Minnesotaner angriber den kriminelle bande James-Younger

Minnesotaner angriber den kriminelle bande James-Younger

I forsøget på et dristigt røveri i dagtimerne i Northfield Minnesota-banken befinder James-Younger-banden sig pludselig omgivet af vrede byfolk og er næsten udslettet den 7. september 1876.

Banditterne begyndte med en adspredelse: fem af mændene galopperede gennem centrum af byen, skælvede og skød deres pistoler i luften. Da byens borgere løb efter dækning, udnyttede tre andre mænd iført bredskyggede hatte og lange støvsugere distraktionen til at gå ubemærket ind i First National Bank. En af mændene bevarede pistoler og beordrede bankens kasserer til at åbne pengeskabet. Selvom kassereren genkendte det berømte ansigt på den farlige fredløse, Jesse James, gik han i stå og hævdede, at pengeskabet havde en tidslås og ikke kunne åbnes. Da Jesse James overvejede sit næste skridt, lavede en modig - eller tåbelig - bankfortæller en pause for bagdøren. En af røvere fyrede to gange og ramte kassereren i skulderen, men det lykkedes ham at snuble i sikkerhed og slå alarm.

Borgerne i Northfield løb for at omgive banken og skød nådesløst ned på røverne, da de forsøgte at flygte. En 19-årig lægestuderende dræbte et bandemedlem, Clell Miller, mens ejeren af ​​isenkrambutikken i Northfield sårede Bill Chadwell dødeligt og pebrede hans krop med kugler fra et hurtigt affyret Remington-repeatergevær. Jesses bror, Frank, blev ramt i benet, mens deres kriminelle partnere - Jim, Cole og Bob Younger - også blev hårdt såret.

Jesse var den sidste ud af banken. Efter kortvarig pause for at skyde den kooperative kasserer i hovedet sprang Jesse på sin hest og sluttede sig til resten af ​​de overlevende, da de desperat flygtede fra byen. I de næste to uger forfulgte en posse dem ubarmhjertigt og til sidst dræbte eller fangede yderligere fire af bandemedlemmerne. Heldigvis for Frank og Jesse James havde de to brødre besluttet at gå deres egen vej og flygte til Dakota Territory. Efter at tingene var kølet af, tog de til Nashville, Tennessee, hvor de begyndte at genopbygge deres bande og planlægge nye røverier.


James blev født Alexander Franklin James i Kearney, Missouri, til baptistminister pastor Robert Sallee James og hans kone Zerelda (Cole) James. Parret kom fra Kentucky. Frank var den ældste af tre børn. Hans far døde i 1851, og hans mor giftede sig igen med Benjamin Simms i 1852. Efter hans død giftede hun sig tredje gang med Dr. Reuben Samuel i 1855, da Frank var 13 år gammel. Som barn viste James interesse for sin afdøde fars store bibliotek, især William Shakespeares værker. Folketællingsoptegnelser viser, at James gik i skole regelmæssigt, og han angiveligt ønskede at blive lærer.

Den amerikanske borgerkrig begyndte i 1861, da James var atten år gammel. Sessionisterne i Missouri, herunder guvernør Claiborne Fox Jackson, forsøgte at drive unionshæren ud af staten, men blev til sidst besejret. James -familien var fra den stærkt konfødererede vestlige del af staten. Den 13. september 1861 belejrede Missouri State Guard, herunder private Frank James, Lexington, Missouri. James blev syg og blev efterladt, da de konfødererede styrker trak sig tilbage. Han overgav sig til Unionens tropper, blev paroleret og fik lov til at vende hjem. Ved ankomsten blev han imidlertid anholdt af den lokale pro-union milits og blev tvunget til at underskrive en ed om troskab til Unionen.

Efter tilbagetrækningen af ​​regelmæssige konfødererede tropper i efteråret 1861 begyndte der snart en bitter guerillakonflikt mellem grupper af pro-konfødererede uregelmæssigheder (almindeligvis kendt som bushwhackers) og Unionens hjemmeværter. I begyndelsen af ​​1863 havde Frank ignoreret sin prøveløsladelse og ed om troskab, tilsluttet sig guerillabandet Fernando Scott, en tidligere sadelmager. Han skiftede hurtigt til den mere aktive kommando ledet af William Clarke Quantrill.

Unionens militsfolk søgte efter Fernando Scott raidede Samuel -gården og hængte Dr. Reuben Samuel (dog ikke dødelig), Franks stedfar, og torturede ham for at afsløre placeringen af ​​guerillaerne. Kort tid efter deltog Frank i Quantrills selskab i Lawrence -massakren den 21. august 1863, hvor cirka 200 for det meste ubevæbnede civile blev dræbt.

Frank James blev paroleret den 27. juli 1865 i Nelson County, Kentucky. [3] Der er en rapport om, at Frank efter hans prøveløsladelse var involveret i et skudslag i Brandenburg, Kentucky med fire soldater, der resulterede i to soldater dræbt, en såret og Frank såret i hoften. [3] Der er dog en alternativ beretning, der hævder, at Frank, som var i Kentucky og skulle til Missouri, blev mistænkt for at have stjålet heste i Ohio, og at Frank skød to medlemmer af en pose og slap væk. [4]

I løbet af sine år som bandit var James involveret i mindst fire røverier mellem 1868 og 1876, der resulterede i død af bankansatte eller borgere. Den mest berømte hændelse var den katastrofale angreb i Northfield, Minnesota, den 7. september 1876, der endte med død eller fange af det meste af banden.

Fem måneder efter drabet på hans bror Jesse i 1882 steg Frank James ombord på et tog til Jefferson City, Missouri, hvor han havde en aftale med guvernøren i statens hovedstad. Lægger sit hylster i guvernør Crittendens hænder, forklarede han,

'Jeg har været jagtet i 21 år, har bogstaveligt talt levet i sadlen, har aldrig kendt en dag med perfekt fred. Det var en lang, ængstelig, ubønhørlig, evig vagt. ' Derefter sluttede han sin erklæring med at sige: 'guvernør, jeg har ikke ladet en anden mand røre min pistol siden 1861.'

Regnskaber siger, at James overgav sig med den forståelse, at han ikke ville blive udleveret til Northfield, Minnesota. [5]

Han blev kun prøvet for to af røverierne/mordene - det ene i Gallatin, Missouri for ranet af Rock Island Line -toget i Winston, Missouri den 15. juli 1881, hvor togingeniøren og en passager blev dræbt, og det andet i Huntsville, Alabama for røveriet den 11. marts 1881 af en lønningsliste fra United States Army Corps of Engineers i Muscle Shoals, Alabama. Blandt andre vidnede den tidligere konfødererede general Joseph Orville Shelby på James 'vegne i Missouri -retssagen. Han blev frikendt i både Missouri og Alabama. Missouri accepterede juridisk jurisdiktion over ham for andre anklager, men de kom aldrig for retten. Han blev aldrig udleveret til Minnesota for sin forbindelse med Northfield Raid.

Hans New York Times nekrolog opsummerede hans anholdelse og frifindelse:

I 1882. Frank James overgav sig i Jefferson City, Missouri. Efter hans overgivelse blev James taget til Independence, Missouri, hvor han blev siddet i fængsel i tre uger, og senere til Gallatin, hvor han blev i fængsel et år og afventer retssag. Til sidst blev James frikendt og tog til Oklahoma for at bo hos sin mor. Han var aldrig i fængsel og blev aldrig dømt for nogen af ​​anklagerne mod ham. [2]

I de sidste tredive år af sit liv arbejdede James på forskellige job, blandt andet som skosælger og derefter som burlesk teaterbilletmand i St. Louis. En af teatrets spins for at tiltrække lånere var deres brug af sætningen "Kom og få din billet slået af den legendariske Frank James." Han fungerede også som AT & ampT -telegrafoperatør i St. Joseph, Missouri. James tog foredragskredsen, mens han boede i Sherman, Texas. I 1902 hyrede den tidligere Missourian Sam Hildreth, en førende fuldblods hestetræner og ejer, James som væddemålskommissær på Fair Grounds Race Track, [6] i New Orleans. Han vendte tilbage til det nordlige Texas -område, hvor han var skosælger hos Sanger Brothers i Dallas. Det Tacoma Times rapporterede i juli 1914, [7], at han var ved at plukke bær på en lokal ranch i staten Washington og planlagde at købe en gård i nærheden. Han var også en del af en Chicago -investeringsgruppe, der købte Fletcher Terrells Buckskin Bill's Wild West Show, tredje i størrelse efter Buffalo Bill og Pawnee Bill shows. [8]

I sine sidste år vendte James tilbage til James Farm og gav ture for 25 cent. [9] Han døde der i en alder af 72 den 18. februar 1915. Han efterlod sin kone Annie Ralston James og en søn. [2] Han er begravet på Hill Park Cemetery, i den vestlige del af Independence, Missouri. [10]


Hvorfor var de yngre brødre i fængsel? Masser af grunde

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I et årti efter borgerkrigen rejste James-Younger landet, stjal, dræbte og spredte kaos.

Da Cole Younger skrev sin lange note i det, der nu er Pegs autografbog, vurderet af Jerry Patterson på Albuquerque ROADSHOW i juli 2002, blev han fængslet i statsfængslet i Stillwater, Minnesota, for mord i første grad, som han havde påstået skyldig. Selvom hverken han eller hans brødre nogensinde opnåede deres førende, Jesse James, legendariske status, er banden, de tilhørte, ordentligt kendt som James-Younger-banden: den yngre klan bidrog med fire medlemmer til denne kriminelle virksomhed. På trods af Jesse's fremtrædende plads og takket være Cole og Jesses uophørlige holdning som misforståede mestre i folket, da Cole og Jim Younger blev paroleret i 1901 (Bob Younger døde af tuberkulose, mens de stadig var fængslet), var de fuldt ud folkehelte. At sikre sig tre yngre brødres underskrifter og være vært for en af ​​dem til middag ville have været et kup for Pegs oldefar. Autografbogens fremragende stand og berømtheden blandt de mænd, der underskrev den, sikrede, at den ville forblive en fascinerende hukommelse i mange år.

Spredning af kaos

I et årti efter afslutningen på borgerkrigen fortsatte James-Younger-banden, som de havde under, og endda før, krigen og#8212, der rejste på landet, stjal, dræbte og spredte kaos. De var vokset op i Missouri i en tid, hvor staten var en slagmark i den nationale debat om slaveri og var vant til voldelige konflikter. Inden krigen begyndte, tog militser på begge sider af slaveri -spørgsmålet redskaber til ødelæggelse, brændte gårde ned i hele Missouri og Kansas og skræmte dem, de var uenige med. Jameses og de unge, fjerne forhold ved ægteskab sluttede alle sammen med uregelmæssige konfødererede militser. Cole og Frank James, Jesses ældre bror, var deltagere i Lawrence -massakren, hvor bushwhackers under William Quantrill dræbte det meste af den mandlige befolkning i Lawrence, Kansas, og brændte byen til jorden.

Efter krigen sluttede Youngers og Jameses kræfterne og begyndte deres karriere inden for kriminalitet, som de betragtede (eller hævdede at overveje) som en forlængelse af borgerkrigen. I breve til sympatiske avisredaktører erklærede Jesse sig selv og sit tøj for at være undertrykte sydlige ofre for Yankee -aggression og amerikanske Robin Hoods, der stjal fra de rige og gav til de fattige. I 10 år ranede de banker, udslettede opsparingskonti og tog, hvor de dræbte ikke-samarbejdende ingeniører, men den sidste handling af James-Younger-banden var det ødelagte røveri af en bank i Northfield, Minnesota, i september 1876, hvorunder borgere i byen tog rifler og kørte tyvene ud af byen. I kølvandet på dette ville de unge blive anholdt.

Røveriet gik galt fra begyndelsen: i det mindste havde nogle af banden brugt dagen på at drikke whisky på en Northfield -salon og tiltrukket sig så meget opmærksomhed på sig selv, at før de overhovedet var kommet ind i banken, havde mange i Northfield mistanke om, hvad de havde gang i . Når de var inde i banken, synes deres beruselse at have fået dem til at begå en række fejl, som f.eks. Ikke at bemærke, at hvælvingen, som de befalede bankens medarbejdere at åbne, allerede var åben. Da borgerne i Northfield begyndte at skyde på udsigtsposterne udenfor, panikerede banditterne inde i banken og dræbte unødigt en ekspedient ved navn Joseph Heywood, som de allerede havde slået i en tilstand af halv bevidsthed.

Da de flygtede fra borgerne i Northfield, skød banden — i stykker, og med kun $ 26 af de $ 15.000, de havde håbet at stjæle, og#8212 til sidst blev delt. Frank og Jesse slap for at fortsætte deres kriminelle karriere, men de yngre brødre overgav sig til en posse i skoven i Hanska Slough, ved Watonwan -floden. Cole var blevet skudt 11 gange Jims overkæbe var blevet blæst af. Bob, Jim og Cole blev fængslet, prøvet for mordet på Joseph Heywood og idømt livsvarigt fængsel. Den dag i dag, i ugen efter Labor Day, fejrer Northfield det forpurrede røveri med Defeat of Jesse James Days -festivalen.

Underholdningsbranchen

Efter hans prøveløsladelse i 1901 gik Cole igen sammen med Frank James, denne gang i en Wild West -revy kaldet Cole Younger og Frank James Historical Wild West Show. Derefter gik han aldrig glip af en mulighed for at pontificere sin kriminelle fortid med en blanding af fromhed og defensivitet, en propagandataktik, han delte med Jesse James.

Autografbogen, vurderet til mellem $ 20.000 og $ 30.000, vidner om en ejendommelig tid i amerikansk historie, da morderiske, rasende tyve blev ulegerede helte eller i det mindste berømtheder for så mange — inklusive Pegs oldefar, der arbejdede for selve institutionen, der blev tiltalt for at opkræve de unges gæld til samfundet gennem mange års hårdt arbejde. På en eller anden måde tillod tiderne Jameses og Youngers at overvinde fakta om deres grusomme levebrød i den populære fantasi. Autografbogen tilbageviser imidlertid pænt en myte, der ofte abonneres på af dem, der købte sig ind i Jesse og Coles propaganda: at de unge gennem deres vildskab aldrig tilbragte en dag i fængsel.


Yngre brødre

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Yngre brødre, fire midtvestlige amerikanske fredløse i tiden efter borgerkrigen-Thomas Coleman (“Cole” 1844–1916), John (1846–74) James (“Jim” 1850–1902) og Robert (“Bob” 1853–89) - som ofte var allieret med Jesse James.

Som unge på Lees Summit, Mo., var de unge vidne til de blodige grænseværdier mellem Kansas og Missouri og derefter borgerkrigens stridigheder. Cole Younger sluttede sig til William C. Quantrills raiders, konfødererede guerillas og næsten forbudte og mødte Frank James, et andet medlem. Efter krigen, i 1866, sluttede Cole sig til Jesse og Frank James og andre fredløse i en bande, der stjal banker i Missouri og i de omkringliggende stater. Jim Younger sluttede sig til dem i 1868, John Younger cirka et år senere og Bob Younger omkring 1872. Næste sommer tilføjede banden togrøveri til deres derring-do.

På dette tidspunkt havde Pinkerton -agenter og sheriffer i Missouri været længe forfulgte. I marts 1874 fandt tre af dem John og Jim Younger og dræbte John i en skyderi.

De tre tilbageværende unge nåede slutningen af ​​deres karriere den 7. september 1876, da de sammen med Frank og Jesse James og tre andre forsøgte at røve First National Bank of Northfield, Minn. De forlod banken og blev mødt af skud af en mængde borgere, der forfulgte dem, da de flygtede ind i sumpene i nærheden. Tre af banden (Clell Miller, Bill Chadwell og Charlie Pitts) blev dræbt. Frank og Jesse James slap væk, og de unge med Jim hårdt såret blev fanget. De tre unge erkendte sig skyldige i røveri og drab og blev idømt livsvarigt fængsel. Bob døde i fængsel af tuberkulose. Cole og Jim fik benådning i 1901. Jim var ved dårligt helbred en kugle i hovedet året efter. Cole skrev Historien om Cole Younger, af ham selv (1903), spillede i vilde vestlige shows og karnevaler i et par år og trak sig derefter tilbage til sin hjemby Lee's Summit, Mo., hvor han døde af et hjerteanfald.


På denne dag: Bankrøveriet, der ødelagde Jesse James 'bande

Fra 1868 til det katastrofale bankrøveri i Minnesota i 1876, der brød banden op, red Jesse James med en gruppe tidligere konfødererede guerillas kendt som James-Younger Gang, hvis kernemedlemmer var brødre: Frank og Jesse James og Bob, Cole, Jim og John Younger. I næsten otte år oplevede banden bemærkelsesværdigt held. Hvert bank-, tog- og scenerøveri, de forsøgte, lykkedes, og brødrene, der udgjorde kernen i banden, formåede altid at undslippe fangst undtagen én, John, der blev dræbt.

Foto: Jesse James. Kredit: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

Derefter, i efteråret 1876, besluttede Missouri -banden at række langt ud over deres vante område og angreb den første nationalbank i Northfield, Minnesota, den 7. september. Det viste sig at være en dårlig beslutning.

Illustration: billede fra side 120 i “Jesse James og hans Band of Notorious Outlaws ” af Gordon, Welche (1891). Kredit: Internetarkiv.

Bankens kasserer blev ikke skræmt og nægtede at åbne hvælvingen, trods kniven holdt ham i halsen, og Northfield -borgerne på gaden udenfor indså, at et røveri var i gang og begyndte at skyde. Det voldsomme skud affyrede to af de fredløse på stedet, og en massiv jagt begyndte på de resterende seks, da de desperat flygtede sydpå. Den forfulgte pose skød et tredje bandemedlem ned og fangede alle tre yngre brødre. Kun James -drengene kom tilbage til Missouri, og bandet blev brudt. James-Younger-banden ville aldrig ride igen.

Foto: First National Bank i Northfield, Minnesota, bestjålet af James-Younger Gang den 7. september 1876. Dette er nu et museum, ikke længere en driftsbank. Kredit: Elkman Wikimedia Commons.

Et af de borgerlige paroler for Northfield er "Jesse James Slipped Here", og siden 1948 har byen fejret sine borgeres modige modstand mod James-Younger Gang med en festival kaldet "Defeat of Jesse James Days." Sammen med en genindførelse af røveriet byder udendørsfestivalen på en parade, karneval, rodeo og levende musik.

De følgende to avisartikler giver detaljer om bankrøveriet i Northfield og forfølgelsen af ​​røverne. Bemærk, at den første artikel, der blev skrevet på røveriets dag, allerede mistænker James-Younger-banden og kommenterer: ”Der er alle former for rygter om røvere, mange tror, ​​at de er nogle af de bander, der hidtil opererede i Missouri og Kansas , ”Mens den anden artikel, der blev skrevet den næste dag, hævder:“ Det generelle indtryk ser ud til at være, at røvere er medlemmer af de berømte Younger og James bander.

Her er en transskription af denne artikel:

MINNESOTA MISCREANTS.

Otte af dem forsøg på at røve en bank på Northfield.

Kassereren og tre af røverne dræbt.

ST. PAUL, MINN., 7. september - En Northfield, Minn., Speciel for Pioneer, siger, at omkring klokken to i eftermiddag kom otte mænd, godt monterede, ind i byen og fortsatte til banken. Tre kom ind i den og sprang hen over disken og beordrede kassereren, J. L. Heywood, med en kniv til halsen, at åbne hvælvningen. På samme tid blev alle personer i banken, A. E. Bunker, assisterende kasserer og Frank Wilcox, fuldmægtig, beordret til at holde deres hænder op. Mr. Heywood nægtede at adlyde ordrer og åbne pengebuen. Hans hals var blevet lidt ridset med en kniv. Stadig vedholdende satte røverne munden på en pistol til hans højre tempel og affyrede. Heywood faldt død. De vendte sig derefter til hr. Bunker og beordrede ham til at åbne hvælvningen. Han sagde, at han ikke kendte kombinationen. Da røverne demonstrerede mod ham, løb han ud af bagdøren. De skød mod ham og skød ham gennem skulderen. Wilcox blev ikke forstyrret. Mens dette skete inden for byens folk uden at udføre godt arbejde. To af røvere blev dræbt direkte og en såret. Den sårede mand blev taget væk af sine konfødererede. En af deres heste blev dræbt og en fanget. Byens borgere opførte sig som gamle veteraner, som mange af dem er. Røverne kom ikke ind i hvælvningen, og de fandt heller ikke kassererskuffen, undtagen nikkelskuffen, og en håndfuld nikkler taget fra den blev kastet på gulvet. Fire af de otte mænd kom til byen inden middagstid og ventede på nordsiden af ​​broen, indtil de fire andre kom til byen fra Dundas. Mændene var godt monteret og bevæbnet med marine-revolvere med patroner i selerne omkring deres kroppe. Da røvere krydsede broen ind i byen, tegnede de deres revolvere, og satte deres heste i fuld galop, sprang gennem gaderne, råbte til folket på gåture for at komme indenfor og prydede deres råb med de mest djævelske forbandelser og upræciseringer. Mens de tre mænd var engageret i banken, stod de andre på gaden og truede med at skyde alle, der forstyrrede, og affyrede flere ufarlige skud. Pistoler og kanoner blev hurtigt sikret af borgerne, og en ung mand ved navn Wheeler hentede fra en vindue i den modsatte bygning en af ​​skurkene og skød ham gennem hjertet. Et andet skud, der menes at være fra Wheeler, umiddelbart efter, bøjede et andet, da røverne monterede deres heste og slog et tilbagetog. Den tredje røver blev ramt, men slap væk. Et band på halvtreds borgere blev organiseret, og ledet af Wheeler begyndte at forfølge. I sidste regnskab var røvere kun femogtyve minutter foran forfølgerne og er næsten sikre på at blive overhalet. Der er alle former for rygter om røvere, mange tror, ​​at de er nogle af de bander, der hidtil opererede i Missouri og Kansas.

Her er en transskription af denne artikel:

KRIMINAL BULLETIN.

THE NORTHFIELD BANK ROBBERS.

Særligt telegram til Inter Ocean.

ST. PAUL, Minn., 8. september - Et stort parti af borgere i Northfield, hjulpet af særlige detektiver fra denne by og Minneapolis, er i dag på jagt efter Northfield -bankrøverne, hvis frygtelige udbytning blev givet i gårsdagens INTER OCEAN. Festen talte omkring 500, og er i den store skov nær Morristown. Rygter om et engagement i dag er flydende, men menes ikke generelt. En belønning på $ 1.500 er blevet tilbudt af guvernør Pillsbury.

ST. PAUL, Minn., 8. september - Fjorten borgere i jagten på Northfield -røvere overhalede dem sent torsdag aften i en kløft en kort afstand fra Shieldsville. Der blev udvekslet skud, og en af ​​røvernes heste blev dræbt, men da røverne vendte sig for at kæmpe, og borgerne var dårligt bevæbnet, turde de ikke skynde sig ind i dem, og røverne, der monterede den afstigede kammerat dobbelt, tog til skoven og blev igen tabt af syne. De blev sidst hørt om ved Waterville Lake, klokken 2 i eftermiddag, og gik sydpå mod Okaman. Der er omkring 400 mænd, der forfølger dem, et band på fyrre er mindre end en time bagud, og det menes at have dem før morgen. Tragedien er det altopslugende diskussionsemne her i dag, og det generelle indtryk ser ud til at være, at røverne er medlemmer af de berømte Younger og James bander. Det er sikkert, at de først kom til denne by for cirka to uger siden over flodvejen, og at de siden er blevet set på forskellige lokaliteter i staten, hver med forskellige navne og generelt forskellige beretninger om sig selv. I lommen på en af ​​de dræbte røvere fandt man et fint Howard -guldur, et lommekort over Minnesota, et lommekompas og en lille sum penge. I lommen på den anden var et fint guld Waltham -ur, men intet blev fundet på kroppen, hverken for at angive, hvem de var eller hvorfra. Guvernør Pillsbury har tilbudt en belønning på $ 1.500 for fangsten af ​​røverne eller forholdsmæssigt for hver fanget.

Bemærk: En online samling af aviser, såsom GenealogyBanks


Minnesotaner angriber den kriminelle bande James -Younger - HISTORIE

En af de døde fredløse var mangeårige bosiddende i Minnesota, Bill Stiles, også kendt som Bill Chadwell - bandemedlemmet, der bedst kendte statens veje, floder og jernbaner. Rex Macbeth fra North Mankato har brugt et helt liv på at studere Northfield -røveriet. Han mener, at Stiles påvirkede bandets beslutning om at komme til Minnesota.

"Følelsen er, at han fortalte gutterne 'Lad os tage til Minnesota. Bankerne er fulde af penge, flok dumme landmænd deroppe, har ingen sadelheste, de kan ikke skyde, har slet ingen problemer . Vi kan få deres penge og komme let derfra, «siger Macbeth.

Frank og Jesse James Cole, Bob og Jim Younger og Charlie Pitts red sydvest gennem en række små Minnesota byer. Dundas, Millersburg, Shieldsville, Morristown, Kilkenny, Elysian. Flere gange udvekslede banden skud med at forfølge besiddelser. I nærheden af ​​Elysian besluttede banden at opgive deres heste og gå. Dyrene var slidte, og de fredløse mente, at de kunne gemme sig bedre til fods.

Da de kløvede sig igennem en tæt underbørste, var den flygtende bande et fjernt syn fra cowboy -dandies, der var ankommet til Minnesota med tog en måned tidligere. Inden de slog Northfield tilbragte de tid i tvillingebyerne, spillede og købte forsyninger. De spejdede også byer i det sydlige Minnesota som St. Peter, Mankato, Madelia og Red Wing. Da Northfield -razziaen gik i stå, var banden langt fra sit hjemterritorium, hvor den kunne regne med sydlige sympatisører for at skjule dem. Aviser kaldte Northfield -ranet for statens største begivenhed siden Dakota indiske krig i 1862. Da det viste sig, at banden ville slippe, lurede redaktøren af ​​avisen Worthington om statens rolle.

"En udisciplineret bande af mænd og drenge har været på jagt, med her og der en lensmand eller politimand med et band af to eller tre disciplinerede mænd. Hvis Gov. Pillsbury straks havde opfordret lensmanden i hvert amt til at organisere en pose med plukkede mænd og placerede dem derefter under ét hoved, røverne var muligvis taget, «skrev redaktøren.

Da banden drog vestpå til fods fra Elysian, syntes deres plan at fungere. De blev sjældent opdaget, og besiddelserne voksede færre. Men i nærheden af ​​Mankato snublede en gårdmand på udkig efter køer på banden, der gemte sig i skoven. De fredløse diskuterede, om de skulle dræbe ham, og besluttede endelig at lade ham gå, efter at manden lovede ikke at fortælle det. Men han fortalte det alligevel, og hundredvis af genopfriskede søgende tog på vejene. Alligevel lykkedes det banden at presse sig frem. De gled gennem Mankato ved midnat. Morgen fandt dem omkring fire miles vest for Mankato i det, der nu er Minneopa State Park. Rex Macbeth påpeger et stærkt skovklædt område, hvor han mener, at James-Yngers sidste bendes sidste lejr lå.

Macbeth siger her, at de fredløse besluttede at skille selskab, for altid som det viste sig. Jesse og Frank James stjal nogle heste og tog sydpå sammen. De yngre brødre og Charlie Pitts fortsatte vestpå til fods og slap væk, da en pose lukkede ind på deres Minneopa -lejr.

Efter at have forladt Minneopa blev den yngre fraktion ikke set i en uge, men det ændrede sig den 21. september. Del Begalkas oldefar, Thomas Vought, ejede et hotel dengang i Madelia, 20 miles sydvest for Mankato. Vought og den lokale lensmand stod på hotellets veranda den dag, da en gårddreng galopperede ind i byen.

"En norsk ung mand, 17 år, Oscar Sorbel, kom til byen og meddelte dem, at de stod på dagordenen, at han var sikker på, at han havde set de yngre brødre," siger Begalka.

En posse opdagede banden, da den slog igennem sumpene og højt græs ved bunden af ​​Watonwan -floden. Til tider kom possen tæt nok på til at fyre. Et skud slog Cole Yngers vandrestok. Men hver gang posen lukkede ind, flygtede de fredløse ved at vade gennem sumpe, der var ufremkommelige for heste. Afslutningen på jagten kom lige syd for byen La Salle, hvor possen slog banden til hjørne.

"Efter sheriff Glispins kommando fortsatte de mod, hvor de fredløse var. Sheriff Glispin gav ordren om, at når de ser røgen fra pistolerne, skulle de skyde, hvor det kom fra," siger Begalka.

I flammerne af skud blev bandemedlem Charlie Pitts dræbt, og de tre yngre brødre blev fanget af posen.

Den vestlige historieinteresserede Rex Macbeth husker skyderiet i et digt kaldet Ode til Charlie Pitts.

”I 14 dage kæmpede de sig frem, sultne, våde og kolde
Til den 21. september blev Pitts sidste historie fortalt
Han forblev tro mod sine venner til det sidste
Og de vidste, at det var det, han ville gøre
Og det tog fem hits for at dræbe Charlie Pitts,
nede i Hanska Slough. "

"Onkel Andrew sagde, at hvis de kom, havde han sin egen musket der. Han sagde, at han ville ordne dem - de ville ikke tage noget der. Dreng, det var ikke længe, ​​før Frank og Jesse kom ind. Og de tog den sadler deres heste af, og sadlede hans heste op og tog af sted, «siger Burkman.

Men den mest mytiske Jesse James -historie findes i det østlige South Dakota nær byen Garretson. En 20 fod lang fodbro spænder over en 30 fod dyb kløft. Stedet er kendt som Devil's Gulch. Historien er, at Jesse James sprang kløften til hest, da en posse lukkede sig inde. De fleste historikere tvivler på, at det skete og sagde, at spændet er for stort.

Men selvom det fysiske spring ikke skete her, så gjorde et fysisk spring. Selvom Jesse James fik dagslysene slået ud af ham i Northfield, er han aldrig besejret i legendens land. Den fredløse, der bankede et bankrøveri i en lille by i Minnesota, genopstår ved et mirakuløst spring. Det er folkehistorier som denne, der befriede Jesse James fra virkelighedens lænker og drev ham ind i hjertet af amerikansk mytologi.


Påstået bandeleder fra Fergus Falls anklaget for voldelige angreb, røverier

BISMARCK, N.D. (AP) - En føderal jury har tiltalt en mand anklagere siger ledet en kriminel bande, der udførte en række voldelige angreb og røverier.

Anklagere sagde, at den 26-årige abbed Aho fra Fergus Falls er leder af en kriminel bande kendt som "Slither Gang", hvis medlemmer stjal fra narkohandlere og solgte de stoffer, de tog. Myndighederne siger, at bandemedlemmerne målrettede påståede narkohandlere i North Dakota, Minnesota og andre steder.

Aho og medsammensvorne begik ofte hjemmeinvasioner eller oprettede ofre for at mødes på et offentligt sted og fratog dem derefter stoffer, penge, skydevåben og personlige ejendomme, ifølge en erklæring fra den amerikanske advokat Drew Wrigley torsdag.

Aho er anklaget for blandt andet at have brugt en pistol til at begå en forbrydelse af vold, fortsætte en kriminel virksomhed og sammensværgelse for at begå røveri.

(© Copyright 2020 The Associated Press. Alle rettigheder forbeholdes. Dette materiale må ikke udgives, udsendes, omskrives eller distribueres.)


Horowitz: Data viser rekordmange Minnesota -kriminelle, der undgår fængsel

Med det voksende kriminalitetsproblem i Amerika synes fejllinjen i den offentlige politik at dreje sig om finansieringsniveauer til politiet. Republikanske kandidater til embedet kører på finansiering af politiet og anklager demokraterne for at ville afskaffe politiet. Men der er et meget mere grundlæggende problem. Hvad nytter politiet, hvis begge parter køber sig ind i "strafferetsreformens" fortælling om overdreven fængsling og går ind for frigivelse af flere kriminelle på gaden? De nyeste data fra Minneapolis viser, at du kan bruge $ 1 billion til politiet, men det er meningsløst, hvis retssystemet undlader at straffe dem.

Politico reports that Joe Biden will be focusing on rising crime this week however, his administration will likely ignore the real culprit. We don't need a blue-ribbon commission to figure out why crime is rising in cities like Minneapolis. Even before the BLM-declared war on police last year, Minneapolis had been letting criminals off the hook. Crime Watch Minneapolis reports that the latest data show that even in 2019, 39% of those defendants recommended for prison received a downward departure from sentencing guidelines. That was the highest rate observed and followed a recent steep incline.

This is not the war on cops, but the war on incarceration that has been taking place over the past decade and has been fully adopted by most Republicans. Sure, the war on cops helped ignite the fire, but the original fuses were lit by "criminal justice reform." Just because police back off doesn't mean that most people will just go out and commit crime. You need a record number of career criminals on the streets in order for such a police retreat to result in the catastrophic results we are seeing today.

As you can see from this chart of the Minnesota sentencing guidelines, even following sentencing guidelines allows judges to avoid mandating prison time altogether for those convicted of theft and burglary, even with a past criminal history. Thus, those record number of individuals who escaped the guidelines, by definition, were violent and repeat offenders. As Minneapolis Crime Watch reports, there were 17,355 felony convictions in MN in 2019, and only 5,965 were initially recommended for prison. Of those, 2,353 received a downward departure (no prison or less prison than recommended). So, of 17,355 felony convictions, only 3,612 were fully sentenced, and almost all of them get out of prison much earlier because of numerous early release and good time credit programs.

And let's not forget that serial burglars are not only a danger to property and quality of life, but they are often people who go on to commit more serious crimes. For example, last week, a 94-year-old Asian woman, Ann Taylor, was allegedly stabbed in front of her San Francisco home by a man released multiple times for burglary. He was arrested five times last year for burglary and was even arrested (but acquitted) for stabbing someone to death. He was sprung from prison after his last burglary just seven days before the attack. This is the profile of the typical career criminal who used to be locked up but is now on the streets thanks to "restorative justice."

Not only are the violent career criminals not kept behind bars, but now it's aggravated by the fact that police are scared to proactively make arrests. The Star Tribune reports that in Minneapolis, violent arrests have dropped by a third, "with about 400 so far, compared with about 600 at this time last year." But is that because there are fewer criminals to arrest? Selvfølgelig ikke! Minneapolis is experiencing its worst murder/carjacking crisis of all time. The number of shooting victims is up nearly 90% compared with the first half of last year, and homicides are up from 22 to 40 over the same period. Yet arrests are done. Or more aptly put, that is precisely why shootings are up.

Hence, you can throw as much money at the cops as you want, but if you don't allow them to arrest anyone, and if the judges release the violent criminals they do arrest, what is the purpose of even having a police force?

What is needed is a commitment to strengthening mandatory sentencing in all states, especially for repeat offenders. We need ironclad mandatory minimums for repeat violent offenders, a "three strikes and you're out" law, and innovative ways to prevent them from pleading down serious charges.

Unless we actually reform the justice system to deter career criminals, the sacrifice of law enforcement is tragically worthless. According to the Officer Down Memorial Page, there has been a 41% increase in law enforcement killed this year relative to the same time frame last year. Police are more likely to run into career criminals than ever before, yet they must use less proactive force. As such, what is the incentive for them to place themselves in danger and even respond to volatile situations?

As Patrick Lynch, president of the New York City Police Benevolent Association, recently said: "At this point, there is nothing left for police officers to 'step back' from. We are doing the job exactly as our elected leaders have asked us to do it. They will have to answer for the results."


Northfield Bank Raid

Collage of Minnesota citizens and James-Younger Gang members, 1876. Top left to right: August Suborn (Oscar Sorbel), Joseph Lee Haywood, Sheriff Glispin, Bob Younger, Charlie Pitts (deceased), Jim Younger, Cole Younger , Clell Miller, and Bill Chadwell (center, deceased).

When the James–Younger gang rode into Northfield on September 7, 1876, with the intention of robbing the First National Bank, they did not expect any trouble from the local citizens. Unbeknownst to them, the townspeople would soon be nationally applauded for defending their town from some of the period’s most notorious outlaws.

The James–Younger gang was from Missouri. After a decade of local robberies, they decided to go where no one would expect to find them. The Younger brothers—Cole, Jim, and Bob—traveled to Minnesota, as did McClelland “Clell” Miller and Charlie Pitts. Though never proven, it is generally accepted that Jesse and Frank James took part in the crime that followed. The eighth man is thought to have been Bill Chadwell, whom authorities initially mistook for a Minnesotan man named Bill Stiles.

The gang rode into Northfield at 2:00 pm on September 7. Frank, Charlie, and Bob entered the First National Bank while Cole and Clell positioned themselves outside of the bank door to bar townspeople from entering during the robbery. Meanwhile, Jesse, Jim, and Bill waited in Mill Square to guard the gang’s escape route.

J. S. Allen, a forty-year-old local man, noticed the strangers. He walked towards the bank to see if he could catch a glimpse of what they were up to inside. As soon as he reached the doorway, Clell grabbed Allen, pointed his revolver at him, and told him to stay quiet. Alarmed, Allen broke free and reportedly shouted, “Get your guns, boys! They’re robbing the bank!”

Their cover blown, the gang rode up and down the streets firing their pistols at doorways and warning confused onlookers to get inside. Henry Wheeler, a medical student, grabbed a gun and ran to a third-floor window of the nearby Dampier Hotel. From there, he took careful aim and shot Clell Miller, who fell from his horse and died. On the other side of the street, Anselm Manning, the owner of a hardware store, crept around the corner and fatally shot Bill Chadwell.

Nicolaus Gustavson, a recent Swedish immigrant who could not understand the robbers’ orders to get off the street, got caught in the crossfire and was shot in the head. He died several days later.

With two gang members dead and more townspeople shooting and throwing rocks, Cole screamed at the robbers in the bank to hurry up. Inside the bank, however, things were going just as poorly as they were outside.

The robbers had burst into the bank with their pistols drawn and demanded to know which of the three employees was the cashier. The cashier was out of town, so none of them answered. Frustrated, Frank grabbed Joseph Lee Heywood, the bookkeeper, and demanded that he open the safe. Heywood replied that the lock was on a timer and could not be opened. He lied the lock was open during business hours but the bolts remained in place so that it appeared locked.

Frank fired a shot above Heywood’s head, trying to scare him into cooperating. Noticing an opportunity to flee amid the confusion, Alonzo Bunker, the bank teller, sprinted for the back door. Charlie Pitts shot him in the shoulder but Bunker kept on running until he reached the doctor’s office.

Hearing Cole’s desperate shouts from the street, Bob and Charlie grabbed the spare change they found on the counter and headed outside. Infuriated by their failure, Frank paused long enough to turn back and shoot Heywood in the head, instantly killing him.

Just minutes after riding into Northfield, the surviving outlaws retreated from town. They left behind two dead gang members and fifteen thousand dollars still sitting in the bank. For two weeks, hundreds of volunteers combed southern Minnesota searching for them in what was then the largest manhunt in U.S. history.

On September 20, the sheriff of Watonwan County and five local volunteers found the Youngers and Charlie Pitts near Madelia. Pitts died in the confrontation and the Younger brothers were sentenced to life terms in Stillwater State Prison. Jesse and Frank James managed to escape and for the rest of their lives denied ever having been in Minnesota.


George Floyd had ‘violent criminal history’: Minneapolis police union chief

The head of the Minneapolis police union says George Floyd’s “violent criminal history” needs to be remembered and that the protests over his death are the work of a “terrorist movement.”

“What is not being told is the violent criminal history of George Floyd. The media will not air this,” police union president Bob Kroll told his members in a letter posted Monday on Twitter.

Floyd had landed five years behind bars in 2009 for an assault and robbery two years earlier, and before that, had been convicted of charges ranging from theft with a firearm to drugs, the Daily Mail reported.

Floyd died last week after a white cop kneeled on the 46-year-old black man’s neck for nearly 9 minutes, a shocking incident that was caught on video and is sparking widespread violent protests, including in New York City. Floyd had allegedly just tried to pass a phony $20 bill before he died.

“This terrorist movement that is currently occurring was a long time build up which dates back years,” Kroll said in his letter of the protests, adding that some of his city’s issues exist because Minneapolis leaders have been “minimizing the size of our police force and diverting funds to community activists with an anti-police agenda.

“Our chief requested 400 more officers and was flatly denied any. This is what led to this record breaking riot,” he said.

George Floyd Ben Crump Law

The union chief vowed that his organization would help the cop accused of killing Floyd, now-fired Officer Derek Chauvin, and three other officers who were at the scene and are being investigated.

“I’ve worked with the four defense attorneys that are representing each of our four terminated individuals under criminal investigation, in addition with our labor attorneys to fight for their jobs. They were terminated without due process,” Kroll wrote.


Minnesotans attack the James-Younger criminal gang - HISTORY

The train and bank robbers of the Old West sprang from the Civil War, primarily in Missouri. Disenfranchised, and disgruntled, ex-Confederates learned a trade of theft and violent raiding during the war and could not, or would not, give it up afterwards.

Many of the original Western outlaws had been guerrilla raiders during the war--which in the Missouri-Kansas border area stretched from 1854 to 1865. Cole Younger, and Frank and Jesse James had been with Quantrill's raiders, the most noted of the guerrilla bands. Both Cole Younger and Frank James did leave Quantrill and join the regular Confederate army later in the war, but both were present at the infamous Lawrence, Kansas massacre (though there is some dispute as to whether Jesse James was there or joined Quantrill later that year, most evidence indicates he was not at Lawrence).

Motivations and causes for why these young men did not return to normal lives after the war ended can be debated endlessly without result. The two main points of view are:

Vengeful Unionists harassed them, blaming them for illegal activities until they were forced into the outlaw life. They claimed they could not surrender to the law to defend themselves from early charges because in the atmosphere at that time and place they'd have been lynched, so chose the outlaw trail as a survival option.

They were bitter losers in the war, refusing to give up the Lost Cause, continuing the war after it was over by robbing banks and trains as pseudo-guerrilla raids.

Credence can be lent to either argument. Cole Younger unintentionally gave weight to the latter argument when he stated that part of the motivation for robbing the Northfield bank was that they believed it was owned, in part, by Benjamin Butler, a hated Union general. On the other hand, there is also evidence that both the James and Younger brothers attempted to return to their homes and farming lives but were harassed and pursued because of their guerrilla connections. All ex-Confederates faced hard times in Missouri at the war's end (see Oath of Loyalty), but guerrillas were often not regarded as having been legitimate soldiers and were, instead, treated as outlaws and criminals. Missouri had a long, bitter struggle that began before 1861 and would not end in 1865.

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James family cabin as it would have appeared around the Civil War

John N. Edwards in "Noted Guerrillas", a book that is ikke without bias however, says of the James and Youngers on their return home after the war's end:

Cole Younger was repeatedly waylaid and fired at. His stock was killed through mere deviltry, or driven off to swell the gains of insatiable wolves. His life was in hourly jeopardy, as was the life of his brother James.

What else could Jesse James have done? In those evil days bad men in bands were doing bad things continually in the name of law, order and vigilance committees. He had been a desperate Guerrilla he had fought under a black flag he had survived dreadful wounds it was known that he would fight at any hour or in any way he could not be frightened out from his native country he could be neither intimidated nor robbed, and hence the wanton war upon Jesse and Frank James, and hence the reason why today they are outlaws, and hence the reasons also that--outlaws as they are and proscribed in county or State, or territory--they have more friends than the officers who hunt them, and more defenders than the armed men who seek to secure their bodies, dead or alive.

The 'on the other hand' of Edward's comments is the statements by some that they weren't turned in because witnesses feared retribution at their hands.

What is without doubt is that both the James and Younger brothers had a considerable number of loyal supporters, not all of whom were fellow Confederates. Though well-known by many in Missouri, none were betrayed to the law.

As he had confessed to the Northfield robbery attempt, Cole Younger, in later years, could admit to having been an outlaw (though he claimed Northfield was his first and only robbery). Frank James had to claim innocence his entire life. This didn't stop him in his later years from capitalizing on his, and his brother's, notoriety, charging admission to see his home.

Not necessarily the most truthful account, but one of the very few that is authentically first-hand. It's as interesting for what Cole Younger doesn't say as what he does.

Settle, William A., Jr., Jesse James Was His Name, University of Nebraska Press, 1966

The first serious scholarly work done. More information has been since uncovered by later researchers, but Settle is still the baseline reference work and a vital source. Settle offers no conclusions as to the guilt or innocence of the James & Youngers, only the unvarnished information he researched.

Excellent research into many previously unexplored areas and a superb account of Frank James' and Cole Younger's later years.

"When the Heavens Fell: The Youngers in Stillwater Prison" by John Koblas

"The Great Cole Younger & Frank James Historical Wild West Show

Triplett,Frank The Life, Times and Treacheous Death of JESSE JAMES

"Since 1865 it has been pretty much one eternal ambush for these two men--one unbroken and eternal hunt twelve years long. They have been followed, trailed, surrounded, shot at, wounded, ambushed, surprised, watched, betrayed, proscribed, outlawed, driven from State to State, made the objective points of infallible detectives, and they have triumphed. By some intelligent people they are regarded as myths by others as in league with the devil."

"Noted Guerrillas" by John N. Edwards,

referring to Frank and Jesse James

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home of Jesse and Frank James near Kearney (pron. car-nee), Missouri

Frank James lived in the house, and sold tours for $.50 each to the curious. Cole Younger, after his release from prison, visited Frank often. The two men were seen talking and laughing in private conversations that immediately ceased when anyone else came within ear-shot.

I am a bonded highwayman
Cole Younger is my name
Through many a temptation
I've brought my friends to shame.
For the robbing of the Northfield bank

They say I can't deny
And now I am a poor prisoner
In the Stillwater Jail I lie.

Come listen, comrades, listen,
A story I will tell
Of a California miner
On whom my fate befell
We robbed him of his money, boys,
And bid him go on his way,
And that I'll always be sorry for
Until my dying day.

The next thing we defended them of
Was the Union Pacific Railway
The engineerman and foreman got killed
The conductor escaped alive
And now their poor bodies lies moulderin'
Beneath Nebraska skies

We started then for Texas
That good old Lone Star state
Out on the Nebraska prairies
The James boys we did meet
With guns, cards, and revolvers
We all set down to play
And drank a lot of good whiskey, boys,
To pass the time away.

We started then to the Northward
And northward we did go
To that God forsaken country
Called Minnesot-ee-o
Our eyes being fixed on Northfield Bay
When Brother Bob did say -
"Cole, if you undertake that job,
You'll surely curse the day."

We pointed out our pickets
Up to the bay did go
And there upon the counter
We made our fatal blow
Saying, hand me down your money, boys,
And make no scarce delay,
We are the James and Younger Boys
And spare no time to pray

Cotton Davis
Woodville, 1941

from the Library of Congress Dustbowl Collection

[Historical note about the content of the above ballad: It was Bob Younger's idea to go to Minnesota, Cole and Jim tried to talk him out if it. I've never seen historical mention of any of them robbing a miner in California. I don't know where he got Northfield "Bay". Northfield is on a small river, the Cannon river, not a lake.]

Some interesting web sites on the James and Youngers

Stray Leaves: James Family in America this is a very large site with pictures, articles, and information. Formatted for viewing on 1024X768 monitors-smaller monitors won't work well with this site.

Friends of the James Farm by the organization that operates the Jesse & Frank James home as a museum

Northfield Bank site virtual tour of the bank in Northfield

Grave the Find-a-Grave sites of many of the James and Younger gang members

The Summer of Jesse James includes a photo of the wrecked train at Adair, Iowa

Pinkerton History page history page of the famous, and still in business, detective agency that hunted the James and Youngers. Some photos.

Myths and Facts historian for the Jesse James Farm & Museum attempts to sort truth from legend

The Jesse James Scrapbook site promoting a new novel, also includes historical newspaper articles on Jesse James

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Jesse James' original gravesite in the yard of the James family home. Jesse's mother had him buried in the yard to protect the grave and his body. He was later moved to the town cemetery, in Kearney, Missouri, next to his wife after her death years later. The original marker was chipped away over the years by souvenir seekers.

In 1995 Jesse James had his third funeral when he was reburied after being exhumed for DNA tests to determine if he was really Jesse James. He was. The DNA reports are online at this site.

Frank James, after his death in 1915, was cremated as he feared graverobbers. His ashes were kept in a bank vault until his wife's death in 1944.

"I was a guerrilla. I fought the best I knew how with Quantrill, Anderson, and Todd but I never in all my life slew an unarmed man or a prisoner. Ask any of my comrades in Clay, Jackson, Lafayette, Howard, or Randolph counties if this is not so. You may think I tell you this to soften my fate, and strengthen my case before the people, but I do not. I tell it to you because it is the truth, and because I have been described in some newspapers as a monster of cruelty who delighted in bloodshed and murder."

Frank James, October 5, 1882

"From the mass of rubbish that has been written about the guerrilla there is little surprise that the popular conception of him should be a fiendish, bloodthirsty wretch.

"Yet he was, in many cases, if not in most, a man who had been born to better things, and who was made what he was by such outrages as Osceola, Palmyra, and a hundred other raids less famous, but not less infamous, that were made by Kansans into Missouri during the war."

Quantrill's raid on Lawrence, Kansas, August 1863.

It is doubtful whether the world has ever witnessed such a scene of horror- certainly not outside the annals of savage warfare. History gives no parallel, where an equal number of such desperate men, so heavily armed, were let perfectly loose in an unsuspecting community. The carnage was much worse from the fact that the citizens could not believe that men could be such fiends. No one expected an indiscriminate slaughter.

(from Union newspaper account)

William Clarke Quantrill.

"'Barbarism,' rejoined Quantrell. [note: common misspelling of Quantrill--D.R.] 'barbarism, Mr. Secretary, means war and war means barbarism. Confederacy wants a victory. Men must be killed.

"'I would wage such a war as to make surrender forever impossible. I would break up foreign enlistments by indiscriminate massacre. I would win the Independence of my people or I would find them graves.

'There would be no prisoners,' exclaimed the fiery captain. 'Do they take any prisoners from me? Surrounded, I do not surrender hunted I hunt my hunters hated and made blacker than a dozen devils, I add to my hoofs the swiftness of a horse and to my horns the terrors of a savage following. Kansas should be laid waste at once. Meet the torch with the torch, pillage with pillage, slaughter with slaughter, subjugation with extermination.'"

from the autobiography of Cole Younger, one of Quantrill's guerrillas-quite a few of the later James-Younger gang members had been with Quantrill at one time or another. Cole Younger and Frank James primarily. Jim Younger and Jesse James were with Quantrill later in the war.

"Quantrell assembled his gang about noon the day before the raid, and started towards Kansas about two o'clock. They crossed the border between five and six o'clock, and struck directly across the prairie toward Lawrence. He passed through Gardner, on the old Sante Fe wagon road, about 11 o'clock at night. Here they burned a few houses and killed one or two citizens. The passed through Hesper , ten miles southeast of Lawrence, between two and three o'clock. The moon was now down and the night was very dark and the road doubtful. They took a little boy from a house on Captain's Creek, near by, and compelled him to guide them into Lawrence."

Dawn, August 21, 1863...

"At the house of the Rev. S. S. Snyder a gang turned aside from the main body, entered his yard and shot him. Mr. Snyder was a prominent minister among the United Brethren. He held a commission as lieutenant in the Second Colored Regiment, which probably accounts for their malignity."

Scenes from the raid.

"The most brutal murder was that of Judge Carpenter. Mr. Carpenter ran into the house, up stairs, then down again, the ruffian after him and firing at every turn. He finally eluded them and slipped into the cellar. He was badly wounded, so that the blood lay in pools in the cellar where he stood for a few minutes. His hiding place was soon discovered, and he was driven out of the cellar into the yard and shot again. He fell mortally wounded. His wife threw herself onto him and covered him with her person to shield him from further violence. The ruffian deliberately walked around her to find a place to shoot under her, and finally raised her arm and put his revolver under it, and fired so she could see the ball enter his head. [they had been married less than a year]

& quotMr. Fitch was called downstairs and instantly shot. Although the second ball was probably fatal, they continued to fire until they lodged six or eight balls in his lifeless body. They then began to fire the house.

& quotMr. Ellis, a German blacksmith, ran into the corn in the park, taking his little child with him. For some time he remained concealed, but the child growing weary began to cry. The rebels outside, hearing the cries, ran in and killed the father, leaving the child in its dead father's arms.

"Noticing life in Mr. Sargeant one of the men coolly reloaded his pistol saying he "would soon finish him." Mrs. Sargeant at once fell on her husband's prostrate body, begging for his life, but the murderer placed the pistol above her shoulder and sent a ball crashing through his head. Mr. Sargeant survived eleven days.

"The courage shown by these ladies is seldom matched by the soldier's in the excitement of a battle. On every side men were falling, close to them Mr. Williamson was killed, near them Mr. Hay was shot down. Bullets were flying all about them, but they stood guard over the dead and dying."

Lawrence monument, 1895

Dedicated to the memory of the one hundred and fifty citizens who, defenseless, fell victims to the inhuman ferocity of border guerrillas, led by the infamous Quantrill, in his raid upon Lawrence, August 21st, 1863. Erected May 30th, 1895

Lawrence, Kansas 1869 map Map link--search "Lawrence" to see closer views

. poor, awkward Lawrence's cry for help is quite unheeded, except, perhaps, in the passing of a few well-sounding resolutions, which remind one of champagne, long exposed to the air, from which the life and sparkle is gone forever.

from "Six Months in Kansas" by Hannah Anderson Ropes

"A trifle atrocity prone. & quot

That could be said of Quantrill and his raiders, but it could also be said of his opponents. The Lawrence raid came after numerous female relatives of his men were arrested (just for being relatives) and killed or maimed in the collapse of the building in which they were confined. The collapse may have been accidental. eller ikke. The raid on Lawrence, Kansas didn't come out of the blue or without motivation. It was one in a long string of atrocities by both sides that had been taking place in the border area since 1854. The prison collapse wasn't the sole reason, only the finally trigger. The response to the Lawrence raid was Order 11 which forcibly depopulated several Missouri counties of anyone sympathetic to, or suspected of being sympathetic to, the Rebels, turning the area into what was called the "Burnt District.". It's well to remember that the majority of the raiders at Lawrence killed no one. Cole Younger is said by more than one source to have saved several lives that day.

Lawrence, 1856.

"When we came to look out upon Lawrence and the surrounding country, as we had nearly run through the vocabulary finding words to express our rapture at the ever-changing beauty of every part of our route, and as this view from our window, and from the hill beyond us, was the master-piece, silence expressed most truly our feelings, stirred as they were by a divine hand. The house fronts the east, and is situated upon an elevation commanding a prospect unequaled for extent, or variety of loveliness, for miles in all directions. Half a mile to the north sits Lawrence, a little hamlet upon the prairie, whose fame has even now crossed the continent, awakening hopes and fears in the hearts of many for friends, who for six months, have battled with pioneer life. Malignity and hatred have been aroused in the souls of others, who see in this little gathering of dwellings of wood, thatch, and mud hovels, the promise of a new state, glorious in its future.

"The town reaches to the river, whose further shore is skirted with a line of beautiful timber, while beyond all rises the Delaware lands, which in the distance have all the appearance of cultivated fields and orchards, and form a back-ground to the picture of singular loveliness. To the eastward the prairie stretches away eight or ten miles, and we can scarcely help believing that the ocean lies beyond the low range of hills meeting the horizon. The line of travel from the east, or from Kansas city, passes into the territory by this way. Blue Mound rises in the south-east, and, with the shadows resting over it, looks green and velvety. A line of timber between us and Blue Mound marks the course of the Wakarusa, while beyond the eye rests upon a country diversified in surface, sloping hills, finely rolling prairies, and timbered creeks. A half mile to the south of us, Mount Oread, upon which our house stands, becomes yet more elevated, and over the top of it passes the great California road. West of us also is a high hill, a half mile in the distance, with a beautiful valley lying between, while to the north-west there is the most delightful mingling together of hill, valley, prairie, woodland and river . As far as the eye rests, we see the humble dwellings of the pioneer, with other improvements."

Quantrill's raiders.

"Jesse James was but a boy of sixteen, but he boasted of having killed thirteen men in Lawrence. But all stories with "thirteens" can safely be discounted. Thirteen seems to have been a favorite number with them, and enough of them boasted of having killed thirteen each to have exterminated the entire population of Lawrence. But his killing was probably limited only by his opportunities." [Note: Jesse James was probably not at Lawrence, being too young, instead joining Quantrill later. Cole Younger and other first-hand sources say Jesse James was not there--D.R.]

Well told stories with footnotes by a solid historian in this edition. McCorkle makes the usual mistakes of memory common to autobiographies--events in the wrong order, dates wrong--and, naturally, puts his own personal bias on things. The historian/editor compensates with his own, opposite bias. It makes for a good balance. McCorkle mentions Cole Younger frequently--they became brothers-in-law--and Frank James occasionally. The most intriguing parts are the numerous times Quantrill came into potentially deadly conflict with his own men.

The Devil Knows How to Ride: The True Story of William Clarke Quantrill and his Confederate Raiders , by Edward E. Leslie

A well-researched and well-written history

William Clarke Quantrill: His Life and Times
by Albert E. Castel

Castel is a recommended author, a good historian with a very readable writing style.

"In the first place I have never had a picture taken of myself since 1863. That portrait of mine in Edward's Noted Guerrillas was taken from that picture. If you have seen it you will admit, I think, that I have changed greatly since then."

Frank James, October 5, 1882, on how he had escaped recognition for years

[This was said to a newspaper reporter immediately after he surrendered to the governor. The statement is at odds with at least two photos that are well-sourced to be of Frank taken following 1863. Is this a truth? Or partial truth? Did he not count a couple photos that were secure in the possession of his wife or mother?]

"There are no good likenesses of these robbers extant, the only ones the police have being eight years old, and Cole Younger says they look nothing like them."

reporter in Minnesota in 1876 after interviewing Cole Younger

First daylight (peacetime) bank robbery in the US, Liberty, Missouri, attributed to the James and Youngers.

February 13, 1866, Liberty, Missouri, $62,000 was taken from the Clay County Saving Association Bank, the majority in bonds. The bank ended up closing due to insufficient funds. Depositors received $.60 on the dollar.

"I think there were about ten men in the robbery. No one was recognized. I do not remember that they were disguised in any way. I do not think there was more than suspicion as to who the parties were."

remembrance of the Liberty robbery by Judge Sandusky

The James-Younger gang's outlaw career began with banks, with this being the first in the town of Liberty, partway between the James brother's home in Kearney, and the Younger's home in Lee's Summit, Missouri. Which individuals were actually responsible is open to debate, nevertheless the bank in Liberty is -- historically or mythologically -- the beginning of the James-Younger gang legend.

Liberty bank, Liberty, Missouri (closed Sundays)

Jesse James robs the Liberty bank. eller ikke.

Jesse James probably was not a participant. Sources indicate he was in too poor of condition due to a war wound to have been one of the Liberty bank robbers. Cole Younger (who claimed innocence in every robbery but the one at Northfield, Minnesota) says of the robbery, "Although every book purporting to narrate the lives of the Younger brothers has told of the Liberty robbery, and implied that we had a part in it, the Youngers were not suspected at that time, or for a long time afterward. It was claimed by the people of Liberty that they positively recognized among the robbers Oll Shepard, 'Red' Monkers and 'Bud' Pence, who had seen service with Quantrell." (from The Story of Cole Younger by Himself) You'll notice Cole Younger doesn't say they gjorde ikke rob the bank, just that they weren't immediately suspected.

"I was tired of an outlaw's life. I have been hunted for twenty-one years. I have literally lived in the saddle. I have never known a day of perfect peace. It was one long, anxious, inexorable, eternal vigil. When I slept it was literally in the midst of an arsenal. If I heard dogs bark more fiercely than usual, or the feet of horses in a greater volume of sound than usual, I stood to arms. Have you any idea of what a man must endure who leads such a life? No, you cannot. No one can unless he lives it for himself."

Frank James, October 5, 1882, regarding his reason for surrendering

A $10,000 reward had been put out on Frank and his brother Jesse which resulted in Jesse's death. Because of this, and his wife's influence, Frank decided to get out of the outlaw trade. He was older, 40-years-old, had a wife who disapproved of his criminal activity, and had a young son. His life was worth $10,000 to any stranger, friend, or family member who might choose to kill him for the reward. Frank James wanted out.

An attempt to negotiate an amnesty with the Governor of Missouri failed. Frank had too many crimes, and too many murders associated with them, to his credit to simple wipe the slate clean. Frank James surrendered to the Governor in his office, handing over his guns, saying they hadn't left his side since the '60s. [I read one historical author say that the governor laughed at this as the guns were 1875 model pistols, not 1860s.] Frank's belt buckle was a "US"--a Union army buckle he'd gotten at Centralia, Missouri. Through all the years the ex-Confederate guerrilla had been robbing, he'd worn a Union army belt buckle. A stack of Frank's wanted posters were piled on the floor behind him. The only real concession Frank seems to have gotten was that the State of Missouri wouldn't extradite him to Minnesota. Had he been sent to Minnesota he almost certainly would have been hanged for the Northfield murders.

When Frank was acquitted the first time, for robbery and murder, the public reaction was shock and outrage. This was the O.J. verdict of the day, though many considered it a contrived outcome. Frank was almost certainly guilty. Frank James was then extradited to Alabama. Though he was escorted to jail there in handcuffs by two Federal marshals, the pro-Confederate atmosphere in Alabama gave him good hopes of another acquittal. As soon as the not guilty verdict there was read, Frank was immediately arrested by a Missouri sheriff. This was part of the plan to keep him out of the hands of Minnesota authorities. Thereafter, every time Minnesota tried to get a hold of Frank James, the Missouri legislature would introduce a bill charging him with further crimes so as to keep him in the state.

Frank James was never convicted of any crimes and, other than some time in jail during the trials, served no prison time. He shunned offers to capitalize on his outlaw fame, turning down offers of $100,000 and more for appearances, taking menial jobs instead. In his declining years he reversed this policy to an extent, joining Cole Younger in a traveling wild west show using their names (and outlaw fame) as its main draw.

Cole Younger and Frank James were reunited in their later years. In one story, Cole suggested they stop at a bank, wanting to change some money. Frank looked thoughtful for a long moment, then smiled and said, "If Cole Younger and Frank James walk into a bank together, the first thing they'd do is slam the vault shut and start shooting." They wisely sent their driver in to change the money.

Related Pages on Civil War St. Louis.

Alleged James-Younger Gang robberies.

The members of the James-Younger gang set the template for western outlaws, though they never roamed too far west.


Se videoen: Younger Brothers After the Attempted Northfield Bank Robbery