaterne var langt mindre frugtbare. Carter opdagede nul i større omfang end end en stor rede af giftige slanger. I 1913 observerede han en mængde græsk-romerske smykker, men H2O-tabellen var høj, udover at den udsatte jord var hård, og derfor blev udgravningerne kort tid opgivet.

I 1914 hørte Carter, at lokale egyptere i Theben havde opdaget klippegraven til Amenhotep I (ca. 1526-1506 f.Kr.) udvendigt af Kongernes dal, hvor de fleste af faraoer i det nye rige var blevet begravet. Ved at bestikke egypterne i blev Carter ført til graven, som han efter udgravede.

Tættere på Tutankhamons grav

Også indad i 1914, engang ud over den skrantende amerikanske forretningsmand, Theodore Davis, gav endelig sine rettigheder opad til at udgrave Kongernes Dal - rettigheder, som Carter ud over Carnarvon længe havde eftertragtet. Ifølge en gravemaskine, der arbejdede for Davis, kom amerikaneren inden for få fod efter at have opdaget Tutankhamuns grav, faraoen, der styrede Den Arabiske Republik Egypten fra ca. 1333 til 1323 f.Kr., men stoppede, fordi han var bange for at underminere en nærliggende vej. Carter ud over Carnarvon overtog Davis 'indrømmelse, men picayune go blev udført for siden sidste år nogle få år (1914-17) på grund af Første Verdenskrig.

Carter gjorde imidlertid op med at udgrave den allerede kendte grav af Amenhotep III (ca. 1390-1352 f.Kr.), foruden en klippegrav af Hatshepsut, der blev lavet tidligere, blev hun farao. Fra 1917 til 1922 gravede Carter ud over Carnarvon indad i Kongernes dal blandt begrænsede resultater. I 1922, Carnarvon -følelsen, de havde fundet alt på stedet, var at finde. Kun Carters tilbud om at betale for i højere grad end jordarbejde blandt hans ain mønt skam Carnarvon til finansiering i endelig sæson.

Tiden var ved at løbe tør for Carter. Han havde udelukkende nær en kalendermåned til at finde Tutankhamuns grav. Han havde allerede brugt næsten x år på at søge. I løbet af den tid havde hans arbejdere flyttet over 200.000 tons murbrokker i fjor. Selvom han havde udforsket næsten hver tomme af Kongernes Dal, stod en 30 fods høj af murbrokker lydløst i hans lejr. Carter ville støde på, hvad der var under den høje, der tidligere gav op.

I november 1922 afslørede Carter ud over sine arbejdere 12 trin, der førte til en gravindgang, lydløs forseglet efter tredive århundreder. Sælindtrykkene gjorde ikke det land, hvis grav det var. Carter ville desperat fortsætte med at grave, for hver bit skrev han ind i sin masse The Tutankhamens grav: "Alt, bogstaveligt talt noget mægtigt præarikering ud over den passage, udover det havde brug for al min selvkontrol for at gå videre fra at bryde ned ad døren foruden til at undersøge således ud over der. " I stedet genfyldte han trappen blandt murbrokker, sejlede over Nilen, ud over at telegraferede efterretningen til Carnarvon.

Carter, der ventede en pinefuld tyve dage på, at Carnarvon udover sin umodne dame Evelyn skulle mærke den fra England, undrede sig over hele den fjerde dimension, om han ikke blot havde drømt om at finde graven. Endelig udgravede Carter hele trappen på seksten trin og afslørede Tutankhamuns segl. Han bemærkede blandt skuffelse, at nogen havde brudt ind i graven. De kickoff-sæler, han havde set, var genforseglinger. Gravrøverne var kommet indad for tusinder af år siden.

I siden fra før siden 24-timers interval blev den forseglede dør fjernet, hvilket afslørede en gang fyldt blandt murbrokker. Dette viste også tegn på røvere. Carter udgravede tunnelen ind i natten, men lydløs kunne ikke lokalisere en dør til et kammer.

Midt på siden sidste dages eftermiddag, tredive fod nedad fra yderdøren, fandt Carter en 2. døråbning. Endelig skrev han hver indad Tutankhamens grav: "Det afgørende minut kom. Med skælvende hænder lavede jeg et lille brud …. Ved kickoff kunne jeg støde på nul, men i øjeblikket blev mine øjne vant til lyset , detaljer om rummet inden for dukkede et stykke kage op af tågen, usædvanlige dyr, statuer, udover forgyldt - overalt glimt af guld …. Jeg blev slået stum blandt forbløffelse, udover da Lord Carnarvon, ude af stand til at stå opad Spændingen overhovedet længere, spurgte ængstelig: 'Kan du meget støde på noget?' det var alt, hvad jeg kunne skabe for at forlade ordene, 'Ja, vidunderlige ting.' '

Da Carter ud over de andre kiggede gennem hullet, afslørede lommelygten forgyldte overdækkede sofaer indad i form af uhyrlige dyr. Gravemaskinerne så også statuer af kongen, kister, vaser, mørke helligdomme, jeg blandt en gylden øjenlæder, der kiggede ud, blomsterbuketter, senge, stole, en gylden trone, kasser, vogne - alt undtagen en mumie. Men Carter bemærkede i større grad end eller mindre andre lukkede døråbninger.

Sidens sidste dag, da han kom ind i rummet kaldet forkammeret, var Carters kickoff -stemning den lukkede dør. Når han kiggede tæt på, opdagede han, at der var foretaget et lille brud, fyldt ud over at forsegles indad i oldtiden. Carters naturlige impuls var at pauser ned ad døren foruden at støde på det, der var indeni, men arkæologen indad i ham vidste, at denne magt kunne skade genstandene indad i forkammeret. Carter bemærkede i større grad end eller mindre andet hul i i sofaerne indad, men i større grad end eller mindre anden forseglet døråbning. Han kravlede ind under sofaen udover at kigge ind, og så et kammer, der var mindre end det i, han var i, men proppet mellem genstande. Dette værelse, kaldet bilaget, var indvendig total forvirring, kun hver eneste tyve havde forladt det for årtusinder siden. Carter havde ingen følelser for, hvordan han ville rydde op i dette værelse. I bilaget så gravemaskinerne smukke genstande - en malet kasse, en forgyldt foruden elfenbensstol, vaser, et elfenbenbræt, foruden meget mere, men lydløs ingen mumie.

Indtil Carter kunne låne en tyk stålport fra Kairo, måtte graven leve skjult. En kalendermåned efter at trinene var genvundet, blev graven fyldt indad til overfladen. To uger senere var porten indad, foruden eksperterne, der skulle fotografere, tegne planer, ud over at eksperimentere blandt konserveringsmidler. Det tog ii ud over en halv måned at tage alt fra forkammeret.

Endelig var 24-timers intervallet kommet opad for at gå ind i sidegårets sideværelse. I februar 1923 så hver tyve gæster, Carter stykke kage begyndte at fjerne den forseglede døråbning. Han var nødt til at gå forsigtigt og dermed ikke gøre noget for at skade det, der lå ud over det. Da han viste et lys ind, så Carter en virksomhedsmur af guld. Dette var en enorm gulddækket helligdom bygget for at beskytte Tutankhamuns sarkofag. Carter åbnede dørene til helligdommen, foruden at den fandt en anden helligdom, blandt sælen intakt. Gravrøverne havde ikke nået mumien, men Carter kunne heller ikke nå det. Der var iv helligdomme, hver inden for hinanden, der først skulle leve adskilt. Sarkofagens enorme klippelåg måtte leve løftet blandt specialudstyr, foruden at de 3 kister, der nestede i hinanden, skulle leve åbnet foruden omhyggeligt fjernet.

Endelig den 28. oktober 1925, næsten 3 år efter at trappen blev genvundet, stirrede Carter blandt ærefrygt ud over medfølelse med mumien i Tutankhamun. "Den slagne forgyldte maske, en smuk ud over unikke eksemplarer af ældgamle portrætter, bærer et beklageligt, men roligt aspekt, der tyder på, at unge blev overhalet for tidligt i fjor," skrev Carter indad i Tutankhamens grav.

Carnarvon, der allerede var indvendig virkelig sart helbred, døde af en inficeret myg, der greb blandt tænderne ud over lungebetændelse kort efter åbningen af ​​graven indad 1923. Uden hans magtfulde protektor, ud over på grund af sin stædighed, kom Carter kort tid i problem blandt de Ægyptiske myndigheder, der midlertidigt tog hans indrømmelse fra ham. Han afsluttede endelig sit go på lysningen ud over bevarelsen af ​​gravobjekterne indad i 1932. H5N1 tre-bind går på genvinde graven ud over dens indhold, kaldet The Tutankhamens grav, meget af det spøgelsesskrevne forrige år Carters ven Percy White, dukkede op mellem 1923 udover 1933. Carter forberedte en endelig undersøgelse af graven indad i 6 bind, da han døde indad i London den 2. marts 1939. Selvom Carter døde både berømt ud over velhavende, fik han ingen verden hæder yesteryear enten den britiske eller andre regeringer.

Historiske mennesker
Howard Carter

Howard Carter blev født den niende maj 1874. Hans afstamning var en kreativ person ud over det lille bureau, og Howard modtog derfor kun lidt uddannelse. Ligesom sin sønder nød han udover at han i højere grad end eller mindre tegnede talent. Han var også interesseret indad i det gamle Egypten.

In 1891 at the historic catamenia of 17 he was hired yesteryear the Arab Republic of Egypt Exploration Fund to go to Arab Republic of Egypt in addition to aid amongst recording details of ii tombs. H5N1 yr later he was asked to aid amongst to a greater extent than or less earthworks work. This was followed yesteryear farther special recording work.

In 1907 he was introduced to Lord Carnarvon who agreed to finance his search for the tomb of Tutankhamen. Carter's search lasted for xv years in addition to Carnarvon was well-nigh to withdraw funding for the venture when Carter found steps leading to the tomb.

On 26th Nov 1922 Carter in addition to Lord Carnarvon opened the door to the tomb in addition to were able to encounter that it contained many gilded treasures. They could also encounter a sealed door at the dorsum of the chamber.

On 16th Feb 1923 the sealed door was opened revealing the burial bedroom of the man child king.

On tertiary Jan 1924 the sarcophagus was discovered. The golden decease mask roofing the caput in addition to shoulders of mummy has go World famous.

Following the regain Carter travelled to America giving lectures well-nigh his observe inwards a expose of cities.


Howard Carter - History

Gale Encyclopedia of Biography:

Howard Carter (1874-1939), the renowned archaeologist who discovered the tomb of King Tutankhamun, was a private and stubborn man whose perfectionism frequently got him into trouble. Had he been more diplomatic, he might have avoided much personal misery, but then he might never have discovered the tomb.

Howard Carter was born in London, England, on May 9, 1874, to a lower middle class family. The youngest of 11 children of Samuel John Carter, a painter of animals and an illustrator for the Illustrated London News, and Martha Joyce Sands, he was raised in the small English village of Swaffham by two aunts. Because he was frequently ill as a youth, he was partially tutored at home. His father taught him how to draw. Carter felt his education to be minimal, which frequently frustrated him. His defensiveness and abruptness with people might have stemmed from his insecurity about this lack of a formal education.

Carter's artistic talent was noticed by Egyptologist, Percy Newberry, at 17 years of age. Carter went to Egypt to help Newberry draw tombs from 1892 to 1893. In 1892, Carter also worked at Tell el Amarna with the famous archaeologist, William Flinders Petrie. He next worked as a draftsman for Swiss Egyptologist, Edouard Naville, on the exquisite mortuary temple of the female pharaoh Hatshepsut at Thebes.

Worked for the Egyptian Government

Because of his potential, and probably because of the recommendation of Naville, Gaston Maspero, the head of the Egyptian Antiquities service, appointed Carter to the newly established position of Inspector-General of Monuments of Upper (southern) Egypt. At this time, Carter began to take an active interest in the vast cemeteries on the West Bank of Thebes, known as the Theban necropolis.

As Inspector, he supervised the clearance of several newly discovered tombs, including that of Hatshepsut, one of only four women pharaohs, who reigned from 1478 to 1458 BC, and that of King Tuthmosis IV, who reigned from 1401 to 1390 BC. At this time, Carter was working not only for the Antiquities Service for also for the rich American, Theodore Davis. Carter was so interested in working in the Theban necropolis, that when Maspero wanted to appoint him to the more prestigious position of Inspector-General of Monuments of Lower (northern) Egypt, Carter demurred for a year.

While based in the north at Saqqara, Carter became involved in an incident with some French tourists that was to change his life. Because of his stubbornness and his sense of propriety, he ejected some French tourists who were drunk and had been fighting with the Egyptian guards at the burial vaults of the sacred bulls. When the French tourists complained, Carter was asked to give an apology, which he adamantly refused to do. Maspero was eventually forced to transfer Carter to the Delta, the area where the Nile River empties into the Mediterranean Sea, from where Carter resigned his position with the Egyptian government.

For the next year and a half, Carter made a living as a watercolorist and as an antiquities dealer. He sold scenes of both ancient and modern Egypt to tourists, and sold antiquities predominantly to wealthy English people. While today, such activity would be frowned upon or chastised, at the turn of the twentieth century, such behavior was condoned.

When the fifth Earl of Carnarvon, an Englishman who was in Egypt for his health, wanted to dig at Thebes, Maspero recommended Carter. In their first season together in 1907, Carter excavated the tomb of a late 16th century BC mayor and a written tablet dealing with the expulsion from Egypt of the Hyksos, who were foreign invaders. In succeeding years, Carter and Carnarvon made other impressive discoveries. These included two so-called "lost" temples, that of Hatshepsut and of Rameses IV (ca. 1154-1148 BC), as well as a number of significant nobles' tombs dating from 2000-1500 BC. A sumptuous publication in vellum, called Five Years' Explorations at Thebes, a record of work done 1907-1911, appeared in 1912.

In 1912, Carter and Carnarvon decided to extend their digging at Thebes to include sites in the Delta. The results were far less fruitful. Carter discovered nothing more than a large nest of poisonous snakes. In 1913, he did find a hoard of Graeco-Roman jewelry, but the water table was high and the exposed ground was hard, so the excavations were soon abandoned.

In 1914, Carter heard that local Egyptians at Thebes had discovered the cliff tomb of Amenhotep I (ca. 1526-1506 BC) outside of the Valley of the Kings, where most of the New Kingdom pharaohs had been buried. By bribing one of the Egyptians, Carter was led to the tomb, which he subsequently excavated.

Closer to Tutankhamun's Tomb

Also in 1914, old and ailing American businessman, Theodore Davis, finally gave up his rights to excavate in the Valley of the Kings - rights which Carter and Carnarvon had long coveted. According to an excavator working for Davis, the American came within a few feet of discovering the tomb of Tutankhamun, the pharaoh who ruled Egypt from ca. 1333 to 1323 BC, but stopped because he was afraid of undermining a nearby road. Carter and Carnarvon took over Davis' concession, but little work was done for the next few years (1914 -17) because of World War I.

Carter, however, did manage to excavate the already-known tomb of Amenhotep III (ca. 1390-1352 BC), and a cliff tomb of Hatshepsut made before she became pharaoh. From 1917 to 1922, Carter and Carnarvon dug in the Valley of the Kings with limited results. By 1922, Carnarvon thought they had found everything there was to find. Only Carter's offer to pay for more excavation with his own money shamed Carnarvon into financing one last season.

Time was running out for Carter. He had only about a month to locate the tomb of Tutankhamun. He had already spent almost ten years searching. During that time, his workers had moved over 200,000 tons of rubble by hand. Although he had explored almost every inch of the Valley of the Kings, a 30-foot mound of rubble still stood within his own camp. Carter wanted to see what was under that mound before giving up.

In November 1922, Carter and his workers uncovered 12 steps that led to a tomb entrance, still sealed after 30 centuries. The seal impressions did not tell whose tomb it was. Carter desperately wanted to keep digging, because as he wrote in his book The Tomb of Tutankhamen, "Anything, literally anything might lie beyond that passage, and it needed all my self-control to keep from breaking down the doorway and investigating then and there." Instead, he refilled the stairway with rubble, sailed across the Nile River, and telegraphed the news to Carnarvon.

Carter, waiting an agonizing 20 days for Carnarvon and his daughter Evelyn to arrive from England, wondered the whole time if he had not just dreamt of finding the tomb. Finally, Carter excavated the entire stairway of 16 steps, revealing the seal of Tutankhamun. He noted with disappointment that someone had broken into the tomb. The first seals he had seen were re-sealings. Tomb robbers had gotten in thousands of years ago.

The next day the sealed door was removed, revealing a passageway filled with rubble. This too showed signs of robbers. Carter excavated the tunnel into the night, but still could not locate a door to a chamber.

In the middle of the next afternoon, 30 feet down from the outer door, Carter found a second doorway. Finally, as he wrote in The Tomb of Tutankhamen, "The decisive moment arrived. With trembling hands I made a tiny breach… . At first I could see nothing … but presently, as my eyes grew accustomed to the light, details of the room within emerged slowly from the mist, strange animals, statues, and gold - everywhere the glint of gold… . I was struck dumb with amazement, and when Lord Carnarvon, unable to stand the suspense any longer, inquired anxiously, 'Can you see anything?' it was all I could do to get out the words, 'Yes, wonderful things."'

As Carter and the others looked through the hole, the flashlight revealed gold covered couches in the shape of monstrous animals. The excavators also saw statues of the king, caskets, vases, black shrines, one with a golden snake peeking out, bouquets of flowers, beds, chairs, a golden throne, boxes, chariots - everything except a mummy. But Carter noticed another sealed doorway.

The next day, on entering the room called the Antechamber, Carter's first thought was of the sealed door. Looking closely, he discovered that a small breach had been made, filled, and re-sealed in ancient times. Carter's natural impulse was to break down the door and see what was inside, but the archaeologist in him knew this might damage the objects in the Antechamber. Carter noticed another hole under one of the couches in yet another sealed doorway. Crawling under the couch and peering in, he saw a chamber, smaller than the one he was in, but crammed with objects. This room, called the Annex, was in total confusion, just as thieves had left it millennia ago. Carter had no idea how he would clear out this room. In the Annex the excavators saw beautiful objects - a painted box, a gold and ivory chair, vases, an ivory game board, and much more, but still no mummy.

Until Carter could get a thick steel gate from Cairo, the tomb had to be hidden. One month after the discovery of the steps, the tomb was filled in to the surface. Two weeks later the gate was in place, and the experts set to work photographing, drawing plans, and experimenting with preservatives. It took two and a half months to remove everything from the Antechamber.

Finally, the day had come to enter the next room. In February 1923, as 20 guests watched, Carter slowly began removing the sealed doorway. He had to work carefully so as not to damage whatever lay beyond it. When he shown a lamp in, Carter saw a solid wall of gold. This was a huge gold-covered shrine built to protect Tutankhamun's sarcophagus. Carter opened the doors of the shrine and within it found a second shrine, with seal intact. The tomb robbers had not reached the mummy, but Carter could not reach it either. There were four shrines, each within the other, that had to be taken apart first. The huge stone lid of the sarcophagus had to be lifted with special equipment, and the three coffins, nesting inside each other, had to be opened and carefully removed.

Finally, on October 28, 1925, almost three years after the discovery of the stairway, Carter gazed with awe and pity upon the mummy of Tutankhamun. "The beaten gold mask, a beautiful and unique specimen of ancient portraiture, bears a sad but calm expression suggestive of youth overtaken prematurely by death," Carter wrote in The Tomb of Tutankhamen.

Carnarvon, already in very frail health, died of an infected mosquito bite and pneumonia shortly after the opening of the tomb in 1923. Without his powerful patron, and due to his stubbornness, Carter soon got into trouble with the Egyptian authorities who temporarily took his concession away from him. He finally completed his work on the clearing and the conservation of the tomb objects in 1932. A three-volume work on the discovery of the tomb and its contents, called The Tomb of Tutankhamen, much of it ghost written by Carter's friend Percy White, appeared between 1923 and 1933. Carter was preparing a definitive report on the tomb in six volumes, when he died in London on March 2, 1939. Although Carter died both famous and wealthy, he was given no public honors by either the British or other governments.

Historical People
Howard Carter

Howard Carter was born on 9th May 1874. His father was an artist and of modest means so Howard only received a modest education. Like his father he enjoyed and had some talent for drawing. He was also interested in ancient Egypt.

In 1891 at the age of 17 he was hired by the Egypt Exploration Fund to go to Egypt and help with recording details of two tombs. A year later he was asked to help with some excavation work. This was followed by further detail recording work.

In 1907 he was introduced to Lord Carnarvon who agreed to finance his search for the tomb of Tutankhamen. Carter's search lasted for fifteen years and Carnarvon was about to withdraw funding for the venture when Carter found steps leading to the tomb.

On 26th November 1922 Carter and Lord Carnarvon opened the door to the tomb and were able to see that it contained many gold treasures. They could also see a sealed door at the back of the chamber.

On 16th February 1923 the sealed door was opened revealing the burial chamber of the boy king.

On 3rd January 1924 the sarcophagus was discovered. The golden death mask covering the head and shoulders of mummy has become World famous.

Following the discovery Carter travelled to America giving lectures about his find in a number of cities.


Carter’s Boy King

Wikimedia Commons The sealed doorway of King Tut’s tomb.

A few months earlier, archaeologists had erected a line of huts on an unfruitful patch of ground. Howard Carter, however, believed that the area deserved another look. Dismantling the huts, he ordered the bedrock beneath them cleared and the area cordoned off. Then on November 4, 1922, as workers heaved stone a water boy stumbled into a rock crevasse. After inspecting the area, Carter discovered that the rock was actually the top step of a flight of stairs that descended into the earth and ended at a mud-sealed doorway.

Lord Carnarvon rushed to the site to oversee the opening of the doorway on Nov. 26. Carefully, under Carnarvon’s watchful eye, Carter eased the doorway open with a chisel his grandmother had given him for his 17th birthday. After opening it enough to ease a candle inside, he peered through the doorway.

“Can you see anything?” Lord Carnarvon asked. Indeed, Howard Carter could. Even in the dim candlelight, he could spy gold fixtures inside the tomb.

Wikimedia Commons Howard Carter looking into King Tut’s tomb.

“Yes, wonderful things!” the archaeologist exclaimed. Howard Carter was gazing upon the intact tomb of the young King Tutankhamun.


Howard Carter: The Man Who Discovered King Tut’s Tomb in 1922

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Finding The Boy King Tutankhamun’s Tomb

After Carter’s resignation, he worked as a commercial artist and tourist guide for several years. However, Maspero did not forget Carter. He introduced him to George Herbert, the 5th Earl of Carnarvon in 1908. Lord Carnarvon’s doctor had prescribed annual Egypt winter visits to help with a pulmonary condition.

The two men developed an extraordinary relationship. The Egyptologist’s unyielding determination was matched by the trust his sponsor invested in him. Lord Carnarvon, agreed to fund Carter’s ongoing excavations. Their productive collaboration resulted in the most famous archaeological find in history.

Carter supervised several excavations sponsored by Carnarvon together finding six tombs at Luxor on the Nile’s West Bank, as well as in the Valley of the Kings. These digs produced several antiquities for Lord Carnarvon’s private collection by 1914. However, Carter’s dream, which he became more and more obsessed with discovering King Tutankhamun’s tomb. Tutankhamun was a young pharaoh of Egypt’s 18th dynasty, a time when ancient Egypt enjoyed great wealth and power.

Prior to the name Tutankhamun, or King Tut entering popular culture, an inscription on a small faience cup first identified this little known pharaoh. This cup with the king’s name inscribed on it was unearthed in 1905 by Theodore Davis an American Egyptologist. Davis believed he had discovered Tutankhamun’s looted tomb following his discovered of an empty chamber now known as KV58. This chamber held a small cache of gold bearing the names of Tutankhamun and Ay, his successor.

Both Carter and Carnarvon believed Davies was wrong in assuming KV58 was Tutankhamun’s tomb. Moreover, no trace of Tutankhamun’s mummy was found among the cache of royal mummies found in 1881 CE at Deir el Bahari or in KV35 the tomb of Amenhotep II first discovered in 1898.

In their view, Tutankhamun’s missing mummy indicated his tomb remained undisturbed when the ancient Egyptian priests assembled the royal mummies for protection at Deir el Bahari. Moreover, it was also possible the location of Tutankhamun’s tomb had been forgotten and had avoided the attention of ancient tomb robbers.

However, in 1922, frustrated by Carter’s lack of progress in finding King Tutankhamun’s tomb, and with funds running low, Lord Carnarvon issued Carter with an ultimatum. If Carter failed to find King Tutankhamun’s tomb, 1922 would be Carter’s final year of funding.

Dogged determination and luck paid off for Carter. A mere three days after Carter’s digging season began on November 1, 1922 CE, Carter’s team discovered a hitherto overlooked staircase concealed beneath the ruins of workmen’s huts dating to the Ramesside Period (c. 1189 BC to 1077 BC). After clearing away this ancient debris, Carter stepped onto a newly discovered platform.

This was the first step on a staircase, which, after painstaking excavation, led Carter’s team to a walled-up doorway bearing the intact royal seals of King Tutankhamun. The telegram Carter dispatched to his patron back in England read: “At last have made wonderful discovery in Valley a magnificent tomb with seals intact re-covered same for your arrival congratulation.” Howard Carter broke through the blocked up door to Tutankhamun’s tomb on November 26, 1922.

While Carter believed Tutankhamun’s tomb if intact could hold enormous riches, he could not have predicted the amazing cache of treasures awaiting him inside. When Carter first looked through the hole he chiselled in the tomb’s door, his only light was a solitary candle. Carnarvon asked Carter if he could see anything. Carter famously replied, “Yes, wonderful things.” Later he remarked that everywhere there was the gleam of gold.

The debris covering the tomb entrance may explain why Tutankhamun’s tomb largely escaped the depredations of ancient tomb robbers around the end of the 20th Dynasty in the New Kingdom period (c.1189 BC to 1077 BC). However, there is evidence the tomb was robbed and resealed twice following its completion.

The sheer scale of their find and value of the artefacts sealed in the tomb prevented the Egyptian authorities from following the established convention of dividing the finds between Egypt and Carnarvon. The Egyptian government claimed the contents of the tomb.

King Tutankhamun’s final resting place was the best-preserved tomb ever discovered. Inside it was a fortune in gold artefacts, together with King Tutankhamun’s three nestled sarcophaguses resting undisturbed within the burial chamber. Carter’s discovery was to prove to be one of the 20th-century’s most astonishing discoveries.

Contents Of King Tutankhamun’s Tomb

King Tutankhamun’s tomb contained so many treasures it took Howard Carter 10 years to fully excavate the tomb, clear away its debris and painstakingly catalogue the funerary objects. The tomb was closely packed with hordes of objects strewn in great disarray, partly due to the two robberies, the rush to complete the tomb and its comparatively compact size.

In all, Carter’s spectacular discovery yielded 3,000 individual objects, many of them pure gold. Tutankhamun’s sarcophagus was carved from granite and had two gilded coffins and a solid gold coffin nestling inside them together with Tutankhamun’s iconic death mask, today one of the world’s most well-known artistic works.

Four gilded wooden shrines surrounded the king’s sarcophagus in the burial chamber. Outside these shrines were eleven paddles for Tutankhamun’s solar boat, gilded statues of Anubis, containers for precious oils and perfume and lamps with decorative images of Hapi, a water and fertility god.

Tutankhamun’s jewellery included scarabs, amulets, rings bracelets, anklets, collars, pectorals, pendants, necklaces, earrings, ear studs, 139 ebony, ivory, silver, and gold walking sticks and buckles.

Also buried with Tutankhamun were six chariots, daggers, shields, musical instruments, chests, two thrones, couches, chairs, headrests and beds, golden fans and ostrich fans, ebony gaming boards including Senet, 30 jars of wine, food offerings, scribing equipment and fine linen clothing including 50 garments ranging from tunics and kilts to headdresses, scarves and gloves.

Howard Carter Media Sensation

While Carter’s discovery imbued him with a celebrity status, today’s Instagram influencers could only dream of, he did not appreciate the media’s attention.

While Carter pinpointed the tomb’s location early in November 1922, he was forced to await the arrival of Lord Carnarvon his financial patron and sponsor before opening it. Within a month of opening the tomb in the presence of Carnarvon and his daughter Lady Evelyn on 26 November 1922, the dig site was attracting streams of spectators from around the world.

Carnarvon did not dispute the Egyptian government’s decision to press its claim for full ownership of the tomb’s content, however, aside from desiring a return on his investment Carter and his archaeological team needed funding to excavate, preserve and catalogue the thousands of tomb objects.

Carnarvon solved his financial problems by selling the exclusive rights to coverage of the tomb to the London Times for 5,000 English Pounds Sterling up front and 75 per cent of the profits from the worldwide sales of their articles to third party-publishers.

This decision enraged the world press but greatly relieved Carter and his excavation team. Carter now only had to deal with a small press contingent at the tomb rather than having to navigate a media throng enabling his and team to continue their excavation of the tomb.

Many press corps members lingered in Egypt hoping for a scoop. They didn’t have to wait long. Lord Carnarvon died in Cairo on 5 April 1923, less than six months after the tomb was opened. “The Mummy’s Curse was born.”

The Mummy’s Curse

To the outside world, the ancient Egyptians appeared obsessed with death and magic. While the concept of ma’at and the afterlife lay at the heart of ancient Egypt’s religious beliefs, which included magic, they did not make extensive use of magical curses.

While passages from texts such as the Book of the Dead, the Pyramid Texts, and the Coffin Texts contained spells to help the soul navigate the afterlife, the cautionary tomb inscriptions are simple warnings for grave robbers as to what happens to those who disturb the dead.

The prevalence of tombs looted in antiquity indicates how ineffective these threats were. None protected a tomb as effectively as the curse created by the imagination of the media during the 1920s and none achieved a similar level of fame.

Howard Carter’s discovery of Tutankhamun’s tomb in 1922 was international news and following fast on its heels was the tale of the mummy’s curse. Pharaohs, mummies and tombs attracted significant attention prior to Carter’s find but achieved nothing like the level of influence in popular culture enjoyed by the mummy’s curse afterwards.

Reflecting On The Past

Howard Carter achieved everlasting fame as the archaeologist who discovered the intact tomb of Tutankhamun’s in 1922. Yet this moment of triumph was presaged by years of hard, uncompromising field work in hot, primitive conditions, frustration and failures.

Header image courtesy: Harry Burton [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


7 facts you might not know about Howard Carter

Today (May 9) is Howard Carter‘s birthday, so we thought we would share some of our favourite facts about the discoverer of Tutankhamun’s tomb.

/>1. Family man
Howard Carter was born in Earls Court, London, and his father was a gifted painter. Carter and his seven siblings all inherited their father’s love of art.

2. An artist, not an archaeologist
Carter entered the field of Egyptology as a draftsman, not a digger. His first archaeological job – aged just 17 – was as a ‘tracer’, copying tomb inscriptions by hand at Beni Hassan in Egypt.

/>3. Petrie’s protégé
Howard Carter might have remained an archaeological artist and never excavated Tutankhamun’s tomb had he not met Flinders Petrie at Amarna. Petrie mentored the young man and gave him his first introduction to digging.

4. Bird-watching
It wasn’t only archaeological features that Carter drew while out in Egypt he also produced many beautiful paintings of birds and natural scenes.

5. War work
During the First World War, Carter worked as a translator, interpreting clandestine messages between French and British officials and their Arab contacts.

6. A last-minute discovery
After years of fruitless searching in the Valley of the Kings, Carter’s wealthy patron Lord Carnarvon decided to withdraw his funding from the excavation. Carter persuaded the Earl to finance one least season of digging – and within days his team found Tutankhamun’s tomb.

7. Fame and fortune?
Following his spectacular discovery, Carter became the most popular public speaker since Oscar Wilde – but he hated his new-found fame and was shunned by the academic community for his lower-class background and lack of university education. He died without receiving any British honour for his discoveries.


A Look Inside Howard Carter’s Tutankhamun Diary

In 1922, Howard Carter had spent the last thirty years digging around Egypt for ancient tombs. As one of the world's leading experts in the field, he often operated at the behest of the fabulously wealthy collector of antiquities, Lord Carnarvon, who had hired him to supervise his excavations in the Valley of the Kings along the Nile River. 

Relateret indhold

Carter lived there in a modest mud-brick house as he roamed the area in search of an elusive tomb which he believed might still hold the remains of Tutankhamun, a mysterious Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, who had ruled between 1332 and 1323 B.C. "King Tut" had taken the throne at the age of nine or ten and died at about age 18, making his story all the more intriguing.

In 1922, however, Lord Carnarvon informed Carter that he would fund that quest for only one more year unless they struck pay dirt. That time was running out when, on November 4, Carter's water boy stumbled across steps in the sand that led to an important burial site. An ebullient Carter immediately wired his employer and the excited Lord Carnarvon soon arrived with his entourage to visit the site.

Carter's hands were trembling when he exposed the tomb in Carnarvon's presence. "At first I could see nothing, the hot air escaping from the chamber causing the candle flame to flicker," Carter later wrote, "but presently, as my eyes grew accustomed to the light, details of the room within emerged slowly from the mist, strange animals, statues, and gold—everywhere the glint of gold." Carter was dumbstruck with amazement, prompting the impatient Lord Carnarvon to ask, "Can you see anything?" The gaping archaeologist eventually composed himself enough to reply, "Yes, wonderful things!"

Today, historians take a more critical view of the looting of Egypt's antiquities by colonialist collectors such as Carter and Carnarvon. (Mike Nelson/epa/Corbis)

Together they had uncovered the best-preserved and most intact pharaoh's tomb in the Valley of Kings. A year and a half later, Carter's team entered the burial chamber to find gold-covered shrines and jewel-studded chests. Raising the lid of Tutankhamun's sarcophagus revealed a coffin of pure gold that held the mummified remains of the boy, King Tut. Word of the discovery flashed across the globe, igniting the world's latest craze and turning Carter into a major celebrity.

Lord Carnarvon was not so lucky. While in Egypt he suffered a mosquito bite that became infected and he died three weeks later—an event that journalists famously ascribed to the "Mummy's Curse." The tale became a staple for Hollywood moviemakers. Carter's journal and subsequent public writings, photographs, and documentary film related details about the 20th century's most exciting archaeological discovery.

This article is excerpted from Scott Christianson's "100 Documents That Changed The World," available November 10.

100 Documents That Changed the World

A tour of the history of the world through the declarations, manifestos, and agreements from the Magna Carta and the Declaration of Independence to Wikileaks.


Tutankhamun's Curse?

The archaeologist Howard Carter died on March 2nd, 1939.

Late in 1922 the British archaeologist Howard Carter discovered the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun, who died in 1323 BC aged about 18, in the Valley of the Kings, across the Nile from Luxor in Egypt. Pharaohs had been buried there from the 16th to the 11th centuries BC. Most of the tombs had been plundered from early times and Tutankhamun’s was the first to be found almost entirely undisturbed. The 5th Earl of Carnarvon, a keen amateur Egyptologist who was financing the project, joined Carter and his team to enter the burial chambers, where they found the young pharaoh’s mummified body and a wealth of religious objects, wall paintings and inscriptions as well as equipment he would need in the afterlife.

The discovery created a worldwide press sensation and stories spread about a curse on anyone who dared to break into a pharaoh’s tomb. Det Gange in London and New York World magazine published the best-selling novelist Marie Corelli’s speculations that ‘the most dire punishment follows any rash intruder into a sealed tomb’. It was not long before Lord Carnarvon died in Cairo aged 56 and the lights in the city went out, which set off a frenzy of speculation. Arthur Conan Doyle told the American press that ‘an evil elemental’ spirit created by priests to protect the mummy could have caused Carnarvon’s death.

No curse had actually been found in the tomb, but deaths in succeeding years of various members of Carter’s team and real or supposed visitors to the site kept the story alive, especially in cases of death by violence or in odd circumstances. Alleged victims of the curse included Prince Ali Kamel Fahmy Bey of Egypt, shot dead by his wife in 1923 Sir Archibald Douglas Reid, who supposedly X-rayed the mummy and died mysteriously in 1924 Sir Lee Stack, the governor-general of the Sudan, who was assassinated in Cairo in 1924 Arthur Mace of Carter’s excavation team, said to have died of arsenic poisoning in 1928 Carter’s secretary Richard Bethell, who supposedly died smothered in his bed in 1929 and his father, who committed suicide in 1930.

Most people who worked in or visited the tomb lived long lives, but this did not undermine belief in the curse by those who wanted to believe it. Carter himself angrily dismissed the whole curse idea as ‘tommy rot’, but when he died solitary and miserably unhappy of Hodgkin’s disease in his London flat in March 1939 at the age of 64, the story of the mummy’s curse sprang back to life in his obituaries and it has persisted to this day.


Se videoen: 16th February 1923: Howard Carter unseals Tutankhamuns burial chamber