Impetuous PC -454 - Historie

Impetuous PC -454 - Historie

Ubesværet

(PC 454: dp. 140; 1. 121 '; b. 14'5 "; dr. 6'; s. 16 k; a. 6 30 cal. Ma.)

Patruljyacht Arlis blev bygget i 1915 af Robert Jacob Inc., City Island, N.Y., erhvervet af flåden 12. august 1940; og bestilt som PC-454 16. oktober 1940.

PC-454, der blev tildelt det 15. navaldistrikt, ankom Canal Zone i midten af ​​november 1940 for at patruljere tilgangene til Panamakanalen. Fra november 1940 til august 1944 udførte hun ledsagelse og patruljeringsoperationer ud for Mellemamerika, mens hun var konstant på vagt for fjendtlige ubåde. PC-454 blev navngivet Impetuous og omklassificeret PYc-46 15. juli 1943. Den 31. august 1944 ankom patruljebåden til Philadelphia og afmonterede der 27. september. Impetuous blev slået fra Navy List 14. oktober og solgt af WSA 14. juni 1945.


Hvorfor Jesus blev forrådt af Judas Iskariot

Fra det øjeblik han plantede et kys på Jesus fra Nazareth i Getsemane Have, beseglede Judas Iscariot sin egen skæbne: at blive husket som historiens mest berømte forræder.

Men ved at identificere Jesus for de jødiske myndigheder satte Judas gang i den række begivenheder, der blev grundlaget for den kristne tro: Jesu arrestation, hans retssag, hans død ved korsfæstelse og til sidst hans opstandelse, der i fællesskab blev kendt som Passion for Kristus.

I betragtning af hvor lidt vi rent faktisk ved om ham fra Bibelen, er Judas Iscariot fortsat en af ​​de mest gådefulde —og vigtige — -figurer i Jesu historie. I de senere år har opdagelsen af ​​det for længst tabte Judasevangelium, en gnostisk tekst, der oprindeligt stammer fra det andet århundrede, fået nogle lærde til at genoverveje hans rolle og endda spørge, om han måske uretfærdigt var blevet bebrejdet for at have forrådt Jesus.


Hvordan ‘Bridgerton, ’ ‘Dickinson ’ Hjælp med at omskrive uretfærdigheder i historien

Sensuelle periodestykker bliver ofte hånet for deres "more is more" -ethos - overdådige sæt, overdådige kroppe - men de er langt fra bare skumle aflad. For disse genrebustende shows er hyperrealitet faktisk pointen.

Robyn Bahr

  • Del denne artikel på Facebook
  • Del denne artikel på Twitter
  • Del denne artikel på e -mail
  • Vis yderligere aktiemuligheder
  • Del denne artikel på Print
  • Del denne artikel på Kommentar
  • Del denne artikel på Whatsapp
  • Del denne artikel på Linkedin
  • Del denne artikel på Reddit
  • Del denne artikel om Pinit
  • Del denne artikel på Tumblr

  • Del denne artikel på Facebook
  • Del denne artikel på Twitter
  • Del denne artikel på e -mail
  • Vis yderligere aktiemuligheder
  • Del denne artikel på Print
  • Del denne artikel på Kommentar
  • Del denne artikel på Whatsapp
  • Del denne artikel på Linkedin
  • Del denne artikel på Reddit
  • Del denne artikel om Pinit
  • Del denne artikel på Tumblr

I år, Regency romantik Bridgerton bested Dronningens Gambit, Tiger King og Heksen at blive Netflix ’s mest set originale program, der rammer godt over 80 millioner husstande inden for bare en måned efter sin debut. Dette kom som en overraskelse for streameren, der havde projekteret et mindre publikum til serien, på trods af dens Shonda Rhimes -stamtavle og racemæssigt inkluderende historiefortælling. Sikkert har fejende (og kyske) kostumedramaer traditionelt defineret prestige-tv, men det ser ud til, at selv populistisk Netflix undervurderede den vidtrækkende charme ved en god bodice-ripper.

Bridgerton‘s uundgåelige modreaktion ankom næsten lige så hurtigt, med modstandere, der hejste deres ordsprogsglas op ad den ordsprogede næsebro for at erklære serien og mdash gispe! & mdash historisk unøjagtig. Twitter-tråde og forklaringsstykker dukkede snart op og skældte ud på showets brug af korsetter-som-metafor, dens ahistorisk levende udklædning og dens karakterer og#8217 usandsynlig seksuel uskyld.

Relaterede historier

'Bridgerton ' Stjerne Phoebe Dynevor og instruktør Julie Anne Robinson om, hvordan de bragte et moderne flair til Netflix -serien

"Min familie ønsker ikke at blive overvældet af min bagside": Regé-Jean Page, Chris Rock, John Boyega og THR Drama Actor Roundtable

Sådanne kræsen dissektioner savner imidlertid de kandiserede appeller fra historisk revisionisme. Genre-busting shows som Bridgerton, Apple TV+’s Dickinson og Hulu ’s 2020 Emmy-nomineret Den store er ikke beregnet til at male et uddannelsesmæssigt portræt af fortiden, men at satirisere historisk kunsts litterære prætentioner. Emmy-kvalificerede serier Bridgerton og Dickinson fungere som både pastiche og parodi, og ærer konventionerne om Mesterværk Teater-stil kostumedramaer, mens du eksplicit gør grin med dem.

Baseret på Julia Quinn ’s serie romantiske romaner, Bridgerton finder sted i den georgiske æra i London i 1813, centreret om den aristokratiske Bridgerton-familie, deres velhavende jævnaldrende og det hierarkiske højsamfund bon ton kultur, der begrænser deres ægteskabelige valg og dermed deres livslange skæbner. Inden for de første øjeblikke af piloten præsenteres de teenagere Bridgerton -døtre og deres bedste frenemies, de nærliggende Featherington -piger, på Queen Charlotte ’s Ball som værdsatte grise, der kommer på markedet og afventer, hvem den hektiske kongelige (Golda Rosheuvel) vil erklære mest kvalificerede bachelorette i den sociale sæson.

Selvom denne begivenhed fandt sted årligt, Bridgerton øger det øjebliks eventyrlige overbærenhed ved at understrege den prinsesselignende kvalitet i dens sarte hovedperson og den grimme stesøsterkvotient af hendes uelegante søstre og bekendte. Selvfølgelig bliver den unge skønhed dronningens foretrukne lille dukke, og alligevel på trods af denne validering gennem råvare, vil Daphne (Phoebe Dynevor) stadig gifte sig for kærligheden. Midtsæsonen går imidlertid den eventyrlige illusion i stykker, og Bridgerton lykkes med at kritisere ikke kun forældede ægteskabsplaner, men også dens tv-forfædres åh-ærefulde beskedenhed. (Selv sjældne og farciske navne som “Bridgerton ” og “Featherington ” latterliggør amerikanske opfattelser af britisk gentilitet.)

Dickinsonpå den anden side er et æterisk og komisk antagelse af det tidlige liv i midten af ​​1800-tallets New England-digter Emily Dickinson (Hailee Steinfeld), en kvinde, der ændrede litteratur for altid med sin ekspressive eksistentialisme og kreative tegnsætning og mdash, men ikke før langt forbi hendes død. I stedet for at hive ind på sit hjemlige liv og mulig agorafobi i middelalderen, som andre forfattere har gjort, forestiller showrunner Alena Smith Dickinson som et oprørsk 20-noget med et grimt temperament og pulserende lyst til sin svigerinde (som den virkelige -liv Dickinson kan have haft). Rapperen Wiz Khalifa spiller selv døden og strejfer rundt i Dickinson's by i en sort vogn trukket af spektrale heste. De ryger ukrudt sammen.

Dickinson forstærker surrealismen ved at indarbejde historiske fodnoter i dialogen, tegne skarpe sammenligninger mellem wellness og sociale medier i 1850'erne og 2020'erne og ansætte kultartister som John Mulaney og Zosia Mamet til at spille absurde versioner af virkelige historiske figurer uden at ændre deres moderne personae. Hvor en anden skaber måske har holdt sig til kendsgerningerne for at genfortælle historien om Dickinson's voksende voksenalder, fortolker Smith sit emnes liv med legende og overtrædelse for at minde i dag seerne om, at den yngre skribents interne kampe sandsynligvis ikke var anderledes end deres egen.

Således holder disse typer programmer vitalt et fun-house spejl til vores nutidige kultur. Hver er en undersøgelse af kvindeligt geni, og i leg med moderne humor og sprog gør de fortiden mere tilgængelig for os. Disse historier er sensoriske fester, fulde af silkekjoler, grønne haver, fremdriftsspor og forenklede race- og kønsrelationer: Med andre ord er de fantasier, der tillader nutidens seere at genopleve og omskrive historiens uretfærdigheder på vores egne præmisser.

Denne historie dukkede først op i et selvstændigt nummer af magasinet The Hollywood Reporter i juni. For at modtage bladet, klik her for at abonnere.


Paveforfølgelser

1209 - De Albigensiske korstog i det sydlige Frankrig. Romersk -katolske korsfarere slagtede cirka 20.000 borgere i Beziers, Frankrig den 22. juli 1209. Både albigensiske kristne og katolikker blev dræbt. Da de romersk -katolske hære var færdige med deres korstog, er næsten hele befolkningen i det sydlige Frankrig (for det meste albigensiske kristne) blevet udryddet (reference Link 1 og Link 2).

1236 - Romersk -katolske korsfarere slagter jøder i Anjou- og Poitou -regionerne i det vestlige Frankrig i en alvorlig forfølgelsesbølge (reference Link 1 og Link 2).

1481 - - På ledelse af de romersk -katolske inkvisitorer torturerer, brænder og slagter myndigheder myndighederne, endda hundredtusinder af mennesker under den spanske inkvisition (Jean Antoine Llorentine, History of the Inquistion som citeret i RW Thompson, The Pavacy and the Civil Power ( New York, 1876) som citeret i Dave Hunt, A Woman Rides the Beast).

1540 - 1570 - Romersk-katolske hære slagter mindst 900.000 kristne i alle aldre i alle aldre i denne 30-årige periode (kilde: Halleys bibelhåndbog).

1553 - 1558 - Den romersk -katolske dronning Mary I af England (aka bloody Mary) forsøger at bringe England tilbage under pavens tyranni. Under hendes regeringstid bliver næsten 300 mænd og kvinder brændt ihjel på bålet. Hendes ofre omfatter biskopper, lærde og andre protestantiske ledere (Link).

1572 - St. Bartholomeus Massakre. Franske romersk -katolske soldater begynder at dræbe protestanter i Paris natten til den 24. august 1572. Soldaterne dræber mindst 10.000 protestanter i løbet af de første tre dage. Mindst 8000 flere protestanter bliver dræbt, da slagtningen breder sig til landet (Link).

1618 - 1648 - Trediveårskrigen. Denne blodige, religiøse krig er planlagt, påbegyndt og orkestreret af den romersk -katolske jesuitorden og dens agenter i et forsøg på at udrydde alle protestanterne i Europa. Mange lande i Centraleuropa mister op til halvdelen af ​​deres befolkning (se Cushing B. Hassell, History of God Church, kapitel XVII).

1641 - 1649 - Otte års jesuittisk tilskyndet romersk katolsk slagteri af irske protestanter kræver hundredtusinder af protestanters liv (se Cushing B. Hassell, History of the Church, Chapter XVII).

1685 - Franske romersk -katolske soldater slagter cirka 500.000 franske protestantiske huguenotter efter ordre fra den romersk -katolske kong Louis 14 af Frankrig.

1941 - 1945 - Den romersk -katolske Ustashi i Jugoslavien slagter hundredtusinder af jugoslaviske borgere, serbere, jøder og romaer. Og hundredtusinder blev tvunget til at konvertere til katolicisme. (link, link, link)

1949 - 1953 - Med støtte fra den colombianske regering fik den romersk-katolske kirke 60.000 protestanter og ikke-katolikker skudt, druknet og emasculeret. Pave Pius XII tildelte den colombianske præsident en af ​​de højeste priser kirken kan give.

Under hele sin terrorperiode havde pavedømmet forårsaget den grusomme død af i det mindste 50 millioner mennesker. Følgende er citater fra de få tilgængelige historiebøger om pavelige forfølgelser.

Bertrand, den pavelige legat, skrev et brev til pave Honorius og ønskede at blive genkaldt fra croisaden mod de primitive vidner og modstandere af troen. I det autentiske dokument udtalte han, at inden for femten år var 300.000 af de krydsede soldater blevet ofre for deres egen fanatiske og blinde raseri. Deres ubarmhjertige og umættelige tørst efter kristent og menneskeligt blod sparede ingen inden for rækkevidde af deres fremtrædende despotisme og ubegrænsede usurpationer. På floden Garonne opstod der en konflikt mellem croisaderne med deres kirkelige ledere, Prelaterne i Thoulouse og Comminges, der højtideligt lovede alle deres vasaler fuldstændig benådning af synden og besiddelse af himlen med det samme, hvis de blev dræbt i slaget . Den spanske monark og hans forbundsfæller erkendte, at de må have mistet 400.000 mand i den enorme konflikt og umiddelbart efter det-men Papisterne pralede af, at de inklusive kvinder og børn havde massakreret mere end to millioner af den menneskelige familie i den ensomme croisade mod den sydvestlige del af Frankrig. & quot (Bourne, George, The American Textbook of Popery, Griffith & Simon, Philadelphia, 1846, s. 402-403)

Det katolske korstog mod albigenserne i Sydfrankrig (fra 1209-1229) under pave Innocent III., Honorius III. og Gregory IX., var en af ​​de blodigste tragedier i menneskets historie. Antallet af albigense, der omkom i krigen i tyve år, anslås til fra en til to millioner. & quot (Cushing B. Hassell, History of God Church, kapitel XIV)

& quot Behøver jeg at tale til dig om den tredive års krig i Tyskland, som hovedsageligt blev anstiftet af jesuitterne, for at fratage protestanterne retten til fri religiøs tilbedelse, sikret dem ved Augsburg -traktaten? Eller om det irske oprør, om det umenneskelige slagteri omkring femten millioner indianere i Sydamerika, Mexico og Cuba, af de spanske papister? Kort sagt er det beregnet af autentiske historikere, at det pavelige Rom har udgydt blodet fra otteogtres millioner af menneskeheden for at fastslå hendes ubegrundede påstande om religiøst herredømme. & quot (The Glorious Reformation af S. S. SCHMUCKER, 1838 - med henvisning til Dr. Brownlees 'Popery en fjende til borgerlig frihed', s. 105)

& quotDette var århundredet for de sidste religiøse krige i kristenheden, trediveårskrigen i Tyskland, frembragt af jesuitterne, reducere folket til kannibalisme og befolkningen i Bøhmen fra 4.000.000 til 780.000 og i Tyskland fra 20.000.000 til 7.000.000, og gør Sydtyskland næsten til en ørken. & quot (Cushing B. Hassell, History of God Church, kapitel XVII)

& quot Med ét ord har kirken i Rom brugt enorme skatte og ved mord udgydt blod af otteogtres millioner og fem hundrede tusinde af menneskeheden, at fastslå foran den forbløffede og modbydelige verden, hendes faste vilje til at udslette ethvert krav, som den menneskelige familie har oprettet til frihed, og retten til ubegrænset samvittighedsfrihed. & quot (W C Brownlee, Popery en fjende til civil frihed, 1836, s. 104-105)

& quotDer omkom under pave Julian 200.000 kristne: og ved den franske massakre, på en moderat beregning, på 3 måneder, 100.000. Af waldenserne omkom 150.000 af albigenserne, 150.000. Der omkom af jesuitterne i 30 år kun 900.000. Hertugen af ​​Alva ødelagt af den almindelige tømmermand alene, 36.000 personer beløbet myrdet af ham er fastsat af Grotius til 100.000! Der omkom ved ilden og torturerne af inkvisitionen i Spanien, Italien og Frankrig 150.000. I de irske massakrer omkom 150.000 protestanter! For at opsummere det hele har den romersk -katolske kirke forårsaget ruin og ødelæggelse af en halvanden million maurere i Spanien næsten to millioner jøder Sydamerika i Europa. I Mexico og inklusive øerne Cuba og St. Domingo blev femten millioner indere på 40 år ofre for poperiet. Og i Europa og Østindien og i Amerika er mindst 50 millioner protestanter blevet myrdet af det! Således står Roms kirke foran verden, 'kvinden i skarlagen, på det skarlagenrøde dyr.' En kirke, der påstår at være kristen, gennemblødt i blodet på otteogtres millioner og fem hundrede tusinde mennesker! & Quot (W. C. Brownlee, Breve in the Roman Catholic controversy, 1834, s. 347-348)

Alexander Campbell, velkendt religionsleder i det nittende århundrede, erklærede i debat med John B. Purcell, biskop i Cincinnati, i 1837, at historikernes og martyrologernes optegnelser viser, at det kan være rimeligt at anslå, at fra halvtreds til otteogtres millioner mennesker døde, led tortur, mistede deres ejendele eller blev på anden måde fortæret af den romersk-katolske kirke i inkvisitionens frygtelige år. Biskop Purcell gjorde en lille indsats for at tilbagevise disse tal. & quot (Citerer en debat om den romersk -katolske religion, Christian Publishing Co., 1837, s. 327.). (The Shadow of Rome, af John B. Wilder Zondervan Publishing Co., 1960, side 87)

& quot Lad os bevare proportionen. Optegnelsen om 'kristendom' [romersk katolsk] fra de dage, hvor den første gang fik magt til at forfølge, er en af ​​de mest uhyggelige i historien. Det samlede antal manicheanere, arianere, priscillianister, paulikere, bogomiler, katarier, waldensere, albigenere, hekse, lollarder, hussitter, jøder og protestanter dræbt på grund af deres oprør mod Rom løber klart til mange millioner og ud over disse faktiske henrettelser eller massakrer er det enormt større antal af dem, der blev tortureret, fængslet eller tigget. Jeg er snarere bekymret over det positive historiske aspekt ved dette. I næsten hvert århundrede har en stor del af løbet bestræbt sig på at afvise den kristne religion, og hvis der i de århundreder havde været den samme frihed, som vi nyder, ville romersk katolicisme på trods af den universelle uvidenhed for længst være skrumpet ind i en sekt. Europas religiøse historie er aldrig blevet skrevet. & quot (Historien om religiøs kontrovers Kapitel XXIII af Joseph McCabe (en ateist), der levede fra 1867 til 1955)

& quotMede har beregnet ud fra gode myndigheder, at der i krigen med albigenserne og waldenserne omkom for disse mennesker, alene i Frankrig 1.000.000. '& quot (Kristus og Antikrist, af Samuel J. Cassels, 1846, side 257)

& quotHvem har deres fangehulsceller under deres katedraler, hvor de som inkvisitorer i deres eget bispedømme hævder at fængsle frie mænd i vores republik? Udenlandske popiske biskopper! Og fakta om en mand, der er så indespærret og svøbt, i cellerne i Baltimore [AMERIKA], indtil han sagde om, er blevet offentliggjort, og ikke den dag i dag modsagt! . Hvem har for vane at sige frygtelige trusler om at myrde og brænde de protestanter, der med succes modsætter sig romanisme? De udenlandske papister! Jeg har i min besiddelse beviserne for ikke mindre end seks sådanne umenneskelige trusler mod mig selv. & Quot (W. C. Brownlee, Popery the Enemy of Civil and Religious Liberty, J. S. Taylor, New York, 1836, s.210-211)

Det regnes med, at Afrika tabte under Justinias regeringstid fem millioner indbyggere således blev arianismen slukket i denne region, ikke ved nogen håndhævelse af overensstemmelse, men ved udryddelse af racen, der havde indført og bekendt den. - History of the Christian Church, J.C. Robertson, bind. 1, s. 521. & quot (Bunch, Taylor, Daniel's Book, s.101)

[fodnote, talende om pave Innocent VIII] & quotMen på pavens trone spillede han nidkærheden mod tyskerne, som han anklagede for magi, i sin tyr Summis desiderantes affectibus osv., og også mod husitterne, som han nær udryddede. & quot (Williams, Henry Smith, The Historian's History of the World, bind 8, s. 643)

Inkvisitoren Reinerius, der døde i 1259, har efterladt det: 'Med hensyn til sekterne i gamle kættere skal du bemærke, at der har været mere end halvfjerds: alle sammen undtagen sekterne i Manicheanerne og Arierne og Runcarians og Leonisterne, der har inficeret Tyskland, har gennem Guds gunst, blevet ødelagt. & quot (Broadbent, E.H., The Pilgrim Church, Gospel Folio Press, 2002, s. 90 (oprindeligt udgivet i 1931)

Der blev udstedt et edikt under Theodoras regent, der bestemte, at paulikerne skulle udryddes med ild og sværd eller bringes tilbage til den græske kirke. Det bekræftes af civile og kirkelige historikere, at der i en kort regeringsperiode hundrede tusinde paulikere blev dræbt. & quot (Andrew Miller, Short Papers on Church, London, kapitel 16)

& quotHele antallet af ofre, der er blevet tilbudt i Europa siden reformationens begyndelse? Dels ved krig, dels ved inkvisitionen og tusind andre metoder til romersk grusomhed? Ikke mindre inden for fyrre år, hvis beregningen af ​​en fremtrædende forfatter er retfærdig, end fem og fyrre millioner!& quot (John Wesley, 'Doctrine of Original Sin', del I, afsnit II.8, 1757, Wesleys værker, redigeret af Thomas Jackson, bind 9, s. 217-19)

& quot Inkvisitionen, der blev oprettet i det tolvte århundrede mod waldenserne. var nu mere effektivt sat til at fungere. Frygtelige forfølgelser blev udført i forskellige dele af Tyskland og endda i Bøhmen, der fortsatte omkring tredive år, og det siges, at de helliges blod flyder som floder af vand. Landene i Polen, Litauen og Ungarn blev på lignende måde oversvømmet med protestantisk blod. & Quot (Buck, Charles, A Theological Dictionary, der indeholder definitioner af alle religiøse termer. Philadelphia, Thomas Cowperthwait & Co., 1838, artiklen 'Forfølgelse')

& quotDe, der ikke blev dræbt, led i fængsel, fik deres huse trukket ned, deres jorder blev ødelagt, deres ejendom stjålet, og deres hustruer og døtre, efter at de var blevet overrasket, sendt i klostre. Hvis nogen flygtede fra disse grusomheder, blev de forfulgt gennem skoven, jaget og skudt som vilde dyr. I spidsen for dragonerne, i alle de franske provinser, marcherede biskopperne, præsterne, munkene osv. præsterne blev beordret til at fortsætte militærets grusomme ånd. Der blev offentliggjort en ordre om nedrivning af alle protestantiske kirker. & Quot (Southwell, Henry, Den nye martyrbog eller fuldstændig kristen martyrologi. Indeholder en autentisk og ægte historisk beretning om de mange frygtelige forfølgelser mod Kristi Kirke i alle dele af verden. Imprint London: trykt for J. Cooke, [1765?] Side 108-109)

& quot; i Bøhmen, inden 1600, i en befolkning på 4.000.000, 80 procent var protestantiske. Da Hapsburgerne og jesuitterne havde udført deres arbejde, var 800.000 tilbage, alle katolikker . I Østrig og Ungarn blev halvdelen af ​​befolkningen protestantisk, men under Hapsburgs og Jesuitterne blev de slagtet. I Polen ved slutningen af ​​1500 -tallet virkede det som om, at romanismen var ved at blive helt fejet væk, men også her dræbte jesuitterne forfølgelse af reformer. I Italien, pavens eget land, fik reformationen virkelig fat, men inkvisitionen fik travlt, og der var næsten ikke spor af protestantisme. & Quot (Halley's Bible Handbook, s.798)

& quot inkvisitionens rædsler, bestilt og vedligeholdt af paverne, over en periode på 500 år, hvor utallige millioner blev tortureret og brændt, udgør det MEST BRUTALE, VÆRLIGT og DEVILISKE BILLEDE i hele historien. & quot (Halley's Bible Handbook, s.732)

Se venligst I DETTE DOKUMENT flere af den katolske kirkes forbrydelser mod børn.

Venner, åbn venligst øjnene for denne antikristelige kirke. Dette er overhovedet ikke Guds kirke. Det er en frafalden kirke og historien VISER hendes status som det vigtigste bibelske 'antikrist' -system. Paven tror, ​​at han sidder i stedet for Kristus og handler som om han er Gud, hvilket er hvad antikrist faktisk betyder på originalsproget. En, der sætter sig selv i stedet for Kristus. Og denne kirkes doktriner er en vederstyggelighed for vor hellige himmelske Fader. Lyt til opkaldet i dag! KOM UD AF HENNE MINE MENNESKER! (Åbenbaringen 18: 4).


USS Impetuous (PYc-46)

Paragon (spätere Namen: Sybilla III, Arlis, PC-454 und Ubesværet) war eine Yacht, die sowohl im Ersten als auch im Zweiten Weltkrieg von der US Navy as Patrouillenboot eingesetzt wurde.

1917–1918 als Sybilla III
1940–1943 als PC-454
1943–1944 als Ubesværet

1917: 103 Tonnen (Tonnage)
1940: 140 Tonnen

1917: 36,6 m (120 ′)
1940: 36,8 m (121 ′)

1917: 4,4 m (14 ′ 6 ″)
1940: 4,9 m (16 ′) / 4,4 m (14′5 ″)

1917: Drei- und Einpfünder, MG
1940: Sechs .30-cal-MG

Die Motoryacht blev 1915 under navnet Paragon in der Werft Robert Jacob Inc. i City Island, New York bygget. Bereits kurz nach der Fertigstellung folgte die erste Umbenennung in Sybilla III. Nach Eintritt der Vereinigten Staaten in den Weltkrieg blev das Boot, welches sich inzwischen im Besitz von John F. Betz aus Philadelphia befand, am 14. Mai 1917 as Hilfsschiff von der Navy übernommen, bewaffnet und als USS Sybilla III (SP-104) i Dienst gestellt. Bis Kriegsende blev die Yacht für Patrouillenfahrten im 7. Naval District (Florida) eingesetzt am 24. December 1918 folgte dann die Rückgabe an den Besitzer.

Mens der kommer næste gang, vil der blive drevet opstart af zivil genutzt og in Arlis umbenannt. Angesichts des drohenden Zweiten Weltkrieges wurde die Yacht am 12. August 1940 erneut von der Navy übernommen, zum U-Jagd-Boot (Ubådsjager) umgerüstet und am 16. Oktober des gleichen Jahres als USS PC-454 i Dienst gestellt. Das Boot blev i Zentralamerika in der Umgebung der Panamakanalzone (15. Søværn), wo es Mitte November eintraf, eingesetzt am 15. Juli 1943 folgte eine erneute Umbenennung und Umklassifizierung zur Coastal Patrol Yacht USS Impetuous (PYc-46) (engl. „impetuous“: ungestüm). Im Sommer 1944 bliver dø Ubesværet dannet ikke mere benøgt og deshalb außer Dienst gestellt, im Oktober aus dem Schiffsregister gestrichen und schließlich im Juni 1945 von der War Shipping Administration verkauft. Der weitere Verbleib ist ungeklärt.


PGM-9-klasse motorpistoler

PGM - 1 - klasse motorpistolbåde var en klasse på otte kanonbåde konverteret til den amerikanske flåde fra 1943 - 1944 og blev efterfulgt af PGM - 9 - klasse motor
PGM - 9 - klasse motorpistolbåde var en klasse på 24 kanonbåde konverteret til den amerikanske flåde fra 1944 - 1945, efterfulgt af PGM - 1 - klasse motorpistoler
PGM - 39 - klasse kanonbåde udpeget Patrol Gunboat Motor af den amerikanske flåde var en klasse på 59 kanonbåde konstrueret i forskellige værfter
USS PGM - 9 var en motorpistolbåd i PGM - 9 - klasse i tjeneste med den amerikanske flåde under Anden Verdenskrig. Udlagt af Consolidated Ship Building Corp. den
USS PGM - 18 var en PGM - 9 - klasse motorgeværbåd bygget til den amerikanske flåde under Anden Verdenskrig. Hun blev bygget og oprindeligt bestilt som USS PC - 1255
USS PGM - 32 var en PGM - 9 - klasse motorgeværbåd i tjeneste med den amerikanske flåde under afslutningen af ​​Anden Verdenskrig og kort efter krigen. PGM - 32 blev lagt
USS PGM - 17 var en PGM - 9 - klasse motorgeværbåd bygget til den amerikanske flåde under Anden Verdenskrig. Hun blev lagt ned og lanceret som USS PC - 1189, en PC - 461 - klasse
USS PGM - 11 var en motorpistolbåd i PGM - 9 - klasse i tjeneste med den amerikanske flåde under Anden Verdenskrig. Skibet blev beordret den 27. februar 1942 og lagt
Kanonbåde i Asheville -klasse blev oprindeligt betegnet PGM -motorpistoler, men blev i 1967 omklassificeret som PG -patruljekampskibe. Asheville -klassen ansat
USS PGM - 10 var en PGM - 9 - klasse motorgeværbåd, der var i tjeneste med den amerikanske flåde under Anden Verdenskrig og overført til den filippinske flåde
USS PGM - 4 var en PGM - 1 klasse motorpistolbåd, der tjente i den amerikanske flåde under Anden Verdenskrig. Hun blev oprindeligt nedlagt som en ubåd i klasse SC - 497

Kanonbådene i Erie -klassen var en klasse kanonbåde bygget af USA før Anden Verdenskrig. Klassen blev designet i 1932 og bestilt i
AB - 21 klasse kanonbåd Ex - US Navy PGM - 71 klasse motor kanonbåd Ex - USCG 83 - footer cutter type AB - 25 klasse Turk tipi avcı botu Doğan klasse MAS: Bora
USS Antelope PGM - 86 PG - 86 var en kanonbåd i Asheville -klasse i den amerikanske flåde. Antilope, en højhastigheds, aluminiumskroget motorbåd blev nedlagt
otte kanonbåde bestilt af den tyrkiske flåde, men som fortsatte med at se service i Nordsøen som hurtige blokadeløbere. Hun blev oprindeligt klassificeret som
13 km t 8,1 mph og var bevæbnet med to 50 kaliber maskingeværer. PGM - 9 - klasse kanonbåde blev bygget i USA og overført efter færdiggørelse til Sydvietnam
Japanese Suicide Strikes, side 133, Af Robin L. Rielly navsource, PGM - 9 Class Motor Gunboat Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, bind 1, side 72
Navy seks PGM -kystpatruljefartøjer og syv patruljebåde af CGC -typen. I 1958 modtog Myanmars flåde 10 Y - 301 - klasse flodkanoner fra Jugoslavien
ex - SC - 1366 USS PGM - 9 ex - PC - 1548 USS PGM - 10 ex - PC - 805 USS PGM - 11 ex - PC - 806 USS PGM - 12 ex - PC - 1088 USS PGM - 13 ex - PC - 1089 USS PGM - 14 ex - PC - 1090 USS PGM - 15 ex - PC - 1091
Historie og kulturarvskommando. Hentet 21. januar 2012. No 41 class motor gunboats USSR Navypedia. Hentet 29. april 2016. skibe sank i Østersøen

Hellenic Navy Greece Πολεμικό Ναυτικό Fregat Corvette Submarine.

9. Mekaniske ejendomsgrænser for aluminiumslegering. Ekstruktioner. OzzZZenger klasse to etape. 102 U. S. Navy PGM højhastigheds patruljefartøj, 154 fod lang. o. 244. 0. PGM -kanonbådens o. Thisdata Следующая Войти Настройки. 1 72 Republikken Kina Ou Chang PC 102 Model Ship Gallery. Find kanonbådsbilleder i HD og millioner af andre royaltyfrie stockfotos, CHONBURI, THAILAND 21. DECEMBER 2019 PGM 272 Patrol -kanonbådsmotor eller PGM City Class Gunboat eller Gunboat of Mississippi, de var krigsfartøjer 9 ikonsæt med isbåd, kanonbåd, felucca, motorbåd, caravel, skiff. Masterliste over alle amerikanske marine patruljefartøjer Vi kan gøre dig til en kasket. Gasturbinemotoren i søfartstjeneste er udsat for svære betjenende 2 PGM 84 -klasse motorpistoler. fidationsangreb modstås af chrom 9, 12. Brown Water Navy i Vietnam. PGM 9 klasse patruljemotor kanonbåde var en klasse pistolbåde, der blev konverteret fra PC 461 klasse ubådsjagere, mens de stadig var under. PGM 9 klasse motor kanonbåd nul. Hvert fartøj i patruljebåd, der blev bygget før 1980'erne, havde asbest om bord. USS Pegasus PHM 1 USS Grand Rapids PGM 98 USS Tucumcari Patrol craft Missile hydrofoil Gunboat hydrofoil Submarine chaser Escort Gunboat Motor gunboat River gunboat Veterans Support Team Sidst ændret: 9. oktober 2020.


Den ægte Robinson Crusoe

For tre århundreder siden var en fremherskende skotsk sømand kendt som Alexander Selkirk — selvom dette ikke var hans rigtige navn — ved at falde ud for Chiles kyst i et slagskæret, ormspist britisk skib kaldet Cinque havne da han begyndte at argumentere med kaptajnen om, at det utætte, sygdomsramte fartøj var en dødsfælde.

Relateret indhold

Selkirk, en dygtig navigatør, og skibets syge besætning var privatpersoner, legaliserede pirater for den britiske krone, som havde tilbragt et år til søs ud for Sydamerika og stjålet spanske skibe og kystlandsbyer. Selkirk havde allerede været på en lignende rejse. Han kendte alle risici. Men i oktober 1704, som Cinque havne forankret ud for en øde skærgård 418 miles vest for Valparaiso, Chile, havde han taget en livsændrende beslutning.

Selkirk forlangte, at hans 21-årige kaptajn, Lt. Thomas Stradling, som han betragtede som arrogant, efterlod ham på den største ø, et ønske, som Stradling kun var alt for glad for at forpligte. Efter alt at dømme var den 28-årige Selkirk et hothead. Hjemme i Skotland havde han slået sin far og to brødre over en ufarlig sjov og ville senere forlade begge de kvinder, der påstod at være hans kone.

Under alle omstændigheder blev Selkirk efterladt i land, men da han indså, at ingen af ​​besætningen sluttede sig til ham i mytteriet, vadede han febrilsk tilbage i havet og bad om tilgivelse fra Stradling, en tyran, der var glad for at sige nej.

Heldigvis accepterede han for Selkirk ’s skyld og verdenslitteratur ’s sin skæbne, overlevede, og da han vendte tilbage til England, inspirerede han en af ​​verdens store fortællinger om selvhjulpenhed og mod, Daniel Defoe ’s Robinson Crusoe.

Alligevel holder klicheen é sandt og sandheden er fremmed end fiktion. Alexander Selkirks virkelige liv overgik Crusoe ’s i næsten alle aspekter. Men så kan jeg være forudindtaget. Ser du, stakkels Alex, pirat, lout og helt blev faktisk ikke født med navnet Selkirk, men med et endnu mindre almindeligt skotsk navn, som jeg er blevet knyttet til: Selcraig. Ja, Alex er familie. Jeg er ifølge den skotske slægtsforsker Tony Reid direkte nedstammer fra Alex ’s ældste bror, John. Alex havde tilsyneladende aldrig børn.

Den første jeg husker at have hørt om Selcraig-Crusoe-forbindelsen var fra min national geografi-hoarding dad, now 91, who would wait until he had a captive audience at dinner to tell us kids about our Scottish ancestors. We mostly nodded and asked to be excused from the table, but as I grew older, I learned that Selkirk was hardly just a castaway and accidental hero.

When Alexander Selcraig was born in Lower Largo, Scotland, in 1676, it was a fishing village in Fife with fewer than a thousand souls, across the Firth of Forth (an estuary of the North Sea) from bustling Edinburgh, then a metropolis of close to 30,000. Today it’s a quiet weekend destination for harried urbanites where BMWs crawl along a 15-foot-wide Main Street past centuries-old sandstone row houses with orange pantiled roofs and crow-stepped gables.

These days, the wide sandy beach beneath the inviting Crusoe Hotel is still perfect for dogs and long walks, but the herring boats that once choked the harbor are long departed, as are the fishermen, their net factories and the flaxen mills. There’s a tiny corner market, a railway pub and someone who offers “Reiki Indian head massage,” but a more powerful draw for many visitors is that Lower Largo is 15 minutes from Scotland’s cradle of golf, St. Andrews.

Were this the United States, you wouldn’t be able to see the ocean for all the billboards touting Crusoe Land Thrill Rides and Man Friday Burgers, but the Scots are a bit more restrained. Or perhaps it’s because, as a local drama critic put it to me over tea and scones: “Selkirk was a bit of a bastard, more respected in his absence than in his presence.”

Lower Largo’s tribute to its famous son consists of one bedroom-size exhibit room at the Crusoe Hotel, where there are some artifacts and photographs of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, site of his marooning, and a curious outdoor statue of Selcraig on Main Street, dressed in goatskins, looking out to sea as though he had lost a golf ball.

Even Scots seem perplexed by the statue. There’s no museum, no informational display. They stare at it, take a photograph and keep walking. “I think it’s absolute madness that the Crusoe connection is not promoted more,” says Stewart Dykes, owner with his wife, Lesley, of the Crusoe Hotel. “We’ve got something here every bit as big as the Loch Ness monster.”

Selcraig’s unseemly past in Lower Largo is not exactly a literary mystery. The limited amount of factual material about the spirited lad has been mined numerous times, from the early 1800s to 1939 and R. L. Megroz’s The Real Robinson Crusoe. The past four years have seen the publication of three distinct and well-researched books.

One of the oldest accounts, 1829’s The Life and Adventures of Alexander Selkirk, by John Howell, describes the mariner as “spoiled and wayward,” made only worse “by the indulgence of his mother, who concealed as much as she could his faults from his father.” Selcraig’s mother, Euphan Mackie, apparently believed that Alex, as the seventh son, was blessed with luck and should be encouraged in his dreams of going to sea. His father, John, wanted the lad to stay home and help with his tannery and shoemaking business, creating a simmering dispute that caused so much “domestic strife and bickering,” Howell writes, that John threatened to disinherit Alex.

Virtually all of these accounts lean heavily on one source, the records of the church (or kirk) elders at the Largo Kirk, known as the Kirk Session Minutes, which I found at the St. Andrews University Library.

On a spitting gray day, I went to the basement of the library, where two very proper women in the special collections department had me stow my bags, briefcases and ballpoint pens, and issued me a No. 2 pencil. I sat at a blond wood table with gooseneck reading lamps as a librarian placed before my incredulous eyes not rolls of microfilm, but the actual Kirk Session Minutes, marked 1691-1707, in a rebound brown cover about 13 inches long and 8 inches wide.

The unlined pages were like beige parchment, stiff though hardly brittle, with slight water damage that had darkened and frayed the edges. Amazingly, I was allowed to handle them without gloves, which, the librarian explained, actually tend to make readers more clumsy and more likely to tear delicate pages.

To the untrained eye, the crowded and tiny brown script seems unreadable, full of mystifying Old Scottish curlicues and words like “dry nieffells”—apparently a bare-knuckles brawl—but here and there you can decipher a punishment handed out for illicit “fornication,” or the one from August 25, 1695, that reads, “Alex[ande]r Selchcraig, son to John Selchcraig” was summoned to appear before church elders for his “Undecent carriage in ye church.” (That would be the imposing gray-stone, 12th-century church that still dominates the neighboring village, Upper Largo.) Two days later, the records state that Alex, then 19, “did not compear [appear] being gone away to ye sea: this bussiness is continued till his return.” It’s unclear exactly where Alex sailed off to, or precisely when he returned, but London-based biographer Diana Souhami suggests that he left with a Scottish colonizing expedition to what is now Panama.

By November 7, 1701, he was in trouble again. His kid brother, Andrew, made the mistake of laughing at him when he accidentally took a drink of salt water out of a can. Alex beat Andrew with a wooden staff, which ignited a family row that led to Alex’s assaulting his father, his brother John, and even John’s wife, Margaret Bell.

Days later Alex “compeared befor the pulpit and made acknowledgment of his sin . . . and was rebuked in face of the congregation for it, and promised amendment in the strenth of the lord, and so was dismissed.” But evidently Alex was fed up with Lower Largo.

In school, one biographer suggests, he had shown some skill at math and geography, and with at least one voyage under his belt, in 1703 he was able to convince buccaneer William Dampier that he was the man to navigate Dampier’s next privateering expedition to South America. It’s at this point, however, for reasons unclear, that Selcraig is forever known as Selkirk. Did he deliberately change his name at sea to distance himself from his past, or did someone misunderstand him? Or, as some researchers say, did consistent spelling of names simply not matter much back then?

Handsome but peculiar, Dampier was one of history’s most complex, and perhaps reluctant, pirates. Some saw him as a cruel, indecisive and incompetent sailor who once narrowly escaped being eaten by his own men in the Pacific and who was court-martialed after losing the British warship HMS Roebuck off the coast of Australia. He was often drunk on duty and would infuriate his crews by letting captured ships go free without distributing loot to his men. Yet his contributions as an amateur anthropologist and naturalist were considerable, and it’s hard to minimize that he was the first man to circumnavigate the world three times.

Because pirates have been so romanticized by actors from Errol Flynn to Johnny Depp, it’s easy to overlook that the typical pirate ship stank of animals and excrement, that scurvy and yellow fever often killed so many that corpses were routinely dumped at sea, and that pirates often delighted in macabre torture.

Pirate prisoners would most likely have chosen to walk the plank—a practice more common in TV cartoons than in pirate history—rather than be subjected to sadists like Edward Low, who, in the 1720s, cut off a prisoner’s lips and broiled them in front of the hapless fellow, or those who practiced “woolding,” in which slender cords were twisted tightly around men’s heads in the hope of seeing their eyes burst from their sockets.

Consequently, when commercial shipowners or governments captured pirates, they were rarely shown mercy. Pirate expert David Cordingly, former curator of the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, England, writes in Under the Black Flag that it was common practice in the British colonies to place the body of a captured pirate in a steel cage shaped like a man’s body and suspend it near the entrance to a port as a grisly warning to seamen.

It’s doubtful any of this weighed much on Selkirk’s mind in September 1703 as Dampier’s two ships, the 320-ton St. George and the 120-ton Cinque havne, prepared to leave the harbor of Kinsale, Ireland, for South America. The ships were small by Royal Navy standards and full of desperate men who perhaps noticed that even the staffing of the ships foretold the danger they faced. Det St. George, Souhami writes, was supplied for eight months of travel and carried five anchors, two sets of sails, 22 cannons, 100 small arms, 30 barrels of gunpowder and five times more men (120) than it could comfortably accommodate—a testament to the numbers needed to crew captured ships, but also a morbid acknowledgment that dozens would be lost to disease, battle and desertion.

The voyage started out badly and got only worse, according to an account by Dampier’s second mate, William Funnell.

After two weeks, with 50 miles being a good day’s travel under Selkirk’s navigation, the ships had reached the Portuguese island of Madeira, 350 miles west of Morocco, then the Cape Verde Islands, a major slave port west of Senegal, and on across the Atlantic to Brazil. But literally on the first night, while still in Ireland, a drunken Dampier had a violent argument with one officer, and dissension quickly spread.

By October the men were sick of brick-hard sea biscuits, dried peas and salt meat. They longed for fresh meat and vegetables, but settled for an occasional shark, dolphin or weary bird. As on most ships of the day, the men often slept in wet clothes and mildewed bedding. The ships were incubators for typhus, dysentery and cholera. Amonth later, 15 men had fever, and others were wracked by scurvy, caused by a vitamin C deficiency, which Souhami says claimed more lives than contagious disease, gunfire or shipwreck.

Things got only worse when Capt. Charles Pickering died of a fever in late November and command of the Cinque havnewas given to his lieutenant, Thomas Stradling, a young upperclass seaman the crew disliked. There were fights and nearmutinies as the ship cruised the coast of Brazil. The meat and grain were filled with roaches and rat droppings.

In February 1704, both ships were finally west of Cape Horn’s foul storms and headed north along the coast of Chile, though by now they had lost sight of each other. Det Cinque havne holed up at a rendezvous point on one of the islands in the archipelago west of Valparaiso, but the crew was threatening mutiny against Stradling. Dampier showed up just in time to put down the rebellion by promising a tighter rein on cocky Stradling. But shortly he, too, faced dissent among his sailors, who wanted him to attack more ships.

Det St. George og Cinque havne left the island in March 1704 to continue their plundering along the coasts of Peru and Mexico, where tempers continued to flare. “Stradling,” writes biographer Souhami, “rounded on Dampier, called him a drunk who marooned his officers, stole treasure, hid behind blankets and beds when it came time to fight, took bribes, boasted of impossible prizes and when there was plunder to hand, let it go.”

In May the Cinque havnesplit off from the St. George and spent the summer pirating on its own. By September the ship was so leaky that men were pumping out water day and night Selkirk believed that it was so riddled with worms that its masts and flooring needed immediate repair.That month the ship returned to the relative safety of the island, a secluded and uninhabited place where the men could regain their health and sanity. Soon Selkirk would look at the island and see salvation.

At a small suburban airport outside crowded Santiago, Chile, six of us stand anxiously beside a drafty hangar staring at an eight-passenger Piper Navajo prop plane. Mechanics are crawling over its dismantled left engine.

This is the twice-a-week flight one takes across 400 miles of frigid Pacific to reach the Juan Fernández Archipelago. A councilman from the island waits with me, joined by a history teacher, a young mother, and two Santiago policemen on a cushy work assignment. We’re all wondering if this three-hour delay might be one of those signs from the aviation gods.

“Don’t worry,” says our pilot, Ricardo Schaeffer, a former colonel in Chile’s federal police, with more than 3,000 flights over 20 years. “We only go when I know it is safe.”

Thus assured, I put my trust in a 1979 craft whose outer skin seems no thicker than a beer can. With surprisingly little turbulence, we finally climb over the city of six million humming past the jagged Andes and across the ocean at 6,000 feet, just above foamy white clouds. We also carry school textbooks and new diapers returning, we’ll take lobsters and octopus to Santiago restaurants.

After two hours of hypnotic engine drone, Schaeffer points to a growing gray dot on the horizon. “CrusoeIsland,” he says. The Chilean government renamed it RobinsonCrusoeIsland in 1966.

As we bank high above the reddish moonscape on the extreme western promontory of the 29-square-mile island, rugged volcanic mountains are visible in the distance, with seemingly great spots for hiking or diving. A sailor in the 1700s, however, would have seen nothing but trouble— grim, sheer-faced coves rising 80 feet straight up, and not a sandy beach in sight. Yet perhaps Selkirk knew, because mariners had stayed on the island before, that to find anything life-sustaining, like forests and goats, he’d have to sail to the lush northeast end and the well-protected Cumberland Bay, a 90-minute boat ride from the airstrip. On a sunny spring afternoon, whales flirt with the fishing boat carrying us, and dozens of yelping fur seals—an endemic species, Arctocephalus phillippii, that Dampier’s men saw by the “thousands”—sun themselves on the smooth inland rocks. CumberlandBay’s beaches are gray volcanic rocks, but the cove is inviting enough that a half-dozen sloops from Europe and Canada are anchored there.

San Juan Bautista (John the Baptist) village (pop. 600), started in 1750 by the Spanish and still the only community on the island, is spread along the half-moon bay at the base of a 3,000-foot mountain that becomes a rain forest at its top. San Juan Bautista is part sleepy South Pacific fishing village, part eco-tourism hideaway.

Along deeply rutted dirt roads, there are eight or nine summer cabins and basic bed-and-breakfast operations— several hundred tourists came to the village last year—with a few in-home convenience stores, three churches (Evangelical, Mormon and Catholic), a leaky gymnasium, a lively school serving first through eighth grade, a city hall, a small Crusoe museum with translations of the novel in Polish and Greek, and an adjoining library with a satellite Internet connection, thanks to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

The homes are wooden bungalows for the most part, weathered but neat, with small yards and big leafy palm or fruit trees. Nearly everyone has TV, which consists of two Santiago channels. There’s neither visible poverty nor glaring wealth, with barely two dozen cars on the whole island, which measures about 2.4 by 7.4 miles.

My guide, Pedro Niada, a witty and well-read fellow who moved here with his wife from Santiago some years ago, estimates that 70 percent of the families still make their living from trapping lobster, but that number is declining. “We can’t lie,” he told me. “There are fewer and fewer lobster, more and more tourists.”

After a month on the island, the Cinque havnewas stocked with turnips, goats and crayfish, yet no less wormeaten. Stradling ordered the men to set sail and leave CumberlandBay. Selkirk refused and told the men to do the same, believing the ship could never withstand the open sea or the battles the men so craved. Stradling mocked his navigator, and that set off Selkirk like he was back in Largo. After a bitter argument, Stradling must have felt he could not back down.

Selkirk was put ashore with his bedding, a musket, pistol, gunpowder, hatchet, knife, his navigation tools, a pot for boiling food, two pounds of tobacco, some cheese and jam, a flask of rum and his Bible. He had made the biggest decision of his life. No longer just a complainer, he had taken action.

But no sooner had he waded into CumberlandBay than he was overwhelmed with regret and fear. He had badly overplayed his hand. Not one of the men had joined him.

Selkirk pleaded with Stradling to be allowed back, but the captain was quite enjoying the moment. His unruly men were certainly watching this pathetic show, this hardheaded seaman begging for his life. Stradling wanted the message to sink in deeply with the crew: leave the ship and this will be you.

Perhaps feeling more stupid and angry than victimized, Selkirk finally turned his back on the Cinque havne and resigned himself to waiting for what he thought would be a few days until another friendly ship happened by.

He was wrong by four years and four months.

There is no evidence that Selkirk ever kept a diary—he may have been illiterate, though historians disagree—so what we know of his time on the island comes primarily from two sources: his eventual rescuer, Capt. Woodes Rogers, a distinguished English privateer (or despised pirate, if you were Spanish) who wrote A Cruising Voyage Round the World, about his 1708-1711 expedition, and English essayist and playwright Richard Steele, who interviewed Selkirk in 1711 for the magazine The Englishman.

According to them, Selkirk was so despondent for the first several months that he contemplated suicide—presumably with one of his few bullets—and almost welcomed the gnawing hunger each day because it at least occupied his mind. (He had, however, heard stories from Dampier and others about several men who had survived alone on Juan Fernández—one for five years, and a Moskito Indian named Will, who made it alone for three years and is thought by some to be the model for Robinson Crusoe’s man, Friday.) Bellowing sea lions—actually the southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, as large as 19 feet and weighing up to two tons—wailed at night unlike any animal Selkirk had ever heard, trees snapped in frequent gales, and hordes of rats, émigrés from European ships, tore at Selkirk’s clothing and feet as he slept. In time, he was able to domesticate some feral cats, who served as companions and exterminators.

Finding shelter and food on the verdant island was less of a problem than keeping his sanity. Fish were plentiful, but they “occasion’d a Looseness” in his bowels, so he stuck with the huge island “lobster”—actually a clawless crayfish. There were so many fur seals that a buccaneer had written 20 years earlier, “We were forced to kill them to set our feet on shore.” For meat he prepared a hearty goat broth with turnips, watercress and cabbage palm, seasoned with black pimento pepper. What he missed most was bread and salt.

Eventually he grew so nimble running barefoot on the steep hills above the bay that he could chase down any goat he wanted. “He ran with wonderful Swiftness thro the Woods and up the Rocks and Hills,” Captain Rogers would later observe. “We had a Bull-Dog, which we sent with several of our nimblest Runners, to help him in catching goats but he distanc’d and tir’d both the Dog and the Men.”

Selkirk was able to start a fire with pimento wood and his musket flints, and tried to keep it going night and day, but he was careful to hide the flames from Spanish ships the Spanish were known for torturing their prisoners or turning them into slaves in South American gold mines. He once narrowly escaped a Spanish search party by climbing a tree.

To maintain his spirits, the Scottish navigator sang hymns and prayed. “[H]e said he was a better Christian while in this Solitude than ever he was before,” Rogers later wrote. At some point, Selkirk apparently embraced life again, and like Thoreau, saw deep new truths about himself revealed through the cleansing simplicity of the demands of survival.

“[T]horoughly reconciled to his Condition,” wrote Steele, “his Life [became] one continual Feast, and his Being much more joyful than it had before been irksome.” He learned to live without his vices—alcohol and tobacco, even salt—and found new fascination in the hummingbirds and turtles he had likely ignored as the headstrong Fifer from Largo.

But mainly Selkirk spent hour upon hour scanning the sea for a rescue.

One gloomy morning Pedro Niada and I climbed to Selkirk’s “lookout,” or mirador, a strenuous walk of just under two miles that leads 1,800 feet above San Juan Bautista up a muddy trail. We munched on the same tart red berries that probably sustained Selkirk, waiting for the sky to clear.

When the sun broke through, I understood why Selkirk had chosen this spot. He could not only see for miles in every direction, thereby giving himself an hour or two headstart if he needed to evade the Spanish—who tortured and enslaved captives—but he could also sustain his spirits. As the clouds separated and a rainbow dashed across the glassy sea, I could appreciate what Selkirk must have felt on that fine day, February 2, 1709, when Woodes Rogers’ majestic Duke finally appeared before him.

By then, Selkirk was like a bearded beast on two legs, clothed in goatskins and “so much forgot his Language for want of Use, that we could scarce understand him, for he seem’d to speak his words by halves,” as Rogers reported.

He offered Rogers’ men goat soup and told his story of survival as best he could. He might not have been believed, but Rogers’ navigator was none other than William Dampier, who recognized Selkirk as a comrade from the St. George- Cinque havnevoyage. Dampier likely told Selkirk the bittersweet news that he had been all too right about the decrepit Cinque havne. Soon after abandoning the Scotsman in 1704 the ship sank off the coast of Peru, killing all but Stradling and a dozen or so men, who wound up in Spanish prisons.

Rogers helped Selkirk shave and gave him clothes. The crew offered him food, but his diet of fresh fish, goat and vegetables made the Duke’s stale and over-salted rations hard to stomach. His rock-hard feet swelled in the constraint of shoes. In recognition of not only his past skill but also perhaps his ordeal, Rogers made him a navigator once again. Finally, he was headed home. But not immediately.

Rogers would have so much success off the coast of Peru and Ecuador robbing Spanish galleons that the Duke stayed at sea another two years, not returning to London’s ThamesRiver until October 1711, eight years after Selkirk left it.

Woodes Rogers and Richard Steele wrote their accounts of Selkirk’s life on Robinson Crusoe Island in 1712 and 1713, respectively, giving the Fife mariner and his family a fame they had never imagined. In the years that followed, Selkirk became a somewhat eccentric celebrity—he may have married two women at the same time—enriched by his share of the Duke’s plundered riches (about 800 English pounds). For the better part of two years, he dined out on his adventures, wandering from pub to pub in Bristol and London, telling tales of the South Seas for free meals and a pint.

But some months after first meeting Selkirk, Steele noticed that the “cheerful” man he had first encountered now seemed burdened by the world. “This plain Man’s Story is a memorable Example,” Steele wrote, “that he is happiest who confines his Wants to natural Necessities . . . or to use [Selkirk’s] own Expression, I am now worth 800 pounds, but shall never be so happy, as when I was not worth a farthing.”

When he finally returned to Lower Largo, he wanted little to do with his relatives. Some biographers say (though others doubt) that he began trying to replicate the best of his life on Juan Fernández, down to a cave-like shelter he built behind his father’s house, from which he would gaze upon the Largo harbor. He evidently became something of a loner and resumed his drinking and fighting.

About this time, Daniel Defoe, a well-known British political activist and author, grew intrigued by Selkirk’s story. Historians have debated whether he and Selkirk actually met—Defoe would have had everything to gain by saying they had, which he never did—but Defoe did meet with Woodes Rogers, and few dispute that the Fife sailor inspired what would become Defoe’s literary sensation, The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe.

Published in April 1719 when Defoe was 59 and Selkirk 43, Crusoe captivated readers unlike anything in its time (and is now considered by many the first true English novel). Laced with politics and social theory, it was part adventure, part Christian allegory, part utopianist attack on British society. The first printing, of a thousand copies, quickly went to a second, third and fourth. The book was translated into French, Dutch, German, Spanish and Russian, making Crusoe one of the world’s most recognized fictional characters. But the author, who had been repeatedly imprisoned for his opposition to the British government, remained anonymous.

“It wasn’t a comfortable time for controversial writers,” says Maximillian Novak, author of Daniel Defoe: Master of Fictions— His Life and Ideas. “One British bookseller had already been hanged. Defoe had attacked corporate power and the high Church of England. Crusoe definitely made him some money, but he sold the copyright and ultimately only made a fraction of what he deserved.”

As for Selkirk, in November 1720, at age 44, he returned to the only life that ever meant anything to him, signing on as the first mate of a naval warship, the HMS Weymouth, bound for Guinea and the Gold Coast of Africa in search of pirates. It would be another cursed voyage, plagued by yellow fever and perhaps typhoid. In all his travels Selkirk had never seen “the fever” destroy as many men as this. The ship’s terse log recorded dozens of deaths within a year’s time, often three or four a day. On December 13, 1721, it recorded another. “North to northwest. Small Breeze and fair,” it read. “Took 3 Englishmen out of a Dutch ship and at 8 pm. Alexander Selkirk . . . died.”


History Question: Would Hitler's Death Have Prevented WWII?

The world would still have been bound to experience massive conflicts, arriving at different places and times but resolving familiar tensions between capitalism and communism, colonialism and national independence, and nationalism and internationalism.

Her er hvad du skal huske: Without Hitler implementing his genocidal theories, its possible the massacre of millions of Jews and other minorities in the Holocaust would have been averted, even if anti-Semitism itself would still have persisted. Perhaps the Weimar Republic might have avoided Nazi Germany’s descent into militarism and authoritarianism.

Legend has it that on September 28, 1918, a wounded Private Adolf Hitler lay in the sights of Henry Tandey, a British soldier who would receive the Victoria Cross for his daring actions in engagement in Marcoing, France.

Tandey supposedly took pity on the limping German soldier, who nodded in gratitude and made his escape.

While historians believe this incident was fabricated by Hitler himself, the apocryphal legend nonetheless poses a provocative question: how differently might world history have turned out with just one more pull of the trigger amidst the senseless slaughter of World War I?

In other words—was World War II bound to happen due to larger economic and political forces? Or was it uniquely a product of a monstrous yet charismatic leader bending the streams of history in his wake?

Would the Nazis have risen to power without Hitler?

The Nazi party’s earlier incarnation was the German Worker’s Party (DAP), founded by a locksmith named Anton Drexler. In fact, Hitler was originally assigned by German Army intelligence after World War I to infiltrate DAP, but ended up a convert and became party leader in 1921.

Therefore, a working-class far-right party was likely in the cards for Germany even without Hitler, carried by the same currents of economic distress and revanchist anger that the supposedly “undefeated” Imperial Germany had been “stabbed-in-the-back” by surrendering in World War I.

But on the other hand, there’s decent evidence that the Nazi’s rise to power came from unusual circumstances tied to Hitler himself. That’s because even med Hitler, the Nazis received only 37 percent of the vote in the 1932 election.

Most Germans (53 percent) reelected general and statesman Paul von Hindenburg, who was supported by German center-right- and center-left parties, into the presidency. Despite personally disliking Hitler, the 84-year-old Hindenburg struggled to form a coalition and was eventually convinced to appoint Hitler chancellor. Following a staged attack on the Reichstag, Hitler then persuaded Hindenburg to dissolve the Reichstag, allowing Hitler to rule by decree.

Thus, the Nazi accession to power grew not out of irresistible popular support, but peculiar political factors that might have played out differently without Hitler in the picture.

Without Nazis running the show, would Germany have begun its military campaigns in Europe?

Probably not on the short term.

Undoubtedly, there was a sentiment that Germany had been ill-treated by the treaty of Versailles (though Germany paid only one-eighth of the reparations owed before the rest were waived in 1932), and many of the old elite welcomed Hitler’s focus on rebuilding German military power.

The military especially believed Germany deserved to regain her status as a great power and advocated a more militarized and authoritarian society. Technocrats in the Germany Army secretly fostered the development of tanks, ships and warplanes restricted under the treaty of Versailles in the 1920s (ironically, with Soviet assistance)—years before Hitler’s rise to power.

However, the Wehrmacht’s senior leadership believed Hitler’s wars were impetuous and some even plotted coups against Hitler. It was not so much that they opposed foreign conquest principle, but rather believed Germany needed six to ten more years to build up its forces.

Germany, therefore, was likely to reemerge as a military power, but not necessarily at the breakneck pace the Nazis pushed it to.

A Germany without Nazis in charge might still have turned to militaristic nationalism. Contentious border territories—the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia, and the geographically awkward Polish corridor—would have remained potential flashpoints.

But political winds might also have steered the Republic on some less destructive path.

World War II…started by Stalin?

France and the UK’s response to Hitler was muddled by their preoccupation with the threat posed by Stalin’s Soviet Union. Even during the Munich crisis of 1938, Paris and London turned down an offered alliance from Moscow—fearing the Soviets more than the Nazis.

Indeed, some historians dubiously allege that the Soviet Union was bound to invade Germany instead.

Stalin undeniably was down for opportunistic invasions. He collaborated with Hitler in the occupation of Poland in 1939, went on to invade Finland that winter, and then seized the Baltic states and the Romanian province of Bessarabia.

But Stalin preferred to pick on vulnerable countries without backing from strong allies. There’s good reason to question whether the pre-World War II Red Army could have posed the same threat as the Nazi German war machine. In the 1939 Winter War, over a half-million Soviet troops backed up by thousands of tanks and warplanes struggled to defeat smaller, lightly-armed Finnish troops, suffering over 300,000 casualties. Given this underwhelming performance, it’s hard to believe that Stalin would perceive the Red Army as ready for a showdown with western Europe.

Still, Hitler’s aggression interrupted strategic competition between Western Europe and Moscow. In Hitler’s absence, it’s possible an earlier Cold War would have taken its place.

What about China and Japan?

For over one-sixth the planet, World War II began not in September 1939, but rather in July 1937, when Imperial Japan embarked on a second, larger-scale invasion of China following an earlier campaign in 1933.

The spirit of militaristic nationalism then prevalent in Tokyo had risen in reaction to European colonialism, not fascism. Therefore, Japan’s invasion of China would likely have still occurred. This might still have led to the imposition of a U.S. embargo on petroleum that led Tokyo to plan the Pearl Harbor attack.

But historically, the trigger for the U.S. embargo was Japan’s invasion of French Indochina—an incursion unlikely to have occurred had France not just been defeated by Germany.

Indeed, Japan’s strategic calculus in 1940–41 would have been very different without a war in Europe. The Pearl Harbor raid was meant to buy time for Japan’s capture of British and Dutch territories in Asia—particularly the oil fields in the Netherland East Indies.

Had Tokyo balked at taking on the full might of the UK as well as the United States, it might have instead entrenched itself more deeply in China and developed the economic strength of its planned multinational empire, the Greater Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere. This might have prolonged Japan’s occupation of Korea and parts of China, and fostered closer Japanese ties with nationalists in Thailand and India.

A Different World

At the start of World War II, there were six great powers with multinational spheres of influence: the United Kingdom and France with their vast colonial empires in Africa and Asia Germany, dominant in Central Europe Japan and its growing Asian/Pacific empire the Soviet Union, with influence on Europe and Central Asia and the United States, then withdrawing from colonial adventures in Latin America and the Philippines.

World War II destroyed Germany and Japan as great powers. The UK and France were left a shadow of their former selves. The USSR and the United States both emerged as formidable military powers with footholds in Europe and Asia.

From this titanic reshuffling of global order eventually arose the United Nations, the state of Israel, NATO and the Warsaw Pact, the conversion of European colonial empires into independent nation-states, and the sundering North and South Korea.

Without the Second World War, numerous world-changing technologies from chemotherapy and rocketry to the nuclear bomb would have developed at different times and places. Movements affected by social changes wrought by the conflict, such as the Civil Rights movement or Indian independence, would have taken different turns.

Without Hitler implementing his genocidal theories, its possible the massacre of millions of Jews and other minorities in the Holocaust would have been averted, even if anti-Semitism itself would still have persisted. Perhaps the Weimar Republic might have avoided Nazi Germany’s descent into militarism and authoritarianism.

But the world would still have been bound to experience massive conflicts, arriving at different places and times but resolving familiar tensions between capitalism and communism, colonialism and national independence, and nationalism and internationalism.

How those conflicts might have played out differently we can only guess—but it’s safe to say that the alternate history version of “We Didn’t Start the Fire” still would not have lacked for lyrical content.

Sébastien Roblin holds a master’s degree in conflict resolution from Georgetown University and served as a university instructor for the Peace Corps in China. He has also worked in education, editing, and refugee resettlement in France and the United States. He currently writes on security and military history for War Is Boring.

This first appeared in 2019 and is being reposted due to reader interest.


Engine Block Patterns

All Chevy V6 and V8 engines continue to use the same block-to-bellhousing pattern as introduced in 1955. This includes Generation I, II and III engines. Some Gen. III engines omit drilling and tapping one hole in the block. The installer can drill and tap this blank boss appropriately and it may be recommended to do so if maximum strength is required.

The Chevy I6 "Blue Flame" (235 cid, etc.) from 1950-1961 use a different engine block pattern than the popular 90-Degree. However, the Chevy 265 cid (and its following 250 & 292 variants) from 1962-1990 do feature the same 90-Degree pattern as the Chevy V6 / V8 family.

The GM (technically a Pontiac) 151 "Iron Duke" also shares this same block pattern. However, the Jeep bellhousings from these engines (1980-1982) rarely fit the full-size clutches of the V6/V8 engines. Flywheels do not interchange.

GM Atlas engines - the new generation of I6, I5 & I4 - use the same standardized engine block pattern as the 1955-on engines.

Chevrolet / GM Big Block V8 engines have the same block pattern. Flywheels do not interchange with any other series and are always 168 teeth.

Buick, Olds, Pontiac and Cadillac block patterns (BOPC) are different. However, note that some of these cars increasingly used Chevrolet engines, supplanting their own V8 designs as GM gravitated towards a more unified powertrain.


The vision for the Oresund Region finally realised in 1990s

In the early 1990s, the ratification of the project finally took place. However, even then the context was challenging there was an economic crisis in Denmark, and Sweden was embroiled in an atmosphere of uncertainty regarding its EU accession. These tensions added to the environmental protests against the project, which had been going on since the early 1970s and had contributed to making the Oresund bridge a rather divisive issue. That said, the vision of the Oresund region and its economic potential won out this time.

The hope of increasing the volume of bilateral trade and of establishing the Sound as one of the main industrial, cultural, and touristic districts in Northern Europe ultimately convinced the political and economic establishment of Scania and Zealand to think in terms of region, and cross-bordering cooperation, rather than in the traditional terms of two separate countries. Filling the gap at the heart of the new region with a fixed link became pivotal for supporting this vision.

The realization of the project was helped by the European Roundtable of Industrialists (ERT) setting the groundwork in the 1980s. It appeared that the big European industries could influence the situation where local, regional and national initiatives, at both the private and public level, could not: the ERT lobbied Swedish and Danish politicians and the European Commission. It implemented a far-reaching advertisement campaign aimed at making the public more receptive to the idea of the need to fill the “missing links” between Europe and Scandinavia with good infrastructure links. Part of its proposal was the Scandinavian Link, which included the projects for the Oresund bridge, the Hallandsås Tunnel and the Swedish portion of the European highway 6. ERT had sufficient capital, and lobbying and marketing knowhow to align regional, national and international interests. The regional entrepreneurs and the majority of local institutions sided firmly with ERT, joining newly-constituted interest groups favorable to the establishing of the fixed link, and injecting capital into developing the Oresund region concept.

In 1991, the Danish and Swedish parliaments issued a bilateral agreement on the building of the Oresund bridge. In 1993, Øresundskonsortiet, a joint venture between the state companies Svedab (Sweden) and A/S Øresundsforbindelsen (Denmark), chose the two-level bridge designed by Danish architect Georg Rotne for ASO Group, a joint venture between private firms from Britain, France, and Denmark. In 1995, the construction work bid was won by Sundlink Contractors HB, a Swedish-German-Danish joint venture. The costs for the link’s construction, covered by a 4-billion-euro loan from the Danish and Swedish states to Øresundskonsortiet, are repaid from the fees levied for crossing the bridge.

Since 2000, the Oresund bridge has successfully connected Sweden and Denmark. The Danish-Swedish thriller TV-series Bron/Broen (2011-) has turned the bridge into a globally renowned icon of Norden. Its economic, societal and cultural benefits still appear to be clear and unquestioned, particularly compared to other Oresund projects that fell by the way side, such as, the Oresund Committee, and Oresund University. The history of the bridge illuminates different visions for society as well as intersecting local, regional, national, and international dimensions. Dens virkelige og forestillede synergier af grænseoverskridende betyder, at selvom det fortsat er en stor bedrift med teknik og samarbejde, der gør en praktisk forskel for menneskers hverdag, får det os også til at overveje tanken om statsgrænser og bevægelsesfrihed, nordisk eller på anden måde.


BILLEDE: Øresundsbroen (Øresundsbron) set fra et fly, der startede fra Kastrup lufthavn, København. Øresundsbroen er et megaengineering-projekt omfattende en kombineret jernbane- og vejbro og tunnel. Den er udviklet på to niveauer og kombinerer en 16 km lang dobbeltsporet jernbane og en firefelts motorvej, der kører på en 7,8 km lang tredelt bro med kabelstang fra Malmø i en højde på 57 meter over Flintrännan-kanalen til 4 km lang kunstig ø Peberholm. Peberholm forbinder broen med en 4 km nedsænket tunnel, Drøgen -tunnelen, og ender på en 1 km lang halvø på Københavns kyst. Foto: Nick-D, Wikipedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0.