Quentin Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelts yngste søn, bliver dræbt

Quentin Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelts yngste søn, bliver dræbt

Den 14. juli 1918 blev Quentin Roosevelt, en pilot i United States Air Service og den fjerde søn af den tidligere amerikanske præsident Theodore Roosevelt, skudt ned og dræbt af et tysk Fokker -fly over Marne -floden i Frankrig.

Den unge Roosevelt var forlovet med Flora Payne Whitney, barnebarn af Cornelius Vanderbilt, en af ​​landets rigeste mænd. Parret mødtes ved en bold i Newport, Rhode Island, i august 1916 og blev hurtigt forelskede, selvom alliancen mellem de beskedne, gamle penge Roosevelts og den flamboyant velhavende Vanderbilt-Whitneys først var kontroversiel på begge sider.

Quentins breve til Flora, fra de mødtes til hans død, kortlagde forløbet for Amerikas indtræden i krigen. Theodore Roosevelt, ophidset over Amerikas fortsatte neutralitet i lyset af tysk aggression - herunder forliset af det britiske krydstogtskib Lusitania i maj 1916, hvor 128 amerikanere druknede - kæmpede uden held for præsidentposten i 1916 og kritiserede hårdt Woodrow Wilson, der blev genvalgt på en neutralitetsplatform. Mens han i første omgang var neutral, kom Quentin til enighed med sin far og skrev til Flora i begyndelsen af ​​1917 fra Harvard University, hvor han studerede, at “Vi er en temmelig grim ting, vi ikke vil sidde og se på mens England og Frankrig kæmper vores kampe og pander guld i vores lommer. ”

Efter at amerikansk politik såvel som den offentlige mening forskydende besluttede sig for at komme ind i konflikten mod Tyskland, leverede Wilson sit krigsbudskab til kongressen den 2. april 1917. 20 år gammel var Quentin for ung til at blive udarbejdet under den efterfølgende militære værnepligt , men som søn af Theodore Roosevelt forventedes det bestemt, at han ville være frivillig. Hans far, 58 år gammel, havde udtrykt sin egen hensigt med det samme at tage til Frankrig som leder af en frivillig division; efter Wilsons afvisning af ideen erklærede TR, at hans sønner ville gå i hans sted.

Inden april 1917 var ude, havde Quentin forladt Harvard, meldt sig frivilligt til U.S. Air Service og foreslog Flora. Det unge par modtog deres forældres samtykke, i første omgang tilbageholdende med kun at sige farvel til hinanden ved Hudson River Pier den 23. juli, da Quentin sejlede til Frankrig for at træne. I løbet af det næste år kæmpede Quentin med vanskelig flyvetræning (på Nieuport-fly, der allerede blev kasseret af franskmændene som et andenrangsfly), brutalt kolde forhold, sygdom (i november fik han lungebetændelse og blev sendt til Paris på en tre ugers uge orlov) og hån fra hans ældre brødre, Ted, Archie og Kermit, som alle allerede var på vej til fronten. Quentin led også af adskillelsen fra Flora, som han opfordrede til at finde en måde at komme til Paris og gifte sig med ham; selvom hun forsøgte, var det i sidste ende uden held. På trods af smerten ved adskillelse fra sin elskede var Quentin fast besluttet på at komme til fronten, til at dæmpe sine brødres kritik og bevise sig selv for dem og for sin far.

I juni 1918 fik Quentin sit ønske, da han blev gjort til flyverfører i 95. Aero Squadron, i aktion nær Aisne -floden. "Jeg tror, ​​jeg fik min første Boche," skrev han spændt til Flora den 11. juli med henvisning til et tysk fly, han havde skudt på under en flyvemission. Tre dage senere, under det andet slag ved Marne, var hans Nieuport forlovet med tre Boche -fly, ifølge en af ​​de andre piloter på hans flyvemission. Skudt ned faldt Quentins fly bag de tyske linjer nær landsbyen Chamery, Frankrig.

Flora Payne Whitney gemte alle Quentins breve til hende. Hun blev et surrogatmedlem i Roosevelt -familien for en tid, plejede sine egne smerter og trøstede Theodore Roosevelt, der af mange rapporter blev knust af tabet af sin yngste søn, indtil hans død i januar 1919. Hun ville senere gifte sig to gange, har fire børn og følger hendes mor, billedhuggeren og kunstmæcen Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, ind i en lederrolle på Whitney Museum of American Art i New York City. Hun døde i 1986.


Quentin Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelts yngste søn, bliver dræbt - HISTORIE

Far: Theodore Roosevelt (Sr.), 1831-1878
Mor: Martha Bulloch Roosevelt, 1835-1884
Ældste søster: Anna Roosevelt Cowles, 1855-1931
Yngre bror: Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt, 1860-1894 (far til første dame Eleanor Roosevelt)
Yngre søster: Corinne Roosevelt Robinson, 1861-1933.

Første kone: Alice Hathaway Lee-Roosevelt, 1861-1884
Datter: Alice Lee Roosevelt Longworth, 1884-1980

Anden kone: Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt, 1861-1948
Ældste søn: Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., 1887-1944
Søn: Kermit Roosevelt, 1889-1943

Datter: Ethel Carow Roosevelt Derby, 1891-1977

Søn: Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt, 1894-1979
Yngste søn: Quentin Roosevelt, 1897-1918

Barnebarn: Paulina Longworth, 1925-1957

Barnebarn: Grace Green Roosevelt, 1911-1993
Barnebarn: Theodore Roosevelt III, 1914-2001
Barnebarn: Cornelius Van Schaak Roosevelt, 1915-1991
Barnebarn: Quentin Roosevelt II, 1919-1948

Barnebarn: Kermit Roosevelt, Jr., 1916-2000
Barnebarn: Joseph Willard Roosevelt, 1918-2008
Barnebarn: Belle Wyatt Roosevelt, 1919-1985
Barnebarn: Dirck Roosevelt, 1925-1952

Barnebarn: Richard Derby, Jr., 1914-1922
Barnebarn: Edith Derby, 1917-2008
Barnebarn: Sarah Alden Derby, 1920-1999
Barnebarn: Judith Quentin Derby Ames, 1923-1973

Barnebarn: Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt, Jr., 1918-1990
Barnebarn: Theodora Roosevelt, 1919-2008
Barnebarn: Nancy Dabney Roosevelt, 1923
Barnebarn: Edith Kermit Roosevelt, 1926-2003


Indhold

Ted var den ældste søn af præsident Theodore Roosevelt og First Lady Edith Kermit Carow. Han blev født på familieejendommen i Cove Neck, Oyster Bay, New York, da hans far lige var begyndt sin politiske karriere. Som søn af præsident Theodore Roosevelt er han blevet omtalt som "Jr", men han var faktisk Theodore III, og en af ​​hans egne sønner var Theodore IV. Hans søskende var brødrene Kermit, Archie og Quentins søster Ethel og halvsøster Alice. Som en Oyster Bay Roosevelt og gennem sin forfader Cornelius Van Schaack Jr., var Ted en efterkommer af Schuyler -familien. [2] [ egenpubliceret kilde ] [3] [4]

Som alle Roosevelt -børn var Ted enormt påvirket af sin far. I senere liv registrerede Ted nogle af disse barndomserindringer i en række avisartikler skrevet omkring tidspunktet for 1. verdenskrig. En dag, da han var omkring ni, gav hans far ham et gevær. Da Ted spurgte, om det var ægte, læssede hans far det og skød en kugle i loftet. [5]

Da Ted var barn, forventede hans far i første omgang mere af ham end af sine søskende. Byrden fik ham næsten til at få et nervøst sammenbrud. [6]

I en artikel huskede Ted sin første gang i Washington, ". Da far var embedsmand, gik jeg ofte til kontoret med ham. På vej ned ville han tale historie med mig - ikke den tørre historie om datoer og chartre, men historien, hvor du selv i din fantasi kunne påtage sig rollen som hovedaktørerne, som enhver velkonstrueret dreng ønsker at gøre, når han er interesseret. Under hver kamp stoppede vi, og far ville tegne den fulde plan i støvet i tagrenden med spidsen af ​​sin paraply. Længe før den europæiske krig var brudt over verden, ville far diskutere med os militær træning og nødvendigheden af, at hver mand kunne tage sin del. " [7]

Roosevelt -drengene gik på private skoler, Ted gik på The Albany Academy, [8] og derefter Groton School. [9] Inden han gik på college, tænkte han på at gå på militærskole. Selvom han ikke naturligt blev kaldt til akademikere, fortsatte han og tog eksamen fra Harvard College i 1909, hvor han ligesom sin far sluttede sig til Porcellian Club.

Efter eksamen fra college kom Ted ind i erhvervslivet. Han tog stillinger i stål- og tæppevirksomhederne, inden han blev filialchef i en investeringsbank. Han havde flair for erhvervslivet og samlede en betydelig formue i årene op til 1. verdenskrig og videre ind i 1920'erne. Indkomsten genereret af hans investeringer placerede ham godt i en karriere inden for politik efter krigen.

Alle Roosevelt -sønnerne, undtagen Kermit, havde en vis militær træning før Første Verdenskrig. Med udbruddet af Første Verdenskrig i Europa i august 1914 havde amerikanske ledere øget bekymringen over deres lands parathed til militært engagement. Kun måneden før havde kongressen godkendt oprettelsen af ​​en luftfartsafdeling i Signalkorpset. I 1915 organiserede generalmajor Leonard Wood, præsident Roosevelts tidligere øverstbefalende under den spansk -amerikanske krig, en sommerlejr i Plattsburgh, New York, for at sørge for militær træning for forretningsfolk og professionelle mænd for egen regning.

Dette sommertræningsprogram udgjorde grundlaget for et stærkt udvidet juniorofficerskorps, da landet kom ind i 1. verdenskrig. I løbet af den sommer var mange velhælede unge mænd fra nogle af de fineste østkystskoler, herunder tre af de fire Roosevelt-sønner, deltog i militærlejren. Da USA gik ind i krigen, i april 1917, tilbød de væbnede styrker kommissioner til kandidaterne fra disse skoler baseret på deres præstationer. National Defense Act fra 1916 fortsatte de studerendes militære uddannelse og forretningsmændenes sommerlejre. Det placerede dem på et fastere retsgrundlag ved at godkende et Officers 'Reserve Corps og et Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC).

Efter krigserklæringen, da den amerikanske ekspeditionsstyrke (AEF) organiserede, tilsluttede Theodore Roosevelt generalmajor John "Black Jack" Pershing og spurgte, om hans sønner kunne følge ham til Europa som menige. Pershing accepterede, men på baggrund af deres uddannelse i Plattsburgh blev Archie tilbudt en kommission med rang som andenløjtnant, mens Ted blev tilbudt en kommission og rang som major. Quentin var allerede blevet accepteret i Army Air Service. Kermit meldte sig frivilligt sammen med briterne i det nuværende Irak.

Med en reservekommission i hæren (som Quentin og Archibald), kort efter første verdenskrig, blev Ted indkaldt. Da USA erklærede krig mod Tyskland, meldte Ted sig frivilligt til at være en af ​​de første soldater, der tog til Frankrig. Der blev han ifølge divisionschefen anerkendt som den bedste bataljonschef i sin division. Roosevelt trodsede fjendtlig ild og gas og førte sin bataljon i kamp. Så bekymret var han for sine mænds velfærd, at han købte kampstøvler til hele bataljonen med sine egne penge. Til sidst befalede han 26. regiment i 1. division som oberstløjtnant. Han kæmpede i flere store kampe, herunder Amerikas første sejr i Cantigny. [10]

Ted blev gaset og såret i Soissons i sommeren 1918. I juli samme år blev hans yngste bror Quentin dræbt i kamp. Ted modtog Distinguished Service Cross for sine handlinger under krigen, som sluttede den 11. november 1918 kl. Frankrig gav ham Chevalier Légion d'honneur den 16. marts 1919. Inden tropperne kom hjem fra Frankrig, var Ted en af ​​grundlæggerne af soldaterorganisationen, der udviklede sig til The American Legion. Den amerikanske legion Postofficerers vejledning fortæller Teds del i organisationens grundlæggelse:

En gruppe på tyve officerer, der tjente i de amerikanske ekspeditionsstyrker (A.E.F.) i Frankrig under første verdenskrig, krediteres med at have planlagt legionen. A.E.F. Hovedkvarteret bad disse betjente om at foreslå ideer til, hvordan man kan forbedre troppemoralen. En officer, oberstløjtnant Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., foreslog en organisation af veteraner. I februar 1919 dannede denne gruppe et midlertidigt udvalg og udvalgte flere hundrede officerer, der havde tillid og respekt for hele hæren. Da det første organisationsmøde fandt sted i Paris i marts 1919, deltog omkring 1.000 officerer og hvervede mænd. Mødet, kendt som Paris Caucus, vedtog en midlertidig forfatning og navnet The American Legion. Det valgte også et forretningsudvalg for at fuldføre organisationens arbejde. Det betragtede hver soldat fra A.E.F. medlem af legionen. Forretningsudvalget navngav et underudvalg, der skulle organisere veteraner hjemme i USA. Legionen afholdt et andet organiserende møde i St. Louis, Missouri, i maj 1919. Det afsluttede forfatningen og lavede planer for en permanent organisation. Det oprettede midlertidigt hovedkvarter i New York City og begyndte sine nødhjælp, beskæftigelse og amerikanisme programmer. Kongressen bevilgede legionen et nationalt charter i september 1919. [11]

Da The American Legion mødtes i New York City, blev Roosevelt nomineret som sin første nationale kommandør, men han takkede nej og ønskede ikke at blive betragtet som blot at bruge den til politisk gevinst. Efter hans opfattelse kunne accept under sådanne omstændigheder have diskrediteret den spirende organisation og ham selv og skadet hans chancer for en fremtid i politik. [12]

Ted genoptog sin reservetjeneste mellem krigene. Han deltog i de årlige sommerlejre på Pine Camp og gennemførte både infanteriofficerens grundlæggende og avancerede kurser og Command and General Staff College. Ved begyndelsen af ​​Anden Verdenskrig, i september 1939, var han berettiget til seniorbestilt tjeneste.

I 1919 blev han medlem af Empire State Society of the Sons of the American Revolution.

Efter tjeneste i første verdenskrig begyndte Roosevelt sin politiske karriere. Smilende som sin far, vinkende med en krøllet hat og ligesom sin far, hvor han råbte "mobber", deltog han i enhver national kampagne, han kunne, undtagen da han var generalguvernør i Filippinerne. Valgt som medlem af New York State Assembly (Nassau County, 2. D.) i 1920 og 1921, var Roosevelt en af ​​de få lovgivere, der modsatte sig udvisning af fem socialistiske forsamlingsmedlemmer i 1920. Angst for socialister var høj dengang.

Den 10. marts 1921 blev Roosevelt udnævnt af præsident Warren G. Harding til assisterende sekretær for flåden. Han førte tilsyn med overførslen af ​​olieleasingkontrakter til lande i Wyoming og Californien fra flåden til indenrigsministeriet og i sidste ende til private virksomheder. Ejendommene blev oprettet som søværnets petroleumsreserver af præsident Taft og bestod af tre oliefelter: Naval Petroleum Reserve nr. 3, Teapot Dome Field, Natrona County, Wyoming og Naval Petroleum Reserve nr. 1 ved Elk Hills Oil Field og Naval Petroleum Reserve No .2 Buena Vista Oil Field, begge i Kern County, Californien. I 1922 forpagtede Albert B. Fall, USA's indenrigsminister, Teapot Dome Field til Harry F. Sinclair fra Sinclair Consolidated Oil Company og feltet i Elk Hills, Californien, til Edward L. Doheny fra Pan American Petroleum & amp Transport Virksomhed, begge uden konkurrencebud.

Under overførslerne, mens Roosevelt var assisterende sekretær for flåden, var hans bror Archie vicepræsident for Union Petroleum Company, eksport -datterselskab af Sinclair Consolidated Oil. Forpagtningen af ​​offentlige reserver uden konkurrencedygtige bud plus de tætte personlige og forretningsmæssige forbindelser mellem spillerne førte til, at aftalen blev kaldt tekande -skandalen. Forbindelsen mellem Roosevelt -brødrene kunne ikke ignoreres.

Efter at Sinclair sejlede til Europa for at undgå at vidne i kongressens høringer, rådede G. D. Wahlberg, Sinclairs private sekretær, Archibald Roosevelt til at træde tilbage for at redde sit ry. Senatskomiteen for offentlige grunde afholdt høringer over en periode på seks måneder for at undersøge handlingerne ved Fall i forpagtning af de offentlige arealer uden det krævede konkurrencebud. [13] Selvom både Archibald og Ted Roosevelt blev ryddet for alle anklager af Senatskomiteen for offentlige områder, blev deres billeder plettet. [13]

Ved valget i New York i 1924 var Roosevelt den republikanske kandidat til guvernør i New York. Hans fætter Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) udtalte sig om Teds "elendige rekord" som assisterende sekretær for flåden under olieskandalerne. Til gengæld sagde Ted om FDR: "Han er en maverick! Han bærer ikke vores families mærke." Eleanor Roosevelt, nærmere beslægtet med Ted med blod, men gift med FDR, var blevet rasende over disse bemærkninger. Hun slog Ted på kampagnesporet i New York State i en bil udstyret med en papir-maché motorhjelm formet som en gigantisk tekande, der blev lavet til at udsende simuleret damp, og imødegået hans taler med sine egne og kaldte ham umoden. [14]

Hun ville senere afkræfte disse metoder og indrømme, at de var under hendes værdighed, men sagde, at de var blevet konstrueret af Demokratiske Partis "beskidte tricksters". Teds modstander, siddende guvernør Alfred E. Smith, besejrede ham med 105.000 stemmer. Ted tilgav aldrig Eleanor for hendes stunt, selvom hans ældre halvsøster Alice gjorde det og genoptog deres tidligere tætte venskab. Disse konflikter bidrog til at udvide splittelsen mellem Oyster Bay (TR) og Hyde Park (FDR) vinger af Roosevelt -familien.

Sammen med sin bror, Kermit, tilbragte Roosevelt det meste af 1929 på en zoologisk ekspedition og var den første vesterlændinge, der var kendt for at have skudt en panda. [15] [16] I september 1929 udnævnte præsident Herbert Hoover Roosevelt til guvernør i Puerto Rico, og han tjente indtil 1932. (Indtil 1947, da det blev et valgkontor, var dette en politisk udpeget stilling.) Roosevelt arbejdede på at lette befolkningens fattigdom under den store depression. Han tiltrak penge til at bygge gymnasier, skaffede penge fra amerikanske filantroper, markedsførte Puerto Rico som produktionssted og gjorde andre bestræbelser på at forbedre økonomien. [17]

Han arbejdede på at skabe flere bånd til amerikanske institutioner til gensidig fordel. For eksempel arrangerede han, at Cayetano Coll y Cuchi blev inviteret til Harvard Law School for at holde foredrag om Puerto Ricos retssystem. [17] Han arrangerede, at Antonio Reyes Delgado fra den puertoricanske lovgivende forsamling talte til en konference for embedsmænd i New York City. [17] Roosevelt arbejdede med at uddanne amerikanere om øen og dens folk og for at fremme billedet af Puerto Rico i resten af ​​USA

Roosevelt var den første amerikanske guvernør, der studerede spansk og forsøgte at lære 20 ord om dagen. [17] Han var glad for lokal puertoricansk kultur og antog mange af øens traditioner. Han blev kendt som El Jíbaro de La Fortaleza ("Hillbilly of the Governor's Mansion") af lokalbefolkningen. [17] I 1931 udnævnte han Carlos E. Chardón, en mykolog, som den første puertoricaner til at være kansler ved universitetet i Puerto Rico.

Imponeret over sit arbejde i Puerto Rico udnævnte præsident Hoover Roosevelt til generalguvernør i Filippinerne i 1932. I løbet af sin embedsperiode erhvervede Roosevelt kælenavnet "One Shot Teddy" blandt den filippinske befolkning med henvisning til hans skudskud under en jagt til tamaraw (vild pygmæ vandbøffel).

I 1932, da FDR udfordrede Hoover til formandsposten, bad Alice Ted om at vende tilbage fra Filippinerne for at hjælpe kampagnen. Roosevelt meddelte pressen den 22. august 1932, at "Omstændigheder har gjort det nødvendigt for mig at vende tilbage til en kort periode til USA. Jeg starter igen for Filippinerne den første uge i november. Mens jeg håber, at jeg kan opnå noget. " [18]

Reaktionen fra mange i den amerikanske presse var så negativ, at generalguvernør Roosevelt inden for få uger arrangerede at blive i Manila under hele kampagnen. Krigsminister Hurley gav Ted besked: "Præsidenten er nået frem til den konklusion, at du ikke bør forlade dine pligter med det formål at deltage i kampagnen. Han mener, at det er din pligt at forblive på din post." [18] Roosevelt trådte tilbage som generalguvernør efter valget af FDR som præsident, da den nye administration ville udpege deres eget folk. Han troede, at potentialet for krig i Europa betød en anden form for mulighed for ham. Ved hjælp af sin fars sprog skrev han til sin kone, da han sejlede til Nordafrika og sagde, at han havde gjort sit bedste, og at hans skæbne nu var "på gudernes knæ". [ citat nødvendig ]

Under sin fætter FDRs præsidentkampagne i 1932 sagde Roosevelt: "Franklin er så dårlige ting, at det virker usandsynligt, at han skulle blive valgt til præsident." [19] Da Franklin vandt valget, og Ted blev spurgt, hvordan han var i familie med FDR, sagde Ted "femte fætter, der var ved at blive fjernet." [20]

I 1935 vendte han tilbage til USA og blev først vicepræsident for forlaget Doubleday, Doran & amp Company. Derefter tjente han som direktør hos American Express. Han har også siddet i bestyrelserne for talrige non-profit organisationer. Han blev inviteret af Irving Berlin til at hjælpe med at føre tilsyn med udbetaling af royalties til Berlins populære sang, "God Bless America", til velgørenhed. Mens de boede igen i New York, fornyede Roosevelts gamle venskaber med dramatikeren Alexander Woollcott og komikeren Harpo Marx.

Han blev også nævnt som en potentiel kandidat til den republikanske præsidentnominering i 1936, men gennemførte ikke en kampagne. [21] Havde han modtaget den republikanske præsidentnominering fra 1936, havde han stået over for sin fætter Franklin ved folketingsvalget. Efter at Alf Landon modtog den republikanske præsidentnominering, blev Roosevelt også nævnt som kandidat til vicepræsident, men den nominering gik til Frank Knox. [22] Roosevelt blev også nævnt som kandidat til guvernør i New York i 1936, men gjorde ingen indsats for at blive en aktiv kandidat. [23]

I 1940, under Anden Verdenskrig (selvom USA endnu ikke var gået ind i krigen og forblev neutral), deltog Roosevelt i et militært genopfriskningskursus, der tilbydes mange forretningsmænd som en avanceret studerende, og blev forfremmet til oberst i hæren i USA. Han vendte tilbage til aktiv tjeneste i april 1941 og fik kommandoen over det 26. infanteri, en del af 1. infanteridivision, den samme enhed, som han kæmpede med i 1. verdenskrig. Sent i 1941 blev han forfremmet til en-stjernet generalofficersrang af brigadegeneral.

Nordafrikansk kampagne Rediger

Ved sin ankomst til Nordafrika blev Roosevelt kendt som en general, der ofte besøgte frontlinjerne. Han havde altid foretrukket kampens hede frem for kommandopostens komfort, og denne holdning ville kulminere i hans handlinger i Frankrig på D-Day.

Roosevelt ledede det 26. infanteri i et angreb på Oran, Algeriet, den 8. november 1942 som en del af Operation Torch, de allieredes invasion af Nordafrika. I løbet af 1943 var han assisterende divisionschef (ADC) for 1. infanteridivision i kampagnen i Nordafrika under generalmajor Terry Allen. Han blev citeret til Croix de guerre af militærkommandanten i Fransk Afrika, general Alphonse Juin: [ citat nødvendig ]

Som chef for en fransk-amerikansk løsrivelse på Ousseltia-sletten i regionen Pichon viste han over for en meget aggressiv fjende de fineste kvaliteter ved beslutning og beslutsomhed i forsvaret af sin sektor. Udviser fuldstændig foragt for personlig fare, ophørte han aldrig i perioden 28. januar - 21. februar, besøgte tropper i frontlinjerne, tog vigtige beslutninger på stedet, vandt agtelse og beundring af enhederne under hans kommando og udviklede sig i hele sin løsrivelse den fineste broderskab af våben.

Sammenstød med Patton Edit

Roosevelt samarbejdede og var en ven af ​​hans kommandør, den hårdt kæmpende, hårdtdrikkende generalmajor Terry de la Mesa Allen Sr. Deres uortodokse tilgang til krigsførelse undgik ikke opmærksomhed fra generalløjtnant George S. Patton, den syvende hærchef på Sicilien, og tidligere II Corps kommandør. Patton afviste sådanne betjente, der "klædte sig på" og sjældent blev set i reguleringsfeltuniformer, og som lagde ringe værdi i Pattons spidskinnede måder i feltet. Patton troede, at de begge var usoldaterlige for det og spildte ingen mulighed for at sende nedsættende rapporter om Allen til general Dwight D. Eisenhower, den øverste allierede øverstbefalende i Mediterranean Theatre of Operations (MTO). Roosevelt blev også behandlet af Patton som "skyldig ved forening" for sit venskab og samarbejde med den meget uortodokse Allen. Da Allen blev fritaget for kommandoen i 1. division og blev tildelt igen, var Roosevelt også.

Efter at have kritiseret Allen i sin dagbog den 31. juli 1943 bemærkede Patton, at han havde bedt om tilladelse fra Eisenhower "til at aflaste både Allen og Roosevelt på samme vilkår, om teorien om kommando rotation" og tilføjede vedrørende Roosevelt, "der vil være et spark over Teddy, men han må gå, modig, men ellers ingen soldat. " Senere, da han hørte om Roosevelts død, skrev Patton imidlertid i sin dagbog, at Roosevelt var "en af ​​de modigste mænd, jeg nogensinde har kendt", og et par dage senere tjente han som en pallbærer ved sin begravelse. [24]

Roosevelt blev også kritiseret af generalløjtnant Omar Bradley, II -korpsets chef, der i sidste ende lettede både Roosevelt og Allen. [25] I begge hans selvbiografier - En soldats historie (1951) og En generals liv - Bradley påstod, at aflastning af de to generaler var en af ​​hans mest ubehagelige opgaver i krigen. [26] Bradley følte, at Allen og Roosevelt var skyldige i at "elske deres division for meget", og at deres forhold til deres soldater generelt havde en dårlig effekt på disciplinen for både kommandanterne og mændene i divisionen.

Roosevelt var assisterende chef for 1. infanteridivision ved Gela under den allieredes invasion af Sicilien, kodenavnet Operation Husky, [27] kommanderede de allierede styrker i Sardinien og kæmpede på det italienske fastland. Han var chefforbindelsesofficer for den franske hær i Italien for general Eisenhower og fremsatte gentagne gange anmodninger fra Eisenhower om kampkommando.

Rediger D-dag

I februar 1944 blev Roosevelt tildelt England for at hjælpe med at lede invasionen i Normandiet og udnævnt til vicedivisionschef for 4. infanteridivision. Efter flere mundtlige anmodninger til divisionens øverstbefalende general (CG), generalmajor Raymond "Tubby" Barton, om at gå i land på D-dag med divisionen blev afvist, sendte Roosevelt et skriftligt andragende:

Kraften og dygtigheden, hvormed de første elementer rammer stranden og fortsætter, kan afgøre operationens ultimative succes. Når tropper er engageret for første gang, er alles adfærdsmønster tilbøjelig til at blive fastsat af de første engagementer. [Det anses] for, at nøjagtige oplysninger om den eksisterende situation bør være tilgængelige for hvert efterfølgende element, når det lander. Du bør have et samlet billede, når du kommer til land, hvor du kan stole på dig. Jeg tror, ​​jeg kan bidrage væsentligt til alt det ovenstående ved at gå ind med overfaldsfirmaerne. Desuden kender jeg personligt både officerer og mænd i disse fremrykningsenheder og tror på, at det vil være stabilt for dem at vide, at jeg er sammen med dem. [28]

Barton godkendte Roosevelts skriftlige anmodning med megen misgivelse, idet han erklærede, at han ikke forventede, at Roosevelt ville vende tilbage i live.

Roosevelt var den eneste general på D-dagen, der landede til søs med den første bølge af tropper. På 56 var han den ældste mand i invasionen, [29] og den eneste, hvis søn også landede den dag, var kaptajn Quentin Roosevelt II blandt den første bølge af soldater ved Omaha Beach. [30]

Brigadegeneral Roosevelt var en af ​​de første soldater sammen med kaptajn Leonard T. Schroeder Jr. fra sit landingsfartøj, da han ledede det 8. infanteriregiment og den 70. tankbataljon ved Utah Beach. Roosevelt blev hurtigt informeret om, at landingsfartøjerne var drevet syd for deres mål, og den første bølge af mænd var en kilometer uden for kurs. Når han gik ved hjælp af en stok og bar en pistol, foretog han personligt en rekognoscering af området umiddelbart bag på stranden for at lokalisere de kystveje, der skulle bruges til fremrykket inde i landet. Han vendte tilbage til landingsstedet og kontaktede cheferne for de to bataljoner, oberstløjtnant Conrad C. Simmons og Carlton O. MacNeely, og koordinerede angrebet på fjendens positioner, der konfronterede dem. Roosevelts berømte ord var at vælge at kæmpe fra det sted, de var landet i stedet for at forsøge at flytte til deres tildelte positioner: "Vi starter krigen lige her!" [33]

Disse improviserede planer fungerede med fuldstændig succes og lidt forvirring. Da artilleriet landede tæt på, blev hvert opfølgende regiment personligt budt velkommen på stranden af ​​en kølig, rolig og samlet Roosevelt, der inspirerede alle med humor og selvtillid, reciterede poesi og fortalte sin fars anekdoter til at stabilisere sine mænds nerver . Roosevelt pegede næsten hvert regiment på sit ændrede mål. Nogle gange arbejdede han under beskydning som en selvudnævnt trafikpoliti, hvor trafikpropper i lastbiler og tanke blev fanget, alle kæmpede for at komme inde i landet og af stranden. [34] En GI rapporterede senere, at det at se generalen gå rundt, tilsyneladende upåvirket af fjendens ild, selv når jordklumper faldt ned på ham, gav ham modet til at komme videre med jobbet og sige, hvis generalen er sådan, at det er kan ikke være så slemt. [ citat nødvendig ]

Da generalmajor Barton, chefen for 4. infanteridivision, kom på land, mødte han Roosevelt ikke langt fra stranden. Senere skrev han:

Mens jeg mentalt indrammede [ordrer], kom Ted Roosevelt frem. Han var landet med den første bølge, havde sat mine tropper over stranden og havde et perfekt billede (ligesom Roosevelt tidligere havde lovet, hvis han fik lov at gå i land med den første bølge) af hele situationen. Jeg elskede Ted. Da jeg endelig accepterede hans landing med den første bølge, følte jeg sikker på, at han ville blive dræbt. Da jeg havde sagt ham farvel, havde jeg aldrig regnet med at se ham i live. Du kan da forestille dig den følelse, som jeg hilste ham med, da han kom ud for at møde mig [nær La Grande Dune]. Han sprudlede med information. [35]

Ved at ændre sin divisions oprindelige plan på stranden, satte Roosevelt sine tropper i stand til at nå deres missionsmål ved at komme i land og angribe nord bag stranden mod det oprindelige mål. År senere blev Omar Bradley bedt om at udpege den mest heroiske handling, han nogensinde havde set i kamp. Han svarede: "Ted Roosevelt på Utah Beach."

Efter landingen brugte Roosevelt en jeep ved navn "Rough Rider", som var kaldenavnet på hans fars regiment rejst under den spansk -amerikanske krig. [36] Før sin død blev Roosevelt udnævnt til militærguvernør i Cherbourg. [37]

Død Rediger

Under hele anden verdenskrig led Roosevelt af sundhedsproblemer. Han havde gigt, mest fra gamle skader fra første verdenskrig, og gik med en stok. Han havde også hjerteproblemer, som han holdt hemmelig for hærlæger og hans overordnede. [38]

Den 12. juli 1944, lidt over en måned efter landingen ved Utah Beach, døde Roosevelt af et hjerteanfald i Frankrig. [39] Han boede dengang i en ombygget sovevogn, fanget et par dage før fra tyskerne. [40] Han havde tilbragt en del af dagen i en lang samtale med sin søn, kaptajn Quentin Roosevelt II, som også var landet i Normandiet på D-Day. Han blev ramt omkring kl. 22.00, deltog i lægehjælp og døde omkring midnat. Han var seksoghalvtreds år gammel. [41] On the day of his death, he had been selected by Lieutenant General Omar Bradley, now commanding the U.S. First Army, for promotion to the two-star rank of major general and command of the 90th Infantry Division. These recommendations were sent to General Eisenhower, now the Supreme Allied Commander in Europe. [42] Eisenhower approved the assignment, but Roosevelt died before the battlefield promotion. [43]

Roosevelt was initially buried at Sainte-Mère-Église. Photographs show that his pallbearers were generals, including Omar N. Bradley, George S. Patton, [44] Raymond O. Barton, Clarence R. Huebner, Courtney Hicks Hodges, [45] and J. Lawton Collins, the VII Corps commander. [46] Later, Roosevelt was buried at the American cemetery in Normandy, initially created for the Americans killed in Normandy during the invasion. [47] His younger brother, Second Lieutenant Quentin Roosevelt, had been killed in action as a pilot in France during World War I and was initially buried near where he had been shot down in that war. [48] In 1955, his family had his body exhumed and moved to the Normandy cemetery, where he was re-interred beside his brother. [48] Ted also has a cenotaph near the grave of his parents at Youngs Memorial Cemetery in Oyster Bay, [49] while Quentin's original gravestone was moved to Sagamore Hill. [49]

Theodore Roosevelt Jr.'s grave marker at the American World War II cemetery in Normandy. He lies buried next to his brother, Quentin, who was killed during World War I.


This President’s Son Was One of the Most Famous WWI Deaths

SARATOGA SPRINGS, N.Y. — The casualty list released by the American Expeditionary Force on July 21, 1918 listed 64 American Soldiers and Marines killed in action and 28 missing.

But the name reporters noticed first was that of a 20 year-old college student from Oyster Bay, Long Island: Lt. Quentin Roosevelt.

Quentin Roosevelt had been a public figure since he was four years-old, when his father, Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt, became president.

Roosevelt had been missing since July 14, 1918, when he and four other pilots from the U.S. Army Air Service’s 95th Aero Squadron engaged at least seven German aircraft near the village of Chamery, France.

His father had been notified that he was missing and presumed dead on July 17 and took it hard.

Quentin Roosevelt was a flight leader in the 95th and despite his famous family, he was very much a regular guy.

“Everyone who met him for the first time expected him to have the airs and superciliousness of a spoiled boy,” wrote Capt. Eddy Rickenbacker, the top American Ace of World War I. “This notion was quickly lost after the first glimpse one had of Quentin.”

“Gay, hearty and absolutely square in everything he said or did, Quentin Roosevelt was one of the most popular fellows in the group. We loved him purely for his own natural self,” Rickenbacker remembered.

Quentin Roosevelt was the fifth child of Teddy and Edith Roosevelt. Quentin was his father’s favorite and his dad told stories to reporters about Quentin and the gang of boys –sons of White House employees—he played with.

When the United States entered World War I, Quentin Roosevelt was a Harvard student.

His father had argued for American entry into the war, so it was only natural for Quentin and the other three Roosevelt sons to join the military.

Quentin dropped out of Harvard and joined the 1st Aero Company of the New York National Guard. The unit trained at a local airfield on Long Island, which was later renamed Roosevelt Field in Quentin Roosevelt’s honor.

The 1st Aero Company was federalized in June 1917 as the 1st Reserve Aero Squadron and sent to France. Roosevelt went along and was assigned as a supply officer at a training base.

He learned to fly the Nieuport 28 fight that the French had provided to the Americans. The Nieuport 28 was a light biplane fighter armed with two Vickers machine gun.

The French had decided to outfit their fighter squadrons with the better SPAD 13 fighter, so the Nieuports were available for the Americans. They equipped the 95th and three other American fighter squadrons.

In June 1918 Roosevelt joined the 95th. Roosevelt was a good pilot but gained a reputation for being a risk-taker. With four weeks of training, Quentin Roosevelt got into the fight in July 1918.

On July 5, 1918 he was in combat twice.

On his first mission, the engine of Roosevelt’s Nieuport malfunctioned. A German fighter shot at him but missed. Later that day he took up another plane and the machine guns jammed.

On July 9 he shot down a German plane and may have got another.

On July 14—Bastille Day the other American pilots were ordered into the air as part of the American effort to stop the German advance in what became known as the Second Battle of the Marne. The German Army was attacking toward Paris. The American Army was in their way.

In World War I the main enemy air threat was observation planes that found targets for artillery. The job for Roosevelt and the other American pilots was to escort observation planes over German lines.

The Americans accomplished their mission and were heading home when they were jumped by at least seven German plans. The weather was cloudy, so Lt. Edward Buford, the flight leader, decided to break off and retreat.

But instead he saw one American plane engaging three German aircraft. “I shook the two I was maneuvering with, and tried to get over to him but before I could reach him his machine turned over on its back and plunged down and out of control,” Buford said.

“At the time of the fight I did not know who the pilot was I’d seen go down. “ Buford remembered, “But as Quentin did not come back, it must have been him."

" His loss was one of the severest blows we have ever had in the squadron. He certainly died fighting,” Buford wrote.

Three German pilots took credit for downing Roosevelt. Most historians give credit to Sgt. Carl-Emil Graper. Roosevelt, Graper wrote later, fought courageously.

The Germans were shocked to find out they had killed the son of an American president.

On July 15 they buried Quentin Roosevelt with military honors where his plane crashed outside the village of Chamery. A thousand German soldiers paid their respects, according to an American prisoner of war who watched.

On the cross they erected, the German soldiers wrote: “Lieutenant Roosevelt, buried by the Germans.”

When the German’s retreated, and the Allies retook Chamery, Quentin Roosevelt’s grave became a tourist attraction. Soldiers visited his grave, had their photograph taken there, and took pieces of his Nieuport as souvenirs.

The commander of New York’s 69th Infantry, Col. Frank McCoy, had served as President Roosevelt’s military aid and had known Quentin when he was a boy. At McCoy’s direction, the regiment’s chaplain Father (Capt.) Francis Duffy had a cross made and put it in place at the grave.

“The plot had already been ornamented with a rustic fence by the Soldiers of the 32nd Division. We erected our own little monument without molesting the one that had been left by the Germans,” he wrote in his memoirs.

“It is fitting that enemy and friend alike should pay tribute to his heroism,” Duffy added.

An Army Signal Corps photographer and movie cameraman recorded the event.

After the war, the temporary grave stone was replaced with a permanent one and Edith Roosevelt gave a fountain to the village of Chamery in memory of her son.

Quentin Roosevelt’s body remained where he fell until 1955. Then, at the request of the Roosevelt family, Quentin’s remains were exhumed.

He was laid to rest next to another son of Teddy Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Jr. Ted, as he was called, was a brigadier general in the Army who led the men of the 4th Infantry Division ashore on Utah Beach on D-Day before dying of a heart attack on July 12, 1944.

Both men are buried in the Omaha Beach American Cemetery.

Quentin’s death shocked the apparently unstoppable Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. who grieved deeply, according to his biographers.

Teddy Roosevelt had fought childhood asthma, coped with the deaths of his first wife and mother on the same day, started down rustlers as a rancher in the Dakotas, faced enemy fire in the Spanish American War, survived a shooting attempt in 1912 and survived tropical illness and exhaustion during a 1914 expedition in the Amazon.

But six months after Quentin’s death, Theodore Roosevelt died of a heart attack in his sleep.


Teddy Roosevelt’s Sons in World War 1

The following article is an excerpt from H.W Crocker III’s The Yanks Are Coming! A Military History of the United States in World War I. It is available for order now from Amazon and Barnes & Noble.

All four sons of former president Theodore Roosevelt served in the Great War. One, the youngest son, Quentin (1897-1918), was killed in it two others, Theodore Jr. (1887-1944) and Archie (1894-1979), were badly wounded. They had been raised to be men of action as well as intellect. They certainly passed that test.

The Roosevelt household was famously rambunctious, with hiking, swimming, shooting, and games playing, all involving their father, who was a regular roustabout of creative and athletic energy—and it is not every household where the father has been governor of New York and president of the United States. At least three of his sons could remember when their father had been a rough-riding colonel in the Spanish American War. All knew him as a big-game hunter and as a master spinner of chilling ghost stories. He could converse, energetically, on any subject, and was interested in everything—from military history to poetry, from zoology to politics but whatever the affairs of state, he was interested most of all in his children. He raised his brood to be joyful Spartans, relishing the natural world, uncomplaining, ready for any duty, any hardship, and following the credo his own father had given him: “Whatever you do, enjoy it.”

There were six children all told. Roosevelt’s two daughters were Alice, who became a famous Washington hostess and wit, and Ethel, who was actually the first Roosevelt in a war zone in World War One, serving as a nurse in France (her husband was a surgeon). Theodore Jr., the eldest son, from a young age aspired to be his father, and their careers had modest parallels, with junior serving, as his father had done, in the New York State Assembly and (after the Great War) as undersecretary of the Navy. Though all the boys were vigorous outdoorsman, none was more so than second son Kermit, who, though sickly as a child, became his father’s aide-de-camp for adventure, accompanying him, as a Harvard undergraduate, on a yearlong safari to Africa and then a few years later on a near-fatal journey into the Amazonian jungle. Literary-minded and facile with foreign languages, Kermit was, unlike his brothers, moody and subdued his father sometimes worried about Kermit’s depressive spirits. Archie, like all the Roosevelts, was animal loving, and among his menagerie was an ill-tempered pet badger, which, as his father noted, was “usually tightly clasped round where his waist would have been if he had one,” with the badger looking like “a small mattress, with a leg at each corner.” Like many animal-loving people, Archie could be reserved with others, and he had, in an exceedingly strong way, the Roosevelt streak of moralism, which in his father was overshadowed by boisterousness, but in the son, as his father conceded, could appear an “excess of virtue . . . but it is a fault on the right side, and I am very proud of him.” Quentin was the golden boy—the hilarious juvenile terror of the White House, funny, fearless, academically gifted, mechanically brilliant, and personally charming.

LARGER-THAN-LIFE FAMILY LIFE

All the Roosevelt boys learned to shoot from a relatively early age, and they became better shots than their big-game-hunting father, who once had to confess, when asked whether he was a good shot, “No, but I shoot often.” Ted was given his first rifle at age nine. To prove to his son that it was a real rifle, Roosevelt shot a small, neat hole in the ceiling and pledged young Theodore not to tell his mother. That was the sort of house Roosevelt kept. He had designed Sagamore Hill, the family home, for a large family before he had one, intending it to be a specially memorable place for the children, with its extensive grounds giving them “every benefit of the freedom of wild places.” 6 Once they were old enough to go hunting on their own—or actually with old friends—he helped them plan their trips out West.

The Roosevelts were literary as well as outdoorsy. Father and all his children, if they were not gripping reins or a rifle, hiking or running, swimming or boxing, were probably reading. Roosevelt was a great memorizer and reciter of verse, and fifteen-year-old Kermit, playing on his father’s weakness for poetry, asked if dad, then president, could find a job for the poet Edwin Arlington Robinson. He had sent his father a volume of Robinson’s verse, which Roosevelt admired. The president took action: “I hunted him up, found he was having a very hard time, and put him in the Treasury Department. I think he will do his work all right, but I am free to say that he was put in less with a view to the good of the government service than with a view to helping American letters.” He wrote his son, “You will be pleased to know that Robinson, your poet, has been appointed and is at work in New York.”

As for their formal education, the boys attended public schools for their early years before they were sent to boarding school (Groton, from which Archie was expelled), and then the Ivy League (Harvard). Along with their rustic hunting trips, this gave the boys a proper admixture of democratic experience and aristocratic demands. Among those aristocratic demands was military service in time of war. Ted had actually sought a military career, but Roosevelt had denied him permission to go to West Point or the Naval Academy, wanting him to go to Harvard. Roosevelt, for all his own martial nature, thought of military service as an aspect of a man’s life, not a career, for there were too few opportunities for exceptional, individual achievement in a peacetime military, and too much invitation to mediocrity, waiting around for seniority and promotion.

THE ROOSEVELTS GO TO WAR

With the U.S. declaration of war in April 1917, not only did Roosevelt himself try to return to the colors (only to be denied by order of President Wilson), but every one of his sons took a commission. All had taken prewar officer training as part of the Plattsburgh Movement for military preparedness, though Kermit, who had been working at a bank in Buenos Aires, had the least. Theodore Jr.—a successful businessman, married, with three children (a fourth would come in 1919)—was commissioned a major, and Archie, who married shortly after the declaration of war, was commissioned a first lieutenant. They were on the first troop transport to France. Kermit, thinking that it would take too long for American troops to go into action, used his father’s assistance to be commissioned in the British army, and did so, typically, not out of a sense of martial ardor, but of somber duty, confessing to his father that the “only way I would have been really enthusiastic about going would have been with you”—as if the war were another safari across Africa or trek into the South American jungle. Kermit did, however, have a dramatic role in view: he wanted to fight in the Near East and see the fall of Constantinople from the Turks to the British. To that end he became a captain in the British army and was sent to Mesopotamia. He brought his wife and son (three more children would be born in due course) across the Atlantic with him, despite the danger of U-boats, and housed his family in Spain, where his wife’s father was ambassador.

Quentin, meanwhile, dropped out of Harvard, became engaged to the granddaughter of Cornelius Vanderbilt, eluded the restrictions of an Army physical examination (by memorizing the eye chart and lying about a serious chronic back injury), and, after his Flying Corps training, was commissioned a first lieutenant.

To their father’s disapproval, Ted and Archie arranged to serve together in the 26th Infantry Regiment of the 1st Division. Ted, despite his amateur standing in the eyes of the professional officers with whom he served, proved himself an excellent trainer of troops, applying Roosevelt family–style competition (pitting units against each other) and exacting discipline and standards of physical fitness (endless push-ups and pull-ups, especially as punishments), along with practicality and an obvious concern for the well-being of the men. Aristocrats they might be, with a deep sense of noblesse oblige, but Ted and Archie quickly dispelled suspicions that they were spoiled rich man’s sons. Their toughness, enthusiasm to pitch in, and generosity (including buying farmers’ produce for the troops when government rations weren’t up to snuff) won them admiration and respect. Kermit and Quentin were not long behind Ted and Archie, with Quentin being among the first American air officers to arrive in France, in August 1917. Like his brothers, he proved himself an extremely capable officer with a manner that inspired confidence and affection. Eddie Rickenbacker remembered him as “Gay, hearty, and absolutely square in everything he said or did. . . . [He] was one of the most popular fellows in the group. . . . He was reckless to such a degree that his commanding officers had to caution him repeatedly about the senselessness of his lack of caution. His bravery was so notorious that we all knew he would either achieve some great spectacular success or be killed in the attempt. . . . But Quentin would merely laugh away all serious advice.” Quentin was more than a dashing flyboy he was also a gifted administrator—which might not have been suspected in someone so apparently lighthearted and highspirited—and could ably turn a wrench with the oil-spattered mechanics. He charmed the locals, too, with his fluent French.

Kermit was less interested in charming Iraqi Arabs, but he quickly made himself fluent in Arabic and commanded an armored car (built by Rolls Royce). He adopted a British swagger stick as part of his kit and used it, rather than a revolver, to demand the surrender of Turkish soldiers he confronted after busting down a door during the battle for Baghdad. They complied, and Kermit won a British Military Cross for his courage, just as Archie won a French Croix de Guerre (and two Silver Stars), and Ted was later awarded the Croix de Guerre and Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur (and the American Distinguished Service Cross). With American troops moving into the battle line, Kermit sought and received a transfer to the American Army, where he was commissioned a captain of artillery.

THEY HAVE DONE PRETTY WELL, HAVEN’T THEY?”

Roosevelt knew his boys were brave, but he also cautioned them against taking unnecessary risks, saying on more than one occasion that if, after the boys saw action, their superiors deemed them more useful as staff officers than combat officers, they should not decline the posting “merely because it is less dangerous.” Nevertheless, they lived the dangerous life. Archie had an arm broken and a kneecap shattered by shrapnel Ted was gassed and shot in the left leg and never regained feeling in his left heel.

Quentin, though not in action, had already broken an arm and reinjured his back crash-landing a plane and had been hospitalized for pneumonia. On 6 July 1918 he had his first dogfight and came back elated. In combat against three German planes, he had shot one down and evaded the other two. His proud father wrote, “Whatever now befalls Quentin, he has had his crowded hour, and his day of honor and triumph.” That pride, however, was admixed with anxiety. Quentin considered himself an extremely well-trained pilot who could survive any aerial challenge. If any Roosevelt son should die, however, he openly mused that he should be the one because he had no children—though of course he wanted to live, marry his fiancée, and have a family of his own. On 14 July, Quentin was shot down. At first he was listed as missing, but on 20 July came confirmation that he had been killed. Quentin’s Croix de Guerre was awarded posthumously.

Roosevelt was devastated by his son’s death. At one point he was spied on his rocking chair murmuring, “Poor Quinikins! Poor Quinikins!” But he was contemptuous of wealthy or powerful men who kept their sons out of harm’s way, and maintained a brave face, writing Bob Fergusson, a friend from Rough Rider days, “It is bitter that the young should die . . . [but] there are things worse than death. . . . They have done pretty well, haven’t they? Quentin killed . . . over the enemy’s lines Archie crippled, and given the French war cross for gallantry Ted gassed once . . . and cited for ‘conspicuous gallantry’ Kermit with the British military cross, and now under Pershing.”

Roosevelt himself, though touted by some as the likely Republican nominee for president in 1920, was a physical wreck. He had never recovered from his arduous and disease-ridden 1913–1914 expedition into the Brazilian jungle, and in November 1918 his numerous ailments led to an extended hospitalization. At Sagamore Hill for Christmas and the New Year, he was no longer the unstoppable dynamo, but a tired old man barely able to walk. He had lived long enough to see Archie come home, Ted promoted to lieutenant colonel (in September 1918), and victory in the war he died on 6 January 1919.

Archie, though considered 100 percent disabled from his wounds in the First World War, would not be denied an opportunity to fight in the Second. Between the wars he had been an oil and financial executive. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, he employed sheer Rooseveltian gumption to be commissioned a lieutenant colonel and awarded a combat command in New Guinea, where he proved he still had the audacious Roosevelt fighting spirit. Archie was fearless in the face of enemy fire. He told one young soldier who was cowering while Roosevelt stood erect, “Don’t worry. You’re safe with me. I was wounded three times in the last war, and that’s a lucky charm.” It was for a while, at least, before an enemy grenade exploded into the same knee that had been hit with shrapnel in France. He served in New Guinea from 1943 to 1944 and was invalided out of the service, the only American soldier to be declared 100 percent disabled in two wars. He returned to his brokerage business and dabbled in right-wing causes. In 1971 his wife died in a car crash, in which he was driving, and he secluded himself in Florida, where he died in 1979.

All the brothers were valiant, each in his own way, and it was their father, and their experiences in the Great War, that defined them. In 1918 Ted remarked, “Quentin’s death is always going to be the greatest thing in any of our lives.” That he was right was confirmed by his sister Alice, who wrote a half century later, “All our lives before and after have just been bookends for the heroic, tragic volume of the Great War.”

This article is part of our extensive collection of articles on the Great War. Click here to see our comprehensive article on World War 1.

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Sagamore Hill Commemorates Quentin Roosevelt and World War I

Quentin Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt’s youngest child, was an aviator who fought in the skies above France during World War I. One hundred years ago, on July 14, 1918, Quentin was killed in action.

This summer, Sagamore Hill National Historic Site will present a temporary museum exhibit at Old Orchard to commemorate the centennial of Quentin’s death, as well as a number of special programs throughout the month of July. Visitors can immerse themselves in the sights and sounds of World War I while taking photos with Quentin and his training plane.

The exhibit features a film of Quentin leading his squadron in flight and objects, such as Quentin's ID tag and personal effects he was carrying when he was shot down. Highlights also include childhood report cards, rare family photographs, and Quentin's original letters sent home from the line of battle. Visitors are also invited to a series of talks and programs about the Roosevelt family in World War I. See the schedule below for dates and times (some programs require registration on Eventbrite).


Rare letter from Teddy Roosevelt to son 'Quenty-Quee' hits market

(CNN) -- A rare letter evincing a display of affection between President Theodore Roosevelt and his youngest son is up for sale by a dealer who obtained it from a Roosevelt family friend.

Roosevelt sent the letter to his 6-year-old son, Quentin, during a trip to Yellowstone National Park in 1903. It is the only letter from the trip to his family to reach the market, and its existence was unknown to scholars and institutions until its discovery in the possession of a family friend, said Nathan Raab, vice president of the Raab Collection, which is selling the letter through its Web site.

"The relationship between Theodore Roosevelt and Quentin, his favorite son, is not one many people know about, so finding a letter like this to Quentin is a once in a lifetime discovery made even more poignant by the fact that it's unpublished," said Raab, who values the letter at $25,000.

In the letter, Roosevelt addresses his son by his nickname, "Quenty-Quee," and provides a brief glimpse into life on the trail, including a small sketch of the mule that carried his gear on the trip.

"I love you very much. Here is a picture of the mule that carries, among other things, my bag of clothes. There are about twenty mules in the pack train. They all follow one another in single file up and down mountain paths and across streams."

The letter is signed, "Your loving father."

Raab said, "This offers another side of Theodore Roosevelt, who was this rough rider, men's man, yet had this warm, loving affectionate, relationship with a son, who shared a lot of his father's physical and intellectual attributes. He was the apple of Theodore Roosevelt's eye."

Quentin Roosevelt, the youngest of Edith and Theodore Roosevelt's six children, was 3 years old when his father was elected president. He was known for his rambunctious behavior in the White House and eventually for his scholastic aptitude, drawing comparisons to his father.

He joined the United States Army Air Service and became a fighter pilot during World War I at the nudging of his father, an ardent promoter of the war. He was killed in aerial combat over France when he was 20.

His death profoundly affected the president, Raab said.

"His friends said he was never the same man again, and you see the love he had for his son in this letter," Raab said.


TEDDY ROOSEVELT

Theodore Roosevelt, not quite 43, became the youngest president in the nation’s history. He took the view that the president as a “steward of the people” should take whatever action necessary for the public good, unless expressly forbidden by law or the Constitution.

Roosevelt’s youth differed sharply from that of the log cabin presidents. He was born in New York City in 1858 into a wealthy family but he also struggled – against ill health – and because of this, he became an advocate of the strenuous life.

In 1884, his first wife, Alice Lee Roosevelt, and his mother died on the same day. Roosevelt spent much of the next two years on his ranch, in the Badlands of Dakota Territory. There, he mastered his sorrow as he lived in the saddle, driving cattle, hunting big game – he even captured an outlaw. On a visit to London, he married Edith Carrow in December 1886.

During the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt was Lt. Colonel of the Rough Rider Regiment, which he led on a charge at the battle of San Juan. He was one of the most conspicuous heroes of the war.

Roosevelt steered the United States more actively into world politics. He liked to quote a favorite proverb, “Speak softly and carry a big stick.”

Aware of the strategic need for a shortcut between the Atlantic and Pacific, Roosevelt ensured the construction of the Panama Canal.

He won the Nobel Peace Prize for mediating the Russo-Japanese War, reached a Gentleman’s Agreement on immigration with Japan and sent the Great White Fleet on a goodwill tour of the world.

Leaving the Presidency in 1909, Roosevelt went on an African safari, then jumped back into politics. In 1912, he ran for President on a progressive ticket. To reporters, he once remarked that he felt as fit as a bull moose, the name of his new party.

While campaigning in Milwaukee, he was shot in the chest by a fanatic. Roosevelt soon recovered, but his words at that time would have been applicable at the time of his death in 1919: “No man has had a happier life than I have led a happier life in every way.”

To learn more about this great man visit The Theodore Roosevelt Association. Click here: www.theodoreroosevelt.org.


History and Hobby

I received a bonus when I purchased an old copy of Foreign Service Magazine dated July, 1943.

The feature article detailed the role of the U.S. Coast Guard during World War Two and I wrote about that at this link, Global Warfare with the U.S. Coast Guard, 1943.

In paging through the rest of the magazine I came across the obituary of Major Kermit Roosevelt who died June 4th, 1943 at age 53 in Alaska where he was posted.

Major Roosevelt was the son of Colonel Theodore Roosevelt and the 26th President of the United States. President Roosevelt had become a member of the V.F.W. in 1907 when the organization was known as American Veterans of Foreign Service. The organization changed its name in 1913 to become the Veteran’s of Foreign Wars of the United States. Major Roosevelt was eligible to the V.F. W. because of his service in World War One and World War Two.

Scanned from the July, 1943 issue of Foreign Service Magazine. Major Kermit Roosevelt.

Major Kermit Roosevelt had a very interesting wartime service record.

The magazine obituary states the following…

“In June 1917, he was commissioned a Captain in the British Army, serving with the Motor Machine Guns in Mesopotamia until June, 1918, when he was transferred to the Seventh Field Artillery, First Division, U.S. Army.

In 1939. Colonel Roosevelt was commissioned a Major in the Middlesex Regiment of the British Army. A year later, as a Colonel with the Finnish Army, he raised volunteers in England for the Finnish Campaign (against Russia) then participated in the Norwegian Campaign (against Germany) from March to June, 1940 with the British Army. after serving in Egypt in August, 1940, he was invalided to England in December, 1940, and returned to the United States in June, 1941. He wore the British Military Cross and the Montenegrin War Cross.”

According to WIKI Colonel Roosevelt battled depression and alcoholism and that led to his suicide in June, 1943. The obituary I just quoted from in the magazine did not mention how the colonel died.

The Wiki article adds a great deal of detail to Major Roosevelt’s life such as how he came to be an officer in the British Army and why his suicide was reported as a heart aliment. I recommend the link to learn more about Major Roosevelt’s life as a writer, businessman and officer in three armies.

Kermit Roosevelt had two brothers who also died on active service with the US military.

Quentin Roosevelt, one of Kermit’s younger brothers was a fighter pilot in World War One. He was killed in action in July, 1918.

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was Kermit’s older brother. Theodore Roosevelt the second is perhaps the best known of the President’s sons. “Ted” as he was known was one of the first general officers ashore on Utah Beach during the Normandy landings despite the fact he suffered from crippling arthritis and needed a cane as well as a heart condition that would kill him 36 days after the landing.

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. with his cane. His jeep was named “Rough Rider, after his father’s regiment during the Spanish-American War.

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions on D-Day.

It can be said that “Teddy’s” three sons followed in the military foot steps of their patriotic father.


Sagamore Hill’s Quentin Roosevelt, WWI Exhibit, Programs

Sagamore Hill National Historic Site is set to commemorates Quentin Roosevelt and World War I through a new exhibit and programs.

Quentin Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt’s youngest child, was an aviator who fought in the skies above France during World War I. One hundred years ago, on July 14, 1918, Quentin was killed in action.

This summer, Sagamore Hill presents a temporary museum exhibit at Old Orchard to commemorate the centennial of Quentin’s death, as well as a number of special programs throughout the month of July. Visitors can immerse themselves in the sights and sounds of World War I while taking photos with Quentin and his training plane. The exhibit features a film of Quentin leading his squadron in flight and objects, such as Quentin’s ID tag and personal effects he was carrying when he was shot down. Highlights also include childhood report cards, rare family photographs, and Quentin’s original letters sent home from the line of battle.

Visitors are also invited to a series of talks and programs about the Roosevelt family in World War I.

Sunday, 7/1 and Sunday, 7/15 at 2 pm: The Life of Quentin Roosevelt
Join a park ranger for a program on Quentin Roosevelt’s short life, including his childhood as a member of the “White House Gang,” his romance with Flora Payne Whitney, and his military service as a pilot in France.

Wednesday, 7/4 from 11am to 4 pm: Independence Day Celebration
The patriotic all-day event will include demonstrations by Rough Riders reenactors, live music, games and crafts, and speeches on the Roosevelt Home’s piazza. Free, first-floor walkthroughs of the Roosevelt Home will be given from 11-4. Satellite parking and a shuttle system will be in effect.

Friday, 7/6 and Friday, 7/20 at 2 pm: “Divided Between Pride and Anxiety”: The Roosevelt Family and the Great War
Theodore and Edith Roosevelt proudly sent four sons, one daughter, one son-in-law, and one daughter-in-law overseas during World War I. Join a museum technician for a special program on the Roosevelt family’s views on World War I and their contributions to the war effort.

Sunday, 7/8 at 2 pm: The Roosevelt Family and Their Sacrifices During the First World War
Join a park ranger for a talk on the Roosevelt family’s varied experiences during wartime and the toll of a conflict that has been largely overshadowed in American history.

Wednesday, 7/11 and Wednesday, 7/25 at 11 am: An Insider Look at Quentin Roosevelt’s Wartime Letters Home
Quentin Roosevelt’s wartime letters to his parents give insight to his experiences, joys and fears during the War. Join the curatorial staff at Sagamore Hill for a rare opportunity to meet Quentin Roosevelt through his letters home. Selections from the letters in the Sagamore Hill archives will be made available for public viewing. Limited to 20 people. Registration Required.

Friday, 7/13 and Friday, 7/27 at 11 am: “My Inner Man”: The Personal writings of Quentin Roosevelt
Quentin Roosevelt was a prolific writer. His letters, short stories, and school editorials give a glimpse into the young man that endeared himself to the American people. Take a look at Quentin through his childhood poems, school homework, and wartime letters. Limited to 20 people. Registration Required.

Saturday, July 14 at 10 am (Raindate on 7/15 at 10 am): Quentin Roosevelt Centennial Biplane Flyover
To commemorate the 100th anniversary of the death of Quentin Roosevelt in World War I, Sagamore Hill will host an event including a historic biplane flyover of the Roosevelt Home presented by the Bayport Aerodrome Society. The event will also include live period music and a portrayal of World War I era soldiers.

Wednesday, 7/18 at 10:30 am: In the Kitchen with the Roosevelts during Wartime
This behind-the-scenes program looks into the Theodore Roosevelt Home to learn how the family used their farm and kitchen during World War I. Children ages 6-12 are invited into the historic kitchen to compare contemporary kitchen gadgets with those that the Roosevelt family would have used in the early 20th century. Afterwards, the children will participate in a hands-on activity where they will learn how World War I changed food on the American home front. Limited to 15 children. Registration Required.

Thursday, 7/19 at 2 pm: Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson: The Climate of the Country
Join a park ranger for a discussion on the political climate of the country leading up to the American involvement in World War I. The presentation will discuss the two 20th century leaders and focus on their debate between preparedness and neutrality.

Sunday, 7/22 at 2 pm: From the Age of Sail to the Age of Flight: A History of US Navy, 1893-1922
Join a park ranger for a look at what took the United States Navy from one of the smallest, under-equipped fleets in the world to the largest and most technologically advanced in just 30 years.

Thursday, 7/26 at 2 pm: The Roosevelt Women and World War I
Take a step back in time to discuss World War I, how it impacted women across the globe, and how two of the Roosevelt women, Ethel Roosevelt Derby and Eleanor Alexander Roosevelt, made a difference.

Sagamore Hill National Historic Site is located at 20 Sagamore Hill Road, Oyster Bay. For more information and more summer events, click here.