8. Army Signalman, Montevarchi

8. Army Signalman, Montevarchi

8. Army Signalman, Montevarchi

Her ser vi en britisk signalmænd og hans vagt fra 8. armé, der opererer i Montevarchi, i Arno -dalen mellem Arezzo og Firenze.


Bethlehem

Bethlehem ( / ˈ b ɛ θ l ɪ h ɛ m / arabisk: بيت لحم Bayt Laḥm , "House of Meat" hebraisk: בֵּית לֶחֶם Bet Leḥem, Hebraisk udtale: [bet ˈleχem], "Brøds hus" Oldgræsk: Βηθλεέμ Græsk udtale: [bɛːtʰle.ém] Latin: Bethleem oprindeligt opkaldt efter den kanaanitiske fertilitetsgud Lehem [3]) er en by på den centrale Vestbred, Palæstina, cirka 10 km syd for Jerusalem. Dens befolkning er cirka 25.000, [4] [5], og det er hovedstaden i Bethlehem Governorate. Økonomien er primært turistdrevet og topper sig i juletiden, når kristne valfarter til Fødselskirken. [6] [7] Det vigtige hellige sted ved Rachels grav er ved den nordlige indgang til Bethlehem, dog ikke frit tilgængeligt for byens egne indbyggere og generelt palæstinensere, der bor på den besatte vestbred på grund af den israelske vestbredde.

Den tidligste kendte omtale af Betlehem var i Amarna -korrespondancen 1350–1330 fvt, da byen blev beboet af kanaanæerne. Den hebraiske bibel, der siger, at byen Betlehem blev bygget op som en befæstet by af Rehoboam, [8] identificerer den som byen David var fra, og hvor han blev kronet som Israels konge. Mattæus og Lukas evangelier identificerer Bethlehem som Jesu fødested. Betlehem blev ødelagt af kejser Hadrian i løbet af Bar Kokhba-oprøret i det andet århundrede, dens genopbygning blev fremmet af kejserinde Helena, mor til Konstantin den Store, der bestilte opførelsen af ​​dens store fødselskirke i 327 CE. Kirken blev hårdt beskadiget af samaritanerne, der fyrede den under et oprør i 529, men blev genopbygget et århundrede senere af kejser Justinian I.

Bethlehem blev en del af Jund Filastin efter den muslimske erobring i 637. Muslimsk styre fortsatte i Bethlehem indtil erobringen i 1099 af en korstogshær, der erstattede byens græsk -ortodokse gejstlige med et latinsk. I midten af ​​1200-tallet ødelagde mamlukkerne byens mure, som efterfølgende blev genopbygget under osmannerne i begyndelsen af ​​1500-tallet. [9] Kontrol over Betlehem gik fra osmannerne til briterne i slutningen af ​​1. verdenskrig. Betlehem kom under jordansk styre under den arabisk-israelske krig i 1948 og blev senere taget til fange af Israel i seksdageskrigen i 1967. Siden Oslo -aftalen i 1995 er Bethlehem blevet administreret af den palæstinensiske myndighed. [9]

Efter en tilstrømning af flygtninge som følge af israelske fremskridt i krigen i 1967 har Bethlehem et muslimsk flertal, men er stadig hjemsted for et betydeligt palæstinensisk kristent samfund. Det er nu omkranset og overtrådt af snesevis af israelske bosættelser og den israelske vestbreddebarriere, der adskiller både muslimske og kristne samfund fra deres land og levebrød, og ser en stabil udvandring fra begge samfund. [10]


8. Army Signalman, Montevarchi - Historie

Inden for et år deltog 8. division i GYROSCOPE, reorganisering og BIG SWITCH operationer, og den 14. december 1957 blev divisionens hovedkvarter operationelt kl. Bad Kreuznach, Tyskland.

I 1958 fik den 8. infanteridivision (M) en luftbåren kapacitet med tildelingen af ​​1. luftbårne slaggruppe, 504. infanteri. Den 15. januar 1959 blev 1st Airborne Battle Group, 505. infanteri også tildelt divisionen. 1) Disse to slaggrupper blev lettet fra opgave til 8. i april 1963, men divisionens luftbårne kapacitet blev opretholdt ved tildeling af 1. og 2. bataljon, 509. infanteri (Abn).

I august 1961, da østtyskerne opførte Berlinmuren, flyttede en af ​​divisionens slaggrupper, det 18. infanteri, over land for at forstærke Berlin garnisonen.

Året 1963 var et travlt år for stifinderne. Den 1. april blev den ROAD koncept blev implementeret i divisionen. I begyndelsen af ​​november, da 2. pansrede division ankom til Rhein-Main Air Base fra Fort Hood, Texas, i BETJENING STOR LØFT, Pathfinder -elementer flyttede ind i & quotbattle positioner & quot nær den østtyske grænse. Efter flere dages organisering gennemførte & quotHell on Wheels & quot fra Texas en nødhjælpsoperation med 8. division. BIG LIFT var den største militære luftbevægelse, der nogensinde har været ført til den tid.

Træningshøjdepunktet fra 1965 var Motion NORDIC AIR, hvor divisionens luftbårne enheder foretog et faldskærmsangreb på den jyske halvø. Motion VINTERPIL og SYDSPIL var de vigtigste begivenheder i træningskalenderen i 1966. SØDRE PIL, udført i maj, var en af ​​de største luftfartsoperationer i Europa, der er fælles efter service, siden Anden Verdenskrig.

En fælles øvelse, PATHFINDER EXPRESS, blev afholdt i 1967, som involverede tropper fra divisionen og de spanske styrker. Øvelsen blev gennemført i Spanien, og luftbårne enheder fra 8. division faldt også i faldskærm til Tyrkiet under øvelsen DEEP FURROW i september. Den anden af ​​PATHFINDER EXPRESS øvelserne blev afholdt i december 1968 i Spanien.

I februar 1972 gennemførte Pathfinders KARNIVAL KING, den første FTX af divisionsstørrelse i USAREUR siden 1966, hvilket gav tillid til øverstkommanderende, USAREUR's erklæring om, at USAREUR var & quoton the move again & quot. Divisionens 1. brigade gennemførte mange fælles luftbårne operationer, herunder BOLD LEAP IV og FIRM LION i 1971 og GOLDEN STEP i Italien i juni 1972.

I 1973 var LARAMIE GOLDEN PIL højdepunktet i 8. divisions træningsår. Operationen var en fuldstændig succes. Det startede den 10. maj med omkring ti tusinde mænd og tre tusinde køretøjer fra 8. division samt hundredvis af tyskere, skotske og belgiske tropper. Det menes at være den eneste krydsning i fuld størrelse af Rhein, der nogensinde er blevet forsøgt under manøvrer.

Også i 1973 mistede divisionen sin luftbårne mission. Den 2. bataljon, 509. inf (Abn) blev inaktiveret og 1. bataljon, 509. inf (Abn) blev tildelt den amerikanske hærs sydeuropæiske taskforce (SETAF). Med omplaceringen af ​​1. bataljon, 509. luftbårne bataljonskamphold, accepterede SETAF missionerne med at vedligeholde og implementere bataljonen alene eller som en del af Allied Command Europe Mobile Force (Land).

Efter en lige så imponerende og succesrig FTX i divisionsstørrelse i marts 1974 var 8. division banebrydende for introduktionen af ​​ARTEP'er i USAREUR i løbet af marts og april 1975, da seks mekaniserede og fem pansrede bataljoner deltog i de første ARTEP-evalueringer udført på Hohenfels. Mens indsprøjtningen af ​​øget realisme og maksimal individuel deltagelse i træning gav opgavestyrkerne i bataljonstørrelse mod en modstående styrkenhed bataljonstabe den unikke mulighed for at udføre missioner ved hjælp af det kombinerede våbenholdskoncept.

Det toårige år var vidne til det første af de meget vellykkede årlige REFORGER træningsøvelser, GORDISK SKÆLD. Efter mange timers træning og planlægning skubbede de kombinerede pansrede og infanteriangreb fra Pathfinder -enheder tilbage, omringede og erobrede en & quotenemy & quot -styrke, der omfattede den 101. luftbårne division. I marts, Brigade '76 ankom til Wiesbaden, Tyskland. Tilknyttet 8. division genforener 4. brigade 4. & quotIvy & division og Pathfinder Division, der kæmpede side om side i det blodige slag ved Hurtgen Forest i anden verdenskrig. 4. brigade tilføjer to infanteribataljoner, en rustningsbataljon, en feltartilleribataljon og en støttebataljon samt en kavaleritroppe og et ingeniørkompagni til divisionens kampstyrke.

I 1977 blev divisionens anti-rustning og kombinerede våbenkapacitet forbedret ved aktivering af 8. luftfartsbataljon (kamp) stationeret på Finthen Army Airfield. Bataljonerne kan prale af to angrebshelikopterfirmaer udstyret med TOW-bevæbnede Cobra-helikoptere.

Pathfinder -divisionen fortsatte sin livlige driv mod "interoperabilitet" med allierede NATO -enheder. Stifindere manøvrerede i den britisk-sponsorerede Operation SPEARPOINT i 1976, den belgisk-sponsorerede Operation BLUE FOX i 1977 og var vært for Operation CERTAIN SHIELD i 1978.

Under sin økonomiske topmøde i midten af ​​juli 1978 i Bonn, 4. Brigade og dens partnerskabsenhed, hilste 14. panzerbrigade præsident Carter med en imponerende fremvisning af over 5.000 soldater, 100 kampvogne, 300 pansrede mandskabsvogne og 70 selvkørende haubitser på Wiesbaden Air Base.

Præsidenten så interoperabilitet i aktion og så på en demonstration af evnen til at massere rustningskræfter og udstyr på kort tid på den moderne, mobile slagmark.

Divisionens succes beviser divisionens evner som en højtuddannet professionel kommando, der er i stand til at møde fjenden frontalt i enhver form for terræn under alle forhold. Den professionalisme og stolthed, som hver enhed præformerer med, viser de sande legitimationsoplysninger for 8. infanteridivision (M).

I august 1957 blev den 8. en pentomisk opdeling og kort tid efter at de nye pentomiske enheder var begyndt at træne, deltog divisionen i & quotOperation Switch, & quot (Webmaster: mere korrekt kendt som & quotOperation Big Switch & quot) en større flytning af tre hærens divisioner med 8. division, der bevæger sig fra N & uumlrnberg, Heilbronn, Ulm -området nord til Rheinland med hovedsæde i Bad Kreuznach.

I hele 1959 viste Pentomic 8th deres legitimation inden for alle områder af militære bestræbelser, da divisionsenheder og personale samlede nye laurbær, priser og rosende breve fra højere hovedkvarter. I garnisonen og i feltet i atletisk konkurrence og i personaledrift udførte divisionen sig som professionelle og kom til at blive kendt lige som det - den professionelle 8..

Tidligt 1959 bragte flere ændringer til divisionen, der gjorde ændringer betyde fremskridt. Fremragende gamle linieslagsgrupper tilbage - for specifikt at nævne hvert nu er at dvæle ved fortiden. Sporer vandt og nye laurbær vundet, de er kommet videre. Vigtige for nutiden er kampgrupperne her i 1960 - fornemme og legendariske enheder, hvis kamprekorder og slægt er uovertruffen. Hver er beskrevet i længden på andre sider af dette nummer.

Vigtigt at nævne er, at i 1959 blev den luftbårne legitimation tilføjet til divisionens portefølje, da 8. div blev hærens eneste kombinerede infanteri-luftbårne division, der nummererede tre infanteri og to luftbårne slaggrupper, ud over luftbårne understøttende medlemsenheder. Succesen for divisionens seks store operationer i løbet af året, "Himlen sendt," "Sidesteg," "Fleche de Or," "Pau," "For de Lance" og "Bayonet Blue," angiver afdelingens infanteri og luftbårne enheder.

Stolte og voldsomme konkurrenter nød 8. division et enormt år med succes og satte nye rekorder og førstegrunde inden for velgørenhedsdrev og lokale og hær-dækkende konkurrencer og konkurrencer.

Tidligt i 1960 blev den 8. den eneste enhed i divisionens størrelse i USAs væbnede styrker, der blev tildelt Minuteman Flag med stjerne for sin enestående deltagelse i besparelsesprogrammet. To rekorder blev knust, da divisionen for andet år i træk vandt USAREUR Honour Blood Plaque for det højeste bidrag i Military Blood Procurement Programme og etablerede en ny høj i donation pr. Indbygger under den amerikanske Røde Kors-kampagne i 1960. Den 8. satte også en USAREUR -rekord for genoptagelser med 26. Inf's rekord på 69 og modtog flere gange hæder i de syvende hærs NCO Academy -afgangsklasser.

Sandsynligvis en af ​​årets mest fremragende præstationer var den enorme præstation, der blev vist af 8. div. Skytter. Firerne & quotGolden Arrow & quot erobrede V Corps 'A-R kampe og Rifle og Pistol mesterskaber i begyndelsen af ​​1960. Senere fangede de USAREUR hold trofæet i USAREUR Rifle og Pistol mesterskaber på Grafenwoehr. For nylig registrerede divisionen knusende sejre i 1960 V Corps Prix Le Clerk Match og 1960 Army Rifle og Pistol kampe i Fort Banning, Ga., Hvor de fejede 10 ud 12 priser i den automatiske riffelskydningskonkurrence og satte nye hærrekorder med hver sejr.

På sportsområdet producerede den 8. farverige og fremragende hold i konkurrencer såvel som individuelle kunstnere. Blue Rangers, vindere af Rhine League og USAREUR semifinalister, vandt 24 af 28 kampe. Højrebeviser Vern Orndorff blev valgt som
USAREURs mest værdifulde spiller og vandt en tur til 1959 World Series. I fodbold ætsede Mainz Troopers deres navne i USAREUR-årlige år ved at blive det første hold i seks år til at vinde mesterskabsspillet og forblive ubesejret, en sejr på 26-0 over Gelnhausen Braves. Troopers satte to nye USAREUR -rekorder, færrest tilladte point i en enkelt sæson, 4,30 og flest feltmål i et mesterskabsspil, to. Den 8. producerede også 1960 USAREUR Bantamweight boksemester, Thomas (Lucky) Lutge.

Legitimationsoplysninger

Siden divisionen har været i Tyskland på deres nuværende turné som medlem af NATO -styrkerne, har & quotGolden Arrow & quot -medlemmer tjent laurbær inden for alle områder af militære bestræbelser. Ved gennemførelsen af ​​uddannelses- og operationelle krav har enheder og individuelle soldater været standardindstillere, uanset om deres mærker er blevet registreret numerisk eller adjektivisk.

Træningstest, skytteri, besætningsservicekonkurrencer, alarm og individuelle våbenkvalifikationer er nogle af de områder inden for kampberedskab, hvor divisionsmedlemmer har opnået de professionelle standarder for topartister.

De statistiske data, der konkurrencedygtigt måler visse disciplinære faktorer, har konsekvent vist den 8. infanteridivisions soldat at være en mand, hvis adfærd indikerer hans stolthed over sit erhverv. Hans sparsommelighed, deportering fra tjeneste og pleje af udstyr er i den fineste tradition for militærtjeneste.

I alle aspekter af samfundet har divisionsmedlemmer været temposættere i tysk-amerikanske forhold. Særligt produktive har været de atletiske konkurrencer i fodbold, basketball og boksning mellem tyske og divisionshold.

I løbet af det forløbne regnskabsår har generøsiteten hos & quotGolden Arrow & quot -medlemmer i velgørende kampagner tjent ros til divisionen. Desuden har divisionens personale uformelle bidrag til tyske børnehjem og lignende organisationer tydeligt angivet deres nabo.

Organisationsdag 1960

Den 8. infanteridivision fejrer sin fjerde organisationsdag i Tyskland i år. I løbet af næsten fire år siden divisionen ankom hertil i efteråret 1956, har mange, mange begivenheder fundet sted.

Hvem der var her for mange år siden, og hvem der skal være her i morgen, er ikke så vigtig som divisionen i dag. Dagens 8. infanteridivision er som altid den division, der får tingene klaret det outfit, der går efter førstepladsen og får det. Divisionen, der siger, "Disse er mine legitimationsoplysninger ..." og betyder præcis det.


USA's ottende hær (EUSA)

Historie

Den ottende amerikanske hær blev officielt aktiveret i det kontinentale USA den 10. juni 1944 og beordret til Stillehavet, hvor den under kommando af generaloberst Robert L. Eichelberger tjente sobriquet af & quotAmphibious Eighth & quot, mens den lavede mere end 60 & quotisland-hopping & quot overfald. Det hjalp til med frigørelsen af ​​Filippinerne og overtog den 1. juli 1945 kontrol over skærgården og bragte fjendens modstand til ophør. Ottende hær blev klar til hovedangrebet på Kanto Plain (Tokyo) på den japanske hovedø, ​​da VJ Day ændrede sin mission. Sammen med den sjette hær leverede EUSA grundstyrkerne til general for hæren Douglas MacArthur besættelse af Japan. Erhvervskræfter landede fredeligt den 30. august. Først den nordlige del og efter 1. januar 1946 kom hele Japan under EUSA's jurisdiktion.

En del af ottende hærs efterkrigsopgaver omfattede afvæbning af japanske militærstyrker, der ødelagde nationens krig, hvilket muliggjorde at føre retssager mod krigsforbrydere, der guider den besejrede nation til fredelige forfølgelser og den demokratiske livsstil, der tilskynder til økonomisk rehabilitering, lokal autonomi og uddannelse og jordreform bevogtningsinstallationer, der beskytter forsyningsruter og overvåger regeringens operationer.

Stillehavskampagnen havde været hård, hård og dyr og besættelsen af ​​Japan var interessant, udfordrende og varieret. Ottende hærs næste udfordring ville igen være krævende og blodig. Den kolde krig mellem øst og vest blev groft knust i Fjernøsten den 25. juni 1950. Nordkoreanske tropper, der stod i spidsen af ​​russisk-byggede kampvogne, invaderede Republikken Korea. FN krævede standsning af aggressionen og bad derefter sine medlemmer om at hjælpe Sydkorea. Præsident Truman reagerede ved at henvise general MacArthur til at yde bistand. Luftvåben, flåde og logistisk bistand blev hurtigt ydet, men Nordkoreas overvældende styrke gjorde det hurtigt tydeligt, at kun engagement fra eksterne styrker fra jorden kunne forhindre en tidlig erobring af Sydkorea.

General MacArthur henvendte sig til den ottende hær. Elementer fra den 24. infanteridivision kom ind i Korea den 30. juni 1950 og etablerede hovedkvarter i Taejon. Den amerikanske hærs fremadgående styrker - Task Force Smith - blev hårdt blodig i en galant, men uden held, står nord for Osan den 5. juli - det første amerikanske jordengagement i Koreakrigen.

Den 6. juli blev den 25. infanteridivision beordret til at flytte til Pusan, og den dag overtog generalløjtnant Walton H. Walker, der havde efterfulgt general Eichelberger i 1948, kommandoen over amerikanske hærstyrker i Korea. Midlertidigt forhåndskontor blev etableret den 7. juli i Taegu, og ottende hær blev operationel i Korea den 13. juli. Nordkoreanerne fortsatte med at presse halvøen ned mod de undertallige amerikanske og spredte Republik Korea forsvarere. Den 24. inf. Div., Der ihærdigt kæmpede for at bremse angriberne, overgav Taejon den 21. juli i gade-for-gade, hus-for-hus-kamp. Divisionens styrker blev spredt så langt sydpå, som Taegu og dens chef, generalmajor William F. Dean, manglede i kampen om Taejon. Selvom den blev besejret der, fik EUSA tid til at stivne sin modstand med den 25. og 1. kavaleridivision, der ankom til man -sektorer på den skrumpende front.

EUSA, med de resterende ROK -styrker tildelt det, blev flyttet ind i det sydøstlige hjørne af Korea, som blev kendt som Pusan ​​-omkredsen. General Walker erklærede, at Pusan ​​ikke ville være Dunkirk: "Den ottende hær ville blive i Korea, indtil invaderen blev fordrevet fra Republikken Koreas område."

Den 15. september strømmede X -korpset, der blev dannet i Japan, i land ved Inchon i det, der betragtes som et af verdens fremragende taktiske træk. Det var signalet om, at ottende hær havde ventet. Den næste dag iværksatte EUSA et generelt angreb. Nordkoreanerne modstod vildt i fem dage, mens FNs kommandos luftstyrker bankede på deres kommunikations- og forsyningslinjer. Deres forsvar smuldrede, og EUSA opnåede et udbrud og var på vej mod nord. Da UNC -styrker kæmpede inde i landet fra Inchon mod Seoul, blev angriberens tilbagetogslinje blokeret. Den nordkoreanske tilbagetrækning blev en rutine, kun uorganiserede rester var i stand til at nå Nordkorea.

En ny fase var begyndt. Den 7. oktober skubbede 1. kavaleridivision hen over den 38. parallel, som Republikken Koreas tropper havde overtrådt flere dage før. Ottende hær kørte mod nord mod vest mod demoraliseret modstand. X Corps, transporteret til søs til Wonsan, fulgte ROK -tropper op ad østkysten. Den 19. oktober faldt den nordkoreanske hovedstad Pyongyang. ROK -tropper nåede Yalu -floden den 28. oktober. Efter en kort pause for at forbedre den logistiske situation og omgruppere personale startede UNC den 24. november et forsøg på at udvide kontrollen over hele Nordkorea. Den næste dag angreb kommunistiske kinesere & quot frivillige & quot; på tværs af Yalu i hvad general MacArthur betegnede & kvote helt ny krig. & Quot deres store fordel.

Ude af stand til at etablere en forsvarslinje i Nordkorea, trak ottende hær sig under den 38. parallel. Den 23. december blev general Walker dræbt i en jeepulykke, og den 26. december overtog generalløjtnant Matthew B. Ridgway kommandoen over UNCs landstyrker i Korea. Under hans ledelse blev fjendens offensiv gået i stå syd for Seoul, og UNC lagde planer om at slå tilbage. I slutningen af ​​maj 1951 blev slaglinjerne etableret, hvor dagens demilitariserede zone eksisterer - nordøstover fra Han -flodmundingen i vest, mindre end 30 miles fra Seoul, nord for den 38. parallel på østkysten.

Den 11. april 1951 erstattede general Ridgway general MacArthur som øverstkommanderende, FN's kommando (og som øverstkommanderende US Army Pacific og øverstkommanderende i Fjernøsten) og generalløjtnant James A. Van Fleet tog kommando over den ottende hær. Den 10. juli 1951, efter en sovjetisk antydning af, at samtaler ville være velkomne, blev der indledt våbenhvile -forhandlinger i Kaesong, den 38. parallel. Frontlinjerne, bortset fra periodiske og blodige kampe om særligt strategisk terræn i det, der blev kaldt & quot Hillkrigen, & quot forblev nogenlunde konstant.

Der opstod to frustrerende to års dødvande. Kommunisterne manglede håb om en militær sejr, men uden ønske om ægte fred, brugte samtalerne til propaganda, umulige krav og irrelevante og divergerende spørgsmål, mens de håbede på en markant politisk sejr. Den ottende hær måtte i mellemtiden opretholde parat til enhver fornyelse af fjendtlighederne. UNC -forhandlerne fik efterhånden afklaret nogle spørgsmål, men deres beslutsomhed om ikke at returnere nogen uvillig krigsfange blev brugt af kommunisterne som en undskyldning for også at gå i stå på andre spørgsmål.

Den 1. februar 1953 efterfulgte generalmajor Maxwell D. Taylor kommandoen for den ottende hær. Præsident Eisenhower, der havde lovet at afslutte det koreanske blodsudgydelse, fornyede opfordringen til våbenhvile. Forsænkede forhandlinger blev genoptaget. En forbedret atmosfære blev opfattet i en aftale om udveksling af syge og sårede krigsfanger. Endnu et sammenbrud i forhandlingerne var truet, da ROK's præsident Syngman Rhee, der bittert modsatte sig våbenhvile-forhandlingerne til fordel for en militær sejr, i juni ensidigt frigav omkring 27.000 antikommunistiske krigsfanger. UNC's tålmodighed, hvis ikke overtalelse, sejrede, og våbenstilstandsaftalen blev underskrevet den 27. juli 1953. Som general Taylor senere fortalte sine tropper, betød våbenhvilen ikke, at krigen var slut, det var en & ophør af fjendtligheder - en afbrydelse af skydningen. & quot Mens han ventede på en politisk løsning, vendte ottende hær sig til vågent ventetid og bistod det koreanske folk i nødhjælp, genoptræning og selvforsvar. Politiske diskussioner, der blev indkaldt i Genève i 1954, lykkedes ikke at løse de spørgsmål, der havde ført til krig. Våbenstilstandsaftalen forblev i kraft, og ottende hærs styrker blev for at hjælpe med at styre våbenhvile-linjen og advare om et nyt brud på de facto-freden.

Den ottende hær fortsatte med at være en international enhed, tæt tilpasset til ROK Army og andre nationale styrker. Det forblev grundstyrkesarmen for at varetage UNC -ansvar, det overvågede uddannelsen af ​​ROK -styrker og administrerede dets andel af ansvaret for nødhjælp og økonomisk bistand.


Vigtigste seværdigheder

Byens vigtigste vartegn er Det skæve tårn, bygget i løbet af 1200 -tallet. Det er karakteristisk for sit skæve tag. Ifølge bylegenden blev tårnet bygget under en tørke, og arbejdere brugte vin i stedet for vand for at få mørtlen til at få toppen af ​​tårnet til at læne sig. I dag holder tårnet et karneval (Fasching) museum.

En lokal legende er, at den gyldne kugle oven på det skæve tårn indeholder hjertet af Vlad Dracula i Rumænien. Hvis du følger stien til det skæve tårn, læner den gyldne kugle sig direkte mod en grav på Kitzingen gamle kirkegård på tværs af gaden fra tårnet, der kaldes Grav af Dracula. En anden lokal hær i USA er de omvendte kors, der udgør de små vinduer på tårnet, der vises med højre side opad, når lys kaster mod gravgården for at afværge vampyrer. Korsene veksler, sådan at hver anden er på hovedet - temmelig uhyggelig på en mørk dag. Nogle mener dog, at den grav, der kaldes "Dracula's Grave", faktisk ikke er der, hvor Vlad Dracula er begravet, men derimod en stærkt dekoreret grav af en meget rig familie, der boede i Kitzingen. For at finde Draculas egentlige grav, prøv bogen "In Search of Dracula: The History of Dracula and Vampires" af Raymond T. McNally (1994).


Enheder

USARPAC kommanderer hærstyrker i Asien-Stillehavsområdet, det største ansvarsområde i forsvarsministeriet, der dækker halvdelen af ​​kloden, herunder 36 lande, fra hovedkvarteret i Fort Shafter.

Store USARPAC -enheder omfatter 8. Army 25. infanteridivision US Army, Alaska US Army, Japan og I Corps (Fremad) 8. Theatre Sustainment Command 311. Signal Command Theatre 94. Army Air and Missile Defense Command 9. Mission Support Command 18. medicinske kommando 196. infanteribrigade og 500. Militær Efterretningsbrigade.

8. teaterstøttekommando

The 8. Theatre Sustainment Command er en kompleks organisation på omkring 5.000 soldater med bæredygtighedsansvar, der spænder over Pacific Command -ansvarsområdet. Store underordnede kommandoer omfatter den 8. militære politibrigade, den 130. ingeniørbrigade og den 45. opretholdelsesbrigade på Schofield Kaserne. Den 8. TSC har også logistisk operationel kontrol over den 10. supportgruppe i Okinawa, Japan.

Som den øverste hærs logistikkommando i USPACOM AOR sætter den 8. TSC teatret til at integrere og gennemføre vedligeholdelse af forenede landoperationer, fremme regionale forbindelser og levere parate styrker til den globale styrkepulje for at muliggøre operationel handlefrihed på tværs af hele spektret af militære operationer for at forme og holde for en stabil og sikker USPACOM AOR.

Den 8. TSC fungerer som en fuldt ud kapabel, teateraktiverende kommando, der integrerer multifunktionelle færdigheder på tværs af Stillehavsteatret, mens den fortsat understøtter oversøiske beredskabsoperationer med uddannede og parate styrker. Som en troværdig aktiverer med en ekspanderende mission i et komplekst miljø fortsætter den 8. TSC med at uddanne teknisk og taktisk tilpasningsdygtige ledere til med succes at udføre missionen sikkert og autonomt.

Besøg den 8. TSC online på:

311. signalkommando (teater)

Med hovedkontor i Fort Shafter kombinerer 311th Signal Command Theatre styrkerne fra mere end 3.000 aktive soldater og reserve-soldater og civile i hæren for at bringe ekspertise, erfaring og engagement til at opfylde hærens kommunikationsmission i Stillehavet. Som et USARPAC -teater, der muliggør kommando, udøver 311. SC (T) operationel kontrol over 516. Signal Brigade, med hovedsæde i Hawaii, og 1. Signal Brigade, i Korea.

Den 516. Signalbrigade kommanderer fem bataljoner og et regionalt cybercenter. Bataljonerne omfatter den 30. signalbataljon på Hawaii den 58. signalbataljon i Okinawa, Japan den 78. signalbataljon i Japan den 59. signalbataljon i Alaska og den 307. ekspeditionssignalbataljon i Hawaii og Alaska.

Den første signalbrigade kommanderer tre bataljoner og en RCC i Korea. Bataljonerne omfatter den 36. signalbataljon, den 41. signalbataljon og den 304. ESB.

Den 311. SC (T) planlægger, ingeniører, driver, vedligeholder, forsvarer og udvider hær- og fællesnetværk i hele Stillehavsteatret for at muliggøre missionskommando for ensartede landoperationer på tværs af alle fælles, mellemstatslige, mellemstatslige og multinationale operationelle faser og, som anvist, understøtter cyberspace -operationer for at sikre amerikansk og allieret handlefrihed i cyberspace og at nægte det samme modstandere.

Visionen med den 311. SC (T) er "Et team" af stolte og betroede fagfolk, der leverer lydhøre, pålidelige og operationelt relevante netværksfunktioner til andre USARPAC- og USPACOM -krigere - til tiden og til målet, uanset placering eller mission.

Besøg 311. SC (T) online på:

94th Army Air and Missile Defense Command

Den 94. hærs luft- og missilforsvarskommando er ansvarlig for at gennemføre fælles og kombineret teaterluft- og missilforsvar til støtte for udpegede operationelle planer og beredskabsoperationer inden for Pacific Command -ansvarsområdet. Kommandoen har sit hovedkvarter på Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam for at styrke tætte missionsforhold til de andre tjenester.

Kommandoen blev oprindeligt konstitueret som det 94. luftforsvarsartilleri 16. december 1940 og har gennemgået mange reorganiseringer og redesigninger i løbet af sin historie. Den nuværende kommando blev aktiveret 16. oktober 2005 i Fort Shafter under USARPACs hovedkvarter.

Den 94. AAMDC fungerer som en fælles integrator, der giver synkronisering med Army, Air Force, Navy og Marine Corps i fælles teaterluft- og missilforsvarsoperationer. Under multinationale operationer integrerer den 94. AAMDC med underordnede enheder i Japan, Korea og Guam også kombinerede luft- og missilforsvarsaktiver for at yde beskyttelse for alle koalitionsstyrker.

Besøg den 94. AAMDC online på:

9. missionsstøttekommando

Omkring 3.700 9. missionsstøtte Kommandosoldater og civile tjener stolt på Hawaii, Alaska, Amerikansk Samoa, Republikken Korea, Japan, Guam og Saipan.

Den 9. MSC leverer missionskommando i fredstid og opretholdelse af tildelte og tilknyttede amerikanske hærreserveenheder og personale som en direkte rapporteringsenhed og højtstående hærreservicekvarter til kommandanten, den amerikanske hær, Stillehavet. Det giver uddannede og parate USAR -styrker til mobilisering og støtte til alle USAR -demobiliseringskrav og udfører alle USAR Title 10 -ansvar på vegne af kommandanten, USARPAC.

Den 9. MSC fungerer som en varig fleksibel, relevant Stillehavsfokuseret operationel styrke, der giver vigtige muligheder for at udføre kritiske missioner til støtte for USARPAC og Pacific-teatret.

Store underordnede enheder omfatter 303. Maneuver Enhancement Brigade, 658. Regional Support Group, 322. Civil Affairs Brigade, 3. Mobilisering Support Group, US Army Pacific-Support Unit, 1984. US Army Hospital, US Army Reserve Theatre Support Group-Pacific, 4960. Multifunktionel Training Brigade , 100. bataljon/442. infanteri, 302. transportterminalbataljon og 411. ingeniørbataljon.

Den 9. MSC er den mest geografisk spredte, etnisk mangfoldige Army Reserve -organisation. Det er hjemsted for den eneste infanteribataljon i Army Reserve. In addition, it has the Logistics Support Vessel (LSV-7) SSGT Robert T. Kuroda, which is manned by a crew of Army Reserve mariners.

18th Medical Command (Deployment Support)

The 18th Medical Command (Deployment Support), known as MEDCOM (DS), is the premier expeditionary medical theater enabling command, ensuring seamless health service support throughout the Indo-Asia Pacific Region. It provides mission command, administrative assistance and technical supervision of assigned and attached medical units within the Indo-Asia Pacific Region. The 18th MEDCOM (DS) also coordinates and executes all medical Theater Security Cooperation Program projects with appropriate specialists and expertise, helping to build defense relationships partners and trains with host nation and multinational medical units and cultivates medical professional contacts with host nation partners.

Visit the 18th MEDCOM (DS) online at:

196th Infantry Brigade

The 196th Infantry Brigade (Training Support Brigade) is one of 17 TSBs Army-wide. It is a multicomponent organization and Major Subordinate Command within USARPAC. Soldiers provide professional, high-quality and responsive training support to Reserve component units throughout USARPAC by planning, resourcing and executing pre- and post-mobilization training for all Army National Guard and U.S. Army Reserve units assigned throughout Hawaii, Alaska, Guam, Saipan, American Samoa and Arizona. The brigade also provides training readiness oversight for three civil support teams (93rd CST, 94th CST and 103rd CST) in Hawaii, Guam and Alaska.

Visit the 196th Infantry Brigade online at:

Pacific Ocean Division, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

The Pacific Ocean Division is the engineering, design and construction agent for the Army and Air Force in Alaska, the Army in Hawaii and for all Department of Defense agencies in Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands.

Most notably, the division contributes significantly to the peace and security in the Pacific region through the execution of multibillion-dollar construction programs for U.S. forces in Japan and the Republic of Korea.

Pacific Ocean Division also supports U.S. Pacific Command and U.S. Army Pacific’s Theater Security Cooperation strategies, the Humanitarian Assistance Program and Civil Military Emergency Preparedness with projects throughout the Asia-Pacific region.

The division’s 1,500-plus-strong workforce produces every type of construction in support of service members and their families, from barracks to high-rise family housing, from fitness centers to child care centers and from ship berths to aircraft runways and hangars.

In addition, POD has a civil works mission in Alaska and Hawaii. The division is responsible for executing federal water resources development programs in Alaska and Hawaii as well as in U.S.-controlled land in the Pacific.

Ancillary to these duties are environmental services that include studies and hazardous and toxic waste cleanup.

The POD has the largest AOR of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ nine divisions. The division’s mission is executed through its four districts: Honolulu, Alaska, Japan and the Far East (Korea).

The Honolulu District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ area of operations stretches across five time zones, the equator and the International Dateline. It covers an estimated 12 million square miles from the Hawaiian Islands to American Samoa, through Micronesia to Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The district accomplishes military missions, including military construction, real estate and environmental services for the Army and Air Force in Hawaii, for all DOD agencies in Kwajalein Atoll and for other defense agencies in its area of operations, as assigned.

The Honolulu District’s missions include federal water resource management and development or civil works it focuses on navigation, flood reduction and shore protection in Hawaii, the U.S. territories of Guam and American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The district has regulatory jurisdiction governing work in waters and wetlands of the U.S. within its area of operations.

Visit the district online at:

Or, call the district at 808-835-4004.

Headquarters, U.S. Army Installation Management Command, Pacific

The Army activated the Installation Management Command Oct. 24, 2006, to consolidate and strengthen installation support services to soldiers, civilians and their families. The Pacific Region, headquartered at Fort Shafter, has garrison installations in Hawaii, Alaska, Japan, Korea and Kwajalein.

IMCOM-Pacific replaces the former agency and marks the next step in the evolution of Army installation management.

IMCOM evolved out of the Installation Management Agency, established in 2002 to reduce bureaucracy and apply a uniform business structure to manage U.S. Army installations worldwide. IMCOM continues to oversee such facets of installation management as construction, family care, food management, environmental programs, well-being, public works and installation funding.

IMCOM presently has more than 100 installations in four regions: two regions in the continental United States, one region in Europe and one in the Pacific.

IMCOM oversees a standardization process that provides soldiers, civilians and families a consistent quality of services at all installations. It also streamlines how installations receive money and ensures that installation funds are used for installation services.

By assuming installation management duties, IMCOM relieves warfighters and mission commanders of garrison tasks so they can focus on training and missions.

The full authority of command is vital to effectively direct the vast resources necessary to support troop deployments while meeting the needs of their families. Consolidating the installation management structure under IMCOM optimizes resources, protects the environment and enhances the well-being of the Army community.

IMCOM provides fast, efficient and agile support to commanders in the performance of their tactical and strategic missions.

The Installation Management Command is headquartered on Fort Sam Houston, Texas.


Jimmy Doolittle: War Strategy, Final Years

Doolittle was given a series of command roles in North Africa and Europe, eventually leading the powerful Eighth Air Force with its 42,000 combat aircraft. He modified U.S. bomber escort tactics, freeing fighters to pursue their German counterparts.

Doolittle’s last significant mark on U.S. policy came in a classified report on covert operations for Dwight Eisenhower in 1954, which stated that for Cold War espionage, �ptable norms of human conduct do not apply.”

In 1959 Doolittle retired as a lieutenant general and returned to an executive position at Shell. In 1985 Ronald Reagan promoted Doolittle to a full four-star general. Doolittle died on September 27, 1993, at age 96.


Visually Reconstructed Evolution of the Ancient Roman Soldier from 8th century BC to 3rd Century AD

Roman soldier at the Battle of Dyrrhachium, circa 48 BC. Source: Radu Oltean (http://art-historia.blogspot.in/)

Starting out as a backwater inhabited by cattle rustlers who made their camps and rudimentary dwellings among the hills and the swamplands, Rome emerged as the eternal city that was the focal point of an ancient superpower marshaling its influence from the mines of Spain to the sands of Iraq. And while the incredible feat wasn’t ‘achieved in a day’, the sheer scope of Roman ascendancy was fueled by the ancient juggernaut of a military establishment. In a space of less than a millennium, the Romans eclipsed their powerful Italic neighbors survived the sacking of Rome itself possibly lost one-twentieth of their male population in a single battle, fought numerous economy-shattering civil wars – and yet managed to carve out an empire that has been termed as the ‘supreme carnivore of the ancient world’ (by historian Tom Holland). In all of these, the singular factor that played its crucial role was the Roman military, an institution driven by the exploits of the determined and trained ancient Roman soldier.

Now our popular culture tends to identify the Roman soldier as the quintessential Roman legionary of the first centuries of the common era. And while part of this scope holds true, since the Roman Empire did reach its greatest extent in the early phases of 2nd century AD, the notion of a Roman soldier is obviously not a static entity that remained unchanged over the centuries – in terms of both his social status and the arms he bore. Keeping that in mind, let us take a gander at the evolving nature of the ancient Roman soldier over a period of almost a millennium, from circa 8th century BC to 3rd century AD.

The Ancient Roman Soldier, circa late 8th century BC – early 6th century BC

Roman soldiers, circa 8th century BC. Illustration by Peter Connolly

While it may come as a surprise to many, but the Roman army equipment’s archaeological evidence ranges far back to even 9th century BC, mostly from the warrior tombs on the Capitoline Hill. As for the literary evidence, they mention how the earliest Roman armies were recruited from the three main ‘tribes’ of Rome. In any case, the transition of the Roman army from ‘tribal’ warriors to citizen soldiers was achieved in part due to the Roman society and its intrinsic representation (with voting rights) in the Roman assembly.

Early Roman soldiers, circa 7th century BC. Illustration by Richard Hook.

To that end, the early Romans were almost entirely depended on their citizen militia for the protection and extension of the burgeoning faction’s borders. These militiamen were simply raised as levy or legio – which in turn gives way to the term ‘legion’. In essence, the so-called legions of early Rome were ‘poor’ predecessors to the uniformly-equipped and disciplined soldiers of the later centuries.

Early Roman soldier and Italic allies, circa 8th -6th century BC. Kilde: Pinterest

In fact, the legions of early Rome were conscripted only as part-time soldiers and had their main occupation as farmers and herders. This stringent economic system prevented them from taking part in extended campaigns (that hardly went beyond a month), thus keeping military actions short and decisive. Moreover, these legions had to pay for their own arms and armaments – which at times was compensated only by a small payment from the state.

The Ancient Roman Soldier, circa late 6th century BC – early 4th century BC

Roman hoplite (on right) fighting against the Etruscan warriors. Source: WeaponsandWarfare

The popular notion of the Roman army fighting in maniples is a correct one if only perceived during the later years after 4th century BC. However, in the preceding centuries, the Roman military system was inspired by its more-advanced neighbor (and enemy) – the Etruscans. In fact, the hoplite tactics of mass formation of men fighting with their shield and spear were already adopted by the Greeks by 675 BC and reached the Italy-based Etruscans by early 7th century BC. The Romans, in turn, were influenced by their Etruscan foes, and thus managed to adopt many of the rigid Greek-inspired formations along with their arms.

The Roman hoplites formed the first three classes under the Servian reforms of 6th century BC.

As per historical tradition, the very adoption of the hoplite tactics was fueled by the sweeping military reforms undertaken by the penultimate Roman ruler Servius Tullius, who probably reigned in 6th century BC. He made a departure from the ‘tribal’ institutions of curia and gentes, and instead divided the military based on the individual soldier’s possession of the property. In that regard, the Roman army and its mirroring peace-time society were segregated into classes (classis). Celts attacking the Roman hoplites, early 4th century BC. Illustration by Richard Hook.

According to Livy, there were six such classes – all based on their possession of wealth (that was defined by asses or small copper coins). The first three classes fought as the traditional hoplites, armed with spears and shields – although the armaments decreased based on their economic statuses. The fourth class was only armed with spears and javelins, while the fifth class was scantily armed with slings. Finally, the six (and poorest) class was totally exempt from military service. This system once again alludes to how the early Roman army was formed on truly nationalistic values. Simply put, these men left their homes and went to war to protect (or increase) their own lands and wealth, as opposed to opting for just a ‘career’.

The Ancient Roman Soldier, circa late 4th century BC –

Republican Roman Army, circa late 4th century – illustration by Johnny Shumate.

The greatest strength of the Roman army had always been its adaptability and penchant for evolution. Like we mentioned before how the early Romans from their kingdom era adopted the hoplite tactics of their foes and defeated them in turn. However, by the time of the First Samnite War (in around 343 BC), the Roman army seemed to have endorsed newer formations that were more flexible in nature. This change in battlefield stratagem was probably in response to the Samnite armies – and as a result, the maniple formations came into existence (instead of the earlier rigid phalanx). The Samnite Warriors, circa 4th century. The Romans were probably equipped in a similar Italic fashion. Illustration by Richard Hook.

Selve udtrykket manipulus means ‘a handful’, and thus its early standard pertained to a pole with a handful of hay placed around it. According to most literary pieces of evidence, the Roman army was now divided up into three separate battle-lines, with the first-line comprising the young hastati in ten maniples (each of 120 men) the second line comprising the hardened principper in ten maniples and the third and last line consisting of the veteran triarii in ten maniples – who probably fought as heavy hoplites (but their maniples had only 60 men). Additionally, these battle-lines were also possibly screened by the light-armed velitter, who mostly belonged to the poorer class of Roman civilians.

Triarius og Hastatus, circa late 4th century- early 3rd century BC. Kilde: Pinterest

Now if we go back to Livy’s description of the classis, we can certainly draw similarities between the economic classes and their corresponding statuses within the manipular system. For example, the primary three classes were now divided into the main fighting arm – and they comprised the hastati (the young and relatively poor) the principper (the experienced and belonging to the middle class) and the triarii (the veterans and relatively well-off citizens). They were complemented by the equites (cavalrymen who belonged to the richest sections of the Roman society) and the contrasting velitter (the lightly armed skirmishers who were the poorest).

The Ancient Roman Soldier, circa 3rd century BC – late 2nd century BC

Romersk hastati, circa 3rd century BC – lllustration by Johnny Shumate

The military overhaul, indicating the transition from phalanx formations to manipular ones, is sometimes referred to as the Polybian reform (especially in the post 290 BC period). By this time, the citizen militia (or soldiers) of Republican Rome were levied and then assembled in the Capitol on the day that was proclaimed by the Consuls in their edictum. This process was known as dilectus, and interestingly the men volunteers were arranged in terms of their similar heights and age. This brought orderliness in terms of physical appearance, while similar equipment (if not uniform) made the organized soldiers look even more ‘homogeneous’. Starting from left – Hastati, Velites, Triarii, og Principes. The soldiers represent the Polybian reforms, after 275 BC.

The Roman army recruits also had to swear an oath of obedience, which was known as sacramentum dicere. This symbolically bound them with the Roman state, their commander, and more importantly to their fellow comrade-in-arms. In terms of historical tradition, this oath was only formalized before the commencement of the Battle of Cannae, to uphold the faltering morale of the Hannibal-afflicted Roman army. According to Livy, the oath went somewhat like this – “Never to leave the ranks because of fear or to run away, but only to retrieve or grab a weapon, to kill an enemy or to rescue a comrade.” Roman soldiers fighting against Macedon, at the Battle of Pydna, circa 168 BC. Illustration af Angus McBride.

However in spite of oaths and morale-drumming exercises, the bloody day of the Battle of Cannae accounted for over 40,000 Roman deaths (the figure is put at 55,000 by Livy, and 70,000 by Polybius), which equated to over 80 percent of the Roman army fielded in the battle. Now, according to modern estimation, the male population of Rome circa 216 BC was around 400,000. So, considering the number of casualties at the Battle of Cannae, the baleful figures pertained to 5 to 10 percent of the total number of Roman males in the Republic (considering there were also Italic allies present in the battle) – with all the casualties occurring in a single day!

The Ancient Roman Soldier, circa 1st century BC –

Caesar’s legionaries advancing into Gaul. Note the similarity of arms and armaments. Kilde: Pinterest

The last phase of the Roman Republic was marked by yet another military overhaul, better known as the Marian reforms (circa 107 BC). Alluding to a far more influential course of action than the previous centuries of military reorganizations, these reforms resulted in the military inclusion of the capite censi, the landless Romans who were now assessed in the census and counted as potential recruits that could bolster the army. Consequently, the state was responsible for providing the arms and equipment to these previously disfranchised masses, thus allowing many of the poorer men to be employed as professional soldiers of the burgeoning Roman realm.

Pompey’s guards attacked at the Battle of Pharsalus, circa 48 BC. Kilde: Pinterest

The reforms also focused on the formation of a standing army, as opposed to conscripted militias who were available seasonally within the timeframe of a year. Furthermore, the amends also touched upon the provision of retirement pensions and land grants to military men who had completed their terms of service. Suffice it to say, the series of reforms credibly improved the prowess of the Roman military machine, especially with the adoption of standardized equipment and training of most ranks of soldiers. Simply put, by the end of this epoch, the Roman legions were far more uniform in their appearance, while adopting systematic policies, orderly discipline, and reliable battlefield tactics. The armies of the ‘very’ Late Roman Republic before the turn of the century. Illustration af Angus McBride.

On the flip side, the Marian reforms indirectly paved the way for the fall of the Roman Republic. The legions, by virtue of their intrinsic organization and habitual fraternity, were more loyal to their ambitious generals than the state and senate. In essence, this was the very same epoch that was witness to the ‘alarming’ triumphs of the soldiers of Julius Caesar, Pompey and Marc Antony (as opposed to the ‘collective’ armies of Rome).

The Ancient Roman Soldier, circa 1st century AD – 2nd century AD

Roman legionary, armored in lorica segmentata, circa mid 1st century AD. Illustration af Angus McBride.

By 6 AD, the initial length of service for a Roman soldier (legionary) was increased to 20 years from 16 years, and it was complemented by the praemia militare (or discharge bonus), a lump sum that was increased to 12,000 sesterces (or 3,000 denarii). And by the middle of 1st century AD, the service was further extended to 25 years. Now beyond official service lengths, the protocols were rarely followed in times marked by wars. This resulted in retaining the legionaries well beyond their service periods, with some men fighting under their legions for over three to four decades. Suffice it to say, such chaotic measures frequently resulted in mutinies.

Roman soldiers during the Second Roman–Dacian War, circa early 2nd century AD. Illustration by Nikolay Zubkov

Many potential recruits were still drawn to the prospect of joining a legion because of the ‘booty factor’. In essence, many charismatic commanders touted the apparent prevalence of loot (and its ‘fair’ distribution), especially when conducting wars against the richer and powerful neighbors. According to Cicero, this might have been the prime factor that motivated the disparate troops under Marc Antony. The popular practice also alludes to the penchant for plundering – with the soldiers tending to strip the dead as the very first act after achieving victory over their foes. Roman-Celtic auxiliaries during the Marcomanni Wars, circa late 2nd century AD. Illustration af Angus McBride.

However, the life of a legionary was not all about triumphs, mutinies, and plundering. There were definitely some progressive measures put forth by the Romans when it came to bravery. For example, if the soldier was severely injured and couldn’t continue further with his military tenure, he was given a missio causaria or medical discharge that was equivalent to honorable discharge or honesta missio. This, in turn, equated to a societal status that was higher than ordinary civilians, which made the discharged legionary exempt from taxes and other civic duties.

The Ancient Roman Soldier, circa 3rd century AD –

Roman soldiers, circa 3rd century AD. Illustration by Nikolay Zubkov

While Roman legions fighting with their full capacity was a regular occurrence during the early 2nd century AD, by the middle of the 3rd century the conflicts faced by the Roman Empire (and the changing emperors) were volatile from both the geographical and logistical scope. And so it was uncommon and rather impractical for the entire legion to leave its provincial base to fight a ‘distant’ war on the shifting frontiers of 3rd century AD.

Phalangarii of emperor Caracalla. Illustration by Johnny Shumate

As a solution, the Roman military commanders sanctioned the use of vexillationer – detachments from individual legions that could be easily transferred without compromising the core strength of a legion (which was needed for fortifying and policing its ‘native’ province). These mobile combat ‘divisions’, comprising one or two cohorts, were usually tasked with handling the smaller enemy forces while being also used for garrisoning duties by strategic points like roads, bridges, and forts. And on rare occasions when the Romans were faced by a large number of opposing troops, many of these different vexillationer were combined to form a bigger field army.

Roman officers, circa late 3rd century AD. Kilde: Pinterest

Moreover, the importance of detachments was not only limited to the combat-duty bound vexillationer. Emperor Gallienus (who ruled alone from 260 to 268 AD) created his own mobile field army consisting of special detachments from the praetorians, legio II Parthica, and other guard units. Hailed as the comitatus (retinue), this central reserve force functioned under the emperor’s direct command, thus hinting at the ambit of insecurities faced by the Roman rulers and elites during the ‘Crisis of the Third Century’. Interestingly enough, many of ‘extra’ equites (cavalry) that were assigned to each conventional legion, were also inducted as the elite promoti cavalry in the already opulent (and the militarily capable) scope of the comitatus.

Timelapse Showcases The Evolution of a Roman Soldier from circa 9th century BC to 6th century AD –

In the creator’s own words –

The evolution of the Roman heavy infantryman from the dawn of Rome right down to the coming of the Arabs. I’ve deliberately (and to save time) not included light infantry and officers. And while I’ve tried to keep the gear as authentic as I could, my focus was style rather than accuracy.

Book References: The Roman Army: The Greatest War Machine of the Ancient World (Editor Chris McNab) / Roman Legionary 58 BC – AD 69 (By Ross Cowan) / The Roman Army from Caesar to Trajan (By Michael Simkins) / Arms and Armour of the Imperial Roman Soldier: From Marius to Commodus, 112 BC-AD 192 (By Raffaele D’Amato)

And in case we have not attributed or mis-attributed any image, artwork or photograph, we apologize in advance. Please let us know via the ‘Contact Us’ link, provided both above the top bar and at the bottom bar of the page.


Signal Corps in the Korean War.

During the opening months of the Korean War, the U.S. Army had to quickly adjust from its peacetime duties in occupied Japan to immediate combat operations.

Signal Corps officers and Soldiers soon found themselves in the thick of combat operations, having to improvise and make do with WWII legacy communications equipment. One such unit was the 24th Signal Company, 24th Infantry Division, the first U.S. combat unit into Korea to help the Republic of Korea Army halt the communist advance to the port of Pusan. Throughout July and August 1950, the 24th ID conducted a delaying action to slow the Nort Korean People's Army long enough to enable the U.S. 8th Army to marshal forces into the Pusan Perimeter defense line.

The account which follows is from an interview with MAJ Richard D. Speer, 24th Signal Company commander, conducted on 20 July 1955 by historians of the Signal Corps Historical Division. This interview is part of an unpublished manuscript held by the Signal History Office at Fort Gordon, Ga. The interview that follows has been edited for clarification.

MAJ Speer was in the 58th Signal Battalion serving the I Corps when the Corps was deactivated in March 1950 in Japan during a general reduction in force program. Personnel of the 58th Signal Battalion were reassigned to the 24th Signal Company, 24th Division. MAJ Speer became the commanding officer of that company.

During the ensuing months, the 24th Signal Company, stationed at Kokura in northern Kyushu, Japan, fortunately engaged frequently in field exercises. MG [William F.] Dean insisted upon such exercises in order to familiarize troops with field living and field problems. These exercises lasting variously a week-end or an entire week proved most valuable, in MAJ Speer's opinion. When the call came to go into Korean combat late in June 1950, MAJ Speer considered the 24th Division as well prepared an Army unit as any.

Immediately upon the communist attack in Korea the 24th Division prepared to enter the fight. First a small detachment of the 280 officers and men of the 24th Signal Company went to Korea to assist the 21st Regiment in the area of Suwon, just south of Seoul, arriving there on 3 July. The rest of the company arrived in Pusan on the 4th and proceeded North by rail to Taejon. They had sailed from Japan in an LST, manned by the Japanese merchant marine. The company's equipment was generally good except for wire, which was old and much used in training exercises. The company was at about full strength and included a wire platoon, a radio platoon, a radio relay platoon (of 52 men and six terminals of AN/TRC-3 and 4), a message center and messenger platoon, and a supply and maintenance section serving the whole 24th Division. Wire was extremely valuable in the Korean fighting [and again proved itself the principal means of communication]. But the constant regrouping of the troops during the retrograde actions, plus the heavy vehicular traffic along the few roadways severely damaged the wire and caused much outage. Even so, the service of the wire lines was outstanding and the wire crews performed remarkably well.

The company's radio relay proved its value also. The company's radio relay terminals, unlike the relatively fixed terminals serving corps headquarters, had to move every few days. But mounted in trucks in the hands of skilled crews, radio relay dispelled any initial uncertainty about its reliability and mobility. The only trouble with the AN/TR-3 and 4 was that they had to be realigned after each move.

A very important wire aid was the Mukden cable which ran along the main axis through Korea. The 24th Company wire men used individual pairs of its 48 circuits, not as carrier although the wire was quadded and could be so used, but as physical pairs for communications foreword or rearward. The company also made some use of radio in the early days of the fighting, and operated a grueling schedule of messenger service employing jeeps.

In position at Taejon since 5 July serving defenses north and north-west, the 24th Signal Company through the next 10 days constantly contributed transportation, clothing and food to the remnants of our regiments that had been overrun. The company lost men in a forward radio team and a messenger, and a construction officer on the Kum River who had been laying wire to a regiment out-post. He was cut off, took refuge with the regiment which was then overrun by the enemy.

While departing from Taejon, the 1st Cavalry Division passed through the Company. The 24th Signal Company regrouped after the Division passed through, and the Division went into the line 75 miles west of Miryang. But the position was untenable. [and] the Company had to leave, pulling back to the Naktong River.

Established west of the Naktong in the last week of July and 1st week of August, the Division headquarters suffered from enemy artillery fire. The headquarters withdrew behind a range of hills six miles or so east of the Naktong. Only one road led westward to the regiments and artillery. It was peppered with fire and travelled constantly by trucks. Speer lost another construction lieutenant on this road. Wire was the mainstay. Radio was useful when it could be used. But the Korean hills often blocked the VHF radio transmissions. HF could be used, S CR-1 93, but took skilled operators. And anyway casualties were so high, radiomen and cipher operators (M-209) became too few. One infantry unit had only six communicators left from its platoon of 86 men. Maintaining wire became a matter of life or death in more ways than one. While troubleshooting wire lines near Miryang, Signal wiremen were caught and pinned down many times by fire.

It was during this period that long laterals were laid south to the 25th Division and 1st Marine Division. No lateral communication was maintained to the north because the nearest unit was the 27th Regiment operating 50 miles away as an independent unit.

MAJ Speer's interview appears to end there. The road he referred to was a narrow, winding road between the 24th ID HQ and the forward infantry regiments which was cut by NKPA units on 12 August 1950. Signal Soldiers soon found themselves part of ad-hoc quick reaction force that was sent on combat patrols to try to keep the road open to resupply forward units, evacuate casualties, and get messages through.


Korean War Combat Photos of 1950

Andre Korea -krigsbilleder fra 1950 Andre Korea-krigsbilleder 1950-1953 Map and Battles of the MLR

Leadership failure, haphazard disarmament, misguided training objectives, Intelligence failures . these were root causes of the Korean tragedy.

We face those same dangers today as we stand down from the Middle East. This site offers insights bitterly learned sixty years ago, to help avoid them.

Understanding these photographic insights can be helped by a brief review:
The Korean War, 1950-1953

An M2 4.2 inch mortar crew, members of Heavy Weapons Company, 21st Infantry Regiment, fires on the attacking North Korean 4th Division near Chochiwan, 11 July 1950.

The 4th Division had routed our 21st Regiment's 3rd Battalion before noon that day, killing the 3rd's CO and costing it 60 percent of its strength.

With the infantry in retreat, these positions were soon also overrun and these mortarmen escaped as best they could, if they could.

A gun crew checks their equipment just before the Kum River Line disaster. 15 July 1950.

On July 16, The N.K. 3d Division fixed our 19th Infantry by frontal attack while enveloping their flanks, established a roadblock behind them, and decisively won the battle. These tactics characterized NK and Chinese attacks throughout the war.

Our defeat, as so often in 1950, was largely due to our engaged forces lacking a mobile reserve to meet enemy penetrations or flanking movements.

A 105-mm howitzer in action against the advancing North Korean invaders, who had just taken Taejon.

22 July 1950.

American gunners blasting Yongdok, northeast of Pusan, with their 105-mm howitzer.

23 July 1950.

SC344383 - Artillery gun crew waits for the signal to fire on the enemy, somewhere in Korea.
25 July 1950. Korea.
Signal Corps Photo #8A/FEC-50-4713 (Breeding)

SC344384 - KOREAN CONFLICT
American artillery firing on Communist-led North Koreans, somewhere in Korea.
25 July 1950. Korea.
Signal Corps Photo #8A/FEC-50-4712 (Breeding)

SC344638 - KOREAN CONFLICT
105-mm howitzer in action against the Communist-led North Korean invaders.
26 July 1950. Korea.
Signal Corps Photo #8A/FEC-50-4839 (Wayne)

The Pusan Perimeter, 8/1/50 to 9/16/50

After our initial disasters at the Kum River Line and Taejon, 8th Army continued to fall back into a defendible perimeter around the vital port city of Pusan. There, although suffering other defeats and losing ground in the Northern section, the Army was reinforced, the Marine Brigade landed and kept the NK from advancing across the Naktong in the west, and the perimeter was held

On September 15, MacArthur would land the entire 1st Marine Division and X Corps at Inchon, far behind the N.K. lines, and shortly the war would seem over.

Battery B, 61st Field Artillery, 1st Cavalry Division, fires at North Korean positions across Pusan Perimeter Defenses along the Naktong River.

L. to R., Pvt. Alvin Essary of Tuscalossa, Ala. Pvt. Miller T. Young of Avonmore, Pa. Pvt. Harvey L. Lewis of Porterville, Calif. Pvt. Abel Saunders of Venton, Va. and Cpl. Lester Mortz of Sheridan, Oregon.

Waegwan, 7 August 1950.

Pfc. Letcher V. Gardner (Montgomery, Iowa), Co D, 8th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division, fires on a North Korean emplacement along the Naktong River, near Chingu.

Pusan Perimeter, west of Pusan, 13 August 1950.

A Battery of the 8th F/A, 25th Division, fires a 105-mm howitzer on a North Korean road block. 22 August 1950.

Throughout the 7-week battle of the Pusan Perimeter, the North Koreans attacked fiercely. Usually they would attack frontally while circling around us, block our withdrawal, then attack from all sides. However we now had developed reserves to contain these flanking attacks, and artillery to then blast apart the roadblocks.

SC347079 - KOREAN CONFLICT
Men of Battery A, 159th Field Arillery Battalion, fire a 105-mm howitzer in an indirect firing mission on the Korean battle line, near Uirson.
24 August 1950. Korea.
Signal Corps Photo #8A/FEC-50-7424 (Pfc. Wayne H. Weidner)

SC346626 - KOREAN CONFLICT
Major General Hobart R. Gay, CG, 1st Cavalry Division, congratulates 2nd Lieutenant Raymond A. Whelan of Mossap, Conn., after awarding him the Silver Star for meritorious services.
25 August 1950. Korea.
Signal Corps Photo #8A/FEC-50-6908 (Cpl. Hutchinson)

SC346955 - KOREAN CONFLICT
A .50 Cal. Machine gun squad of Co. E, 2nd Battalion, 7th Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division, fires on North Korean patrols along the north bank of the Naktong River, Korea.
26 August 1950. Korea.
Signal Corps Photo #8A/FEC-50-7043 (Sfc. Riley)

Pfc. Robert Smith of Springfield, Colo., (left) and Pvt. Carl Fisher of Ponca, Okla., 27th Infantry Regiment, dug in and firing at North Korean positions.

4 September 1950.

While successfully building a fighting perimeter around Pusan to keep the enemy engaged, General MacArthur sent a powerful Naval-Air-Amphibious force around them in a dramatic invasion of the Port City of Inchon. The First Marine Division and an entire Corps was suddenly positioned in the N.K. rear. An ironic and decisive use of their own tactics.

15 September 1950. -->

Marine Rifle Platoon from E-2-5, 1st Marine Division, 8/50

This rifle platoon fought throughout the Pusan Perimeter battles, Inchon, across the Han River to help recapture Seoul, and their survivors went on to fight their way out of the Chosin Reservoir in a series of savage tactical victories in the midst of overwhelming strategic defeat.

Men of the 5th RCT fire a .30 caliber machine gun at N.K. positions across the Naktong River, north of Taegu, as 8th Army prepares to break the Perimeter and drive north.

18 September 1950.

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After a heavy artillery preparation against Hill 125, menacing Fifth Marines' attack across the Han, I Company began an assault on the Hill at 0645, 20 September. Enemy fire from automatic weapons and small arms caused heavy casualties in I Company, one of their dead in the foreground, but it secured the hill, and the crossing was made.

20 September 1950.

SC351390 - KOREAN CONFLICT
A United States Marine suppresses North Korean sniper fire with the .45 caliber M3A1 in Seoul. September, 1950.
20 September 1950. Korea.
Signal Corps Photo #FEC-50-20508 (Strickland and Romanowski)

SC349306 - KOREAN CONFLICT
Sgt. Herbert Ohio of Hilo, T.H., views the battered remains of the Communist defenders of Hill 268, which was taken by men of the 5th RCT, 1st Cavalry Division in their advance on Waegwan, Korea.
21 September 1950. Korea.
Signal Corps Photo #FEC-50-9327 (Chang)


SC349313 - KOREAN CONFLICT
A machine gun crew fires at fleeing Communist-led North Korean targets during heavy street fighting in the captured city of Waegwan. L-r: Pfc. Austin Dela Cruz of Honolulu Cpl. William Purdy Pfc. Alexander Domingo of Honolulu and platoon leader Sgt. Robert I. Muramoto of Honolulu, T.H.
21 September 1950. Korea.
Signal Corps Photo #FEC-50-9336 (Chang)

SC349347 - KOREAN CONFLICT
A .30 caliber light machine gun crew of the 5th RCT, 1st Cav. Div., fires on Communist-led North Koreans, as they push toward Taejon, Korea.
22 September 1950. Korea.
Signal Corps Photo #8A/FEC-50-9438 (Chang)

ROK troops had crossed the 38th Parallel on September 30.

Wounded soldiers are evacuated (foreground) as M-4 tanks of the 5th RCT move to the front in the Kumchun area, October 6.

Sanctioned by the United Nations, on October 9 our 1st Cavalry Division led a general assault across 38th Parallel to re-unify all of Korea
Signal Corps Photo #FEC-50-20137 (Chang) -->

Sfc. Louis F. Walz (left), a member of Co. E, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Divisioin, and Pfc. Raymond M. Szukla, a member of Co. G, 5th Regimental Combat Team, 24th Infantry Division, receive medical aid at the 8063rd Mobile Army Surgical Hospital, attached to I Corps in Korea. Sfc. Walz is recovering from a head wound, and Pfc. Szukla suffered a wound in the right leg while engaged in action against Communist forces.
4 November 1950. Signal Corps Photo #8A/FEC-50-21377 (McIntosh) -->

In late November, 1950, hundreds of thousands of China's veteran guerilla Armies, victorious the previous year at Huai-Hai, one of the most decisive battles in history, secretly moved into North Korea to ambush our over-extended forces.

Unaware, a patrol of Co. C, 65th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division, fires light machine guns against Chinese scouts in the hills near Haejung, North Korea. 27 November.

Sfc. Forsyth, who photographed the action, was wounded shortly after recording this picture.

A machine gun team of an X Corps military police company goes into action to relieve a convoy pinned down by Chinese fire. 6 December 1950.

Using frontal attacks combined with encirclement and entrapment, China's resolute forces were savagely attacking 8th Army in the west, and the Marines and X Corps in the east.

Thus began the Marines' savage fight-out to evacuation at Hungnam on Christmas, 1950, and the longest retreat in the history of the US Army.

The First

On 9/12/50, my ship USS Wantuck, APD 125, stood out from Pusan, South Korea, with I/3/5 to spearhead a mighty Task Force in the brilliant assault at Inchon, and the near total destruction of North Korea's armed forces. UN forward units soon reached the Yalu and Victory appeared total.

At that moment in time, given the Allied destruction of the Axis in WWII, such a result seemed almost something to take for granted.

The Last

On 12/24/50, USS Begor, APD 127, stood off at Hungnam, North Korea, as the last UN forces retreat and Demolition teams ashore blow up supplies and installations.

Two Navy Special Operations Force APD actions thus sandwich one of the saddest periods in American Military History since Gettysburg.


Se videoen: The Royal Signals History - Certa Cito