14. april 1942

14. april 1942

14. april 1941

Krig til søs

Tysk ubåd U-85 sænket med alle hænder væk fra Cape Hatteras

Tysk ubåd U-252 sænket med alle hænder væk fra Island

Frankrig

En ny regering dannes i Vichy Frankrig med Petain som statschef og Laval som regeringschef



Eksplosion på fragtskib klipper Bombay, Indien

Lastskibet Fort Stikine eksploderer i en køje i havnene i Bombay, Indien (nu kendt som Mumbai), dræbte 1.300 mennesker og sårede yderligere 3.000 den 14. april 1944. Da det skete under anden verdenskrig, hævdede nogle i første omgang, at den massive eksplosion var forårsaget af japanere sabotage faktisk var det en tragisk ulykke.

Det Fort Stikine var et canadisk bygget dampskib, der vejede 8.000 tons. Den forlod Birkenhead, England, den 24. februar og stoppede i Karachi, Pakistan, før den lagde til ved Bombay. Skibet havde hundredvis af bomuldsballer, guldbarrer og især 300 tons trinitrotoluen, bedre kendt som TNT eller dynamit. Uforklarligt blev bomulden opbevaret et niveau under dynamitten, på trods af det velkendte faktum, at bomuldsballer var tilbøjelige til forbrænding.

Midt under påfyldningen blev der set røg fra bomuldsballerne, og brandmænd blev sendt for at undersøge. Imidlertid blev der ikke truffet nødforanstaltninger, såsom oversvømmelse af den del af skibet. I stedet forsøgte omkring 60 brandmænd at slukke ilden med slanger hele eftermiddagen. Desværre blev TNT ikke losset under brandbekæmpelsen.

Til sidst blev brandmændene beordret væk fra skibet, men blev ved med at slukke ilden fra dokkerne. Deres indsats var forgæves, TNT blev antændt, og klokken 16:07 rystede den resulterende eksplosion i bugten. Kraften ved eksplosionen løftede faktisk et nærliggende 4.000 ton skib fra bugten til land. Vinduer en kilometer væk blev knust. En guldstang på 28 pund fra Fort Stikine, værd mange tusinde dollars, blev fundet en kilometer væk. Alle i nærheden af ​​skibet blev dræbt.

Tolv andre skibe ved kajerne blev ødelagt, og mange flere blev alvorligt beskadiget. Brande brød ud over hele havnen og forårsagede yderligere eksplosioner. Militære tropper blev hentet ind for at bekæmpe de rasende brande, og nogle bygninger blev revet ned for at stoppe det i at sprede sig. Bombays hovedforretningscenter var ikke sikkert i tre dage efter eksplosionen.


April 1942 Alternativt Det Indiske Ocean

En Fairey Albacore Torpedo Bomber fra HMS Formidabel:

Zheng He

Gareth C.

Beklager at nitpick i en fantastisk tråd, men Beatty ville hejse & quotEngage fjenden tættere & quot i Dogger Bank og fandt ud af, at den var blevet trukket tilbage fra flådetjenesten.

Mere sandsynligt ville være signalet fra åbningen af ​​Nilen og Falklandsøerne - & quotGeneral Chase & quot

Zheng He

Beklager at nitpick i en fantastisk tråd, men Beatty ville hejse & quotEngage fjenden tættere & quot i Dogger Bank og fandt ud af, at den var blevet trukket tilbage fra flådetjenesten.

Mere sandsynligt ville være signalet fra åbningen af ​​Nilen og Falklandsøerne - & quotGeneral Chase & quot

Riain

Ukendt

Skal det ikke være 6. april, ikke 5. april?

Jeg spekulerer på, hvordan dette vil påvirke Coral Sea og Midway kampe.

Zheng He

Tænker ikke engang på Coral Sea og Midway endnu.

Zheng He

Kontreadmiral Denis Boyd, senere i krigen som femte søherre:

Major Major

Jeg troede, det var blevet restaureret efter Dogger Bank.

Mærkeligt nok udstedte tyskerne en lignende ordre i Jylland: & quotSchlachtkreuzer drev en den Feind. & Quot [Slagkrydsere, løb mod fjenden. Eller, som nogle gengav det, & quotLuk fjenden og vædderen. & Quot]

Zheng He

Zheng He

Zheng He

Zheng He

Johnboy

Når Ryujo er sunket og dets fly enten slutter hende til bunden eller vil løbe tør for brændstof, før de kan komme tilbage til en landbase, har RN fordelen. De kan genopbygge deres fly og sende et andet angreb mod den sydlige styrke samt de resterende skibe af Ozawas styrke.

Jeg er ikke sikker på, om de vil forsøge at gå efter Northern Force på dette tidspunkt. De sårede skibe, der er tilbage efter et sekundært angreb, kan søges af Warspite og ledsagere. Muligvis kan RN sende R slagskibe og beholde Warspite hos transportørerne. Under alle omstændigheder er det de japanske skibe, der bliver jaget, og KB bliver nødt til at beslutte at fart nordpå eller redde skibene og fortsætte tilbage til NEI og Japan for at tanke og genopbygge.

HMS Warspite

Nogle bemærkninger om skaderapporter En krydser, der er ramt bagud af en torpedo, vil normalt blive anset for at have store skader, ikke mindre, blot som et sådant slag bagud sandsynligvis vil forårsage skade på fremdrift og/eller styring, hvilket gør fartøjet mindre godt i stand som en kampenhed. Det kan ikke fungere normalt, da en sådan skade vil medføre justeringer i taktisk organisering af fartøjernes driftsstatus.

Den slags typisk britiske handlemåde i en sag med en ramt modstander, frataget aircover, vil være at koncentrere sig om luftoperationer, både fra land og fra havet, for at udnytte sin kommando over luftsituationen over området. Overfladeskibe vil sandsynligvis blive tilbageholdt fra handling, blot for at undgå unødig skade fra enten skud eller torpedoer (herunder selvforskyldt). Somerville var en erfaren kommandør i flådeoperationer og vil sandsynligvis overlade kampene til sine flyvere i stedet for kanonerne på hans skibe. Hans opgave var ikke at besejre enemen, men at holde sin flåde intakt som en kampeenhed til geopolitiske formål, en ordre presset også på fra den britiske premierminister selv. Waisting sin relativt syge ballanced flåde mod en mere homogen modstander, med portantielt meget mere ildkraft (størrelse på luftvåbenet båret) var ikke en mulighed.

Den logiske konklusion kan være, at RAF og FAA ville forårsage forringelse af IJN -styrkerne i området og muligvis en enkelt sorty foretaget af en hurtig torpedobærende (DD) kraft som i OTL blev udført ved mange lejligheder af Royal Navy i WW2 . At engagere et lammet eller i det mindste et isoleret mål, som en krydstogt med få ledsagere eller slet ingen, var den slags flådeoperationer, Royal Navy udmærkede sig i. (Især i skumringen eller natten) Vi kan se ødelæggelsen af ​​enten Nordlige eller sydlige styrker i Bengal -bugten ved hjælp af et koordineret torpedoanfald af en DesDiv fra Royal Navy. (Eksklusive de mulige synkninger forårsaget af luftangreb.)

Sharlin

Dette er et ret mareridt scinario for IJN, hvor skibe er beskadiget og bremset, og hvis de bevarer dannelsen, risikerer de at blive fanget af Warspite og R's, bomben ramt nær Mogamis tragt er også bekymrende tæt på hendes torpedorør, lad os håbe for japanerne, at der ikke er en brand, mens RN sandsynligvis krydser fingre og beder for ilden.

Dette er en blodig god historie og TL. Begge sider får deres slik ind, men det ser ud til, at IJN -styrkerne har sejlet i en fælde denne gang.


April 1942 Alternativt Det Indiske Ocean

faktisk 2 komplette luftgrupper til et CV plus en til et CVL ..

det er ikke sommerfugle, der kredser om musvågen

ViperKing

IJN har mistet 90+ fly i Nagumos eskadre og 30+ på Ryujo
(plus nogle vandflyvemaskiner, landbaserede og padder)

Det er mere end de tabte i OTL Coral Sea ..

faktisk 2 komplette luftgrupper til et CV plus en til et CVL ..

det er ikke sommerfugle, der kredser om musvågen

Den korte omskrivning af begivenhederne den 11. april faldt tabene til Nagumos luftfartsselskaber ned til 80 fly, der alle blev fortalt, efter at Zheng He fik nogle flere oplysninger af et par andre plakater, der tillod ham at foretage nogle justeringer.

Det er stadig et ødelæggende slag for hans eskadriller.

Det tager heller ikke hensyn til tabet af Ryujo og hendes fly og piloter, og det tager heller ikke hensyn til tabet af de flyvende både ud af Port Blair, der er blevet formalet i løbet af de sidste par dage.

Som tilføjet fornærmelse mod skade var der eskadrille af landbaserede bombefly, der blev hoppet af krigere fra de britiske transportører, mens de ikke var eskorteret, og effektivt rensede en hel eskadron til bombefly.

Carl Schwamberger

Zheng He

Zheng He

Den korte omskrivning af begivenhederne den 11. april faldt tabene til Nagumos luftfartsselskaber ned til 80 fly, der alle blev fortalt, efter at Zheng He fik nogle flere oplysninger af et par andre plakater, der tillod ham at foretage nogle justeringer.

Det er stadig et ødelæggende slag for hans eskadriller.

Det tager heller ikke hensyn til tabet af Ryujo og hendes fly og piloter, og det tager heller ikke hensyn til tabet af de flyvende både ud af Port Blair, der er blevet formalet i løbet af de sidste par dage.

Som tilføjet fornærmelse mod skade var der eskadrille af landbaserede bombefly, der blev hoppet af krigere fra de britiske transportører, mens de ikke var eskorteret, og effektivt rensede en hel eskadron til bombefly.

Zheng He

Vl100butch

Sommerfuglene flyver overalt

Rich Rostrom

Zheng He

Zheng He

Zheng He

Bemærk - OTL HMIS Indus blev sænket under raid -angrebet den 6. april på Akyab. ITTL overlevede hun.

0600 Timer, 15. april 1942, Bombay - I løbet af de tidlige morgentimer den 15. april var den overfyldte havn i Bombay en travl bikube af aktivitet, da den østlige flåde og to konvojer forberedte sig på at afgå. Force A igen under personlig kommando af admiral Somerville bestående af hangarskibene HMS Formidabel og HMS Ukuelig, slagskibet HMS Warspite, den tunge krydser HMS Cornwall, letcruiser HNLMS Heemskerck, og ødelæggerne HNLMS Isaac Sweers, HMAS Norman, HMAS Napierog HMAS Nestor stod ud til havs og forberedte sig på at dække en stor konvoj på ti forsyningsskibe, de australske liners Otranto og Orontes, og det hollandske ubådsdepot Colombia på rejsen til Colombo. I mellemtiden letcruiser HMS Smaragd og ødelæggerne HMS Hotspur og HMS Foxhound tog seks forsyningsskibe med på vej til Port T på Maldiverne. Derudover den lette krydser HMS Virksomhed og ødelæggerne HMS Formue og HMS Panter sejlede nordvest for at møde et otte skib Colombo bundet konvoj med afgang fra Karachi.

Ved Port T på Maldiverne ødelægger HMS Pil og HMS Spejder og korvetten HMS Hollyhock sat til søs for at eskortere to fragtskibe tilbage til Colombo. Ubådsdepotskibet HMS Lucia blev tilbage på Addu Atoll for at etablere Port T som en ubådsbase, mens handelsskibet Benledi blev tilbage for at tjene som reparationsfartøj og kaserne for det igangværende arbejde på havnen.

Også om morgenen den 15. april afgik en anden konvoj til Colombo. Denne fra Madras bestående af handelsskibet Sagaing, flådens hjælpe -RFA Athelstane, tankskibet Britisk sergent, og hospitalsskibet Vita eskorteret af tre slopper af den nye indiske flåde - HMIS Indus, HMIS Sutlej, og HMIS Jumna.

Somerville og Wavell havde endnu ikke fået tilladelse fra stabscheferne til deres plan om at forstærke og holde Akyab, men hvis planen skulle lykkes, måtte de begynde at samle de nødvendige kræfter, før det var for sent.

Zheng He

Det Sort svane klasse sloop HMIS Sutlej:

Zheng He

Zheng He

1200 timer, 17. april 1942, Kilindini, Østafrika - Viceadmiral Willis var glad for at være sikkert i havn med resterne af hans taskforce slagskibene HMS Ramilles og HMS Royal Sovereign, hangarskibet HMS Hermes, letcruiser HMS Caledon, og ødelæggerne HMS Griffin, HMS Lokke, HMAS Vampyr, og HMS Paladin. Hans trætte gamle kampvogne havde været på havet i 10 dage og begyndte allerede at mangle ferskvand. Willis beordrede kaptajnerne på hans skibe til at foretage nødvendige reparationer og til at læsse brændstof, vand og proviant med al den nødvendige forsendelse, da de sandsynligvis ville lægge tilbage til havet om et par dage for at støtte den kommende invasion af Madagaskar.

1600 timer, 17. april 1942, Colombo - Seks dage efter det seneste raid af Kido Butai, Colombo var igen ved at blive til en travl havn og flådebase med ankomsten af ​​den anden konvoj. I dette tilfælde ødelæggerne HMS Pil og HMS Spejder og korvetten HMS Hollyhock sammen med to forsyningsskibe fra Port T. Derudover kunne nr. 222 Group nu rapportere, at den havde 15 orkaner mission klar efter driftige reparationsbesætninger på Ratmalana i det væsentlige byggede en & quotnew & jagerfly fra komponenter bjærget fra flere ødelagte fly. Jagerpiloterne sagde alle, at de ikke ville stole på det genopbyggede fly ud over landstedet, men for punktforsvarsmissioner over Colombo var det helt fint.

Zheng He

En ødelagt Hawker Hurricane IIB fra No. 30 Squadron, der styrtede ned, landede nær Ratmalana Airfield. Fly som denne blev scavenged for eventuelle nyttige reservedele og spillede en afgørende rolle i at få de voldsramte eskadriller fra nr. 222 Group på benene igen:


14. april 1942 - Historie

(for flere skibsoplysninger, gå til Naval History Homepage og indtast navn i Site Search)

Flere oplysninger om flådebegivenheder i denne periode kan findes i:

Baggrundsbegivenheder - marts -maj 1942

Russiske konvojer, Raid på St. Nazaire, Slaget ved Sirte -bugten, SE Asien og SW Pacific besat, britiske landinger på Madagaskar

1942

APRIL

Onsdag, 1. april

Minesvejet trawler SOLOMON (Skipper Lt C Dale RNR) blev sænket på en mine nord for Cromer. Der var ingen tilskadekomne.

______

Undervandsbåd PANDORA (Lt R L Alexander) blev sænket på Malta af tysk bombning. Lt L Walford RNR, Warrant Engineer F J Hickman DSC og 25 ratings blev dræbt. Lt J A Lindsell blev såret og senere evakueret i ubåd OLYMPUS, da han var tabt.

Søndag, 5. april

JAPANSE CARRIER AIRCRAFT ANSLAG I INDISK OCEAN OG PÅ CEYLON

Tung cruiser CORNWALL (Kaptajn P C W Manwaring) blev sænket af japansk bombardement i Det Indiske Ocean. Kapellan Rev JM Bird, Ty/Gunner FE Cowell, Ty/Lt (E) ML Edgar, Warrant Ordnance Officer WH Emberton, Lt JFR Fearfield, Paymaster Sub Lt P Goddard, Ty/Surgeon Lt CC Kirby RNVR, Ty/Sub Lt RF Millett RNR, Lt DS Reid, RM, Paymaster Lt Cdr WR Vallance, et hundrede og femoghalvtreds ratings og tyve Marines gik tabt, og to ratings døde af sår. Paymaster Midshipman M H Marsh RAN blev såret.

Tung cruiser DORSETSHIRE (Captain A W S Agar VC) blev også sænket af japansk bombardement i Det Indiske Ocean. Ty/Act/Gunner (T) J Austin, Surgeon Cdr FCM Bamfort, Lt (E) PV Bouquett, Cdr (E) CP Buttar, Surgeon Lt (D) HB Concanon RNVR, Ty/Act/Warrant Electrician W Davey, Warrant Engineer WA Ferris, Act/Lt (E) GFC Hooker, Ty/Sub Lt JSW Jarvie RNVR, Warrant Shipwright RW Jack, Act/Paymaster Sub Lt JET Jennings, Ty/Chaplain Rev EDB Laborde RNVR, Lt Cdr (E) JF Mansell, Ty /Paymster Lt ED Paul RNVR, Ty/Surgeon Lt SW Pratt RNVR, Paymaster Lt Cdr, NG Pring RNVR, Paymaster Sub Lt JRB Sidebotham, Warrant Ordnance Officer SJ Scoble, Ty/Lt (E) D Wilson, hundrede og firs otte bedømmelser og fireogtyve marinesoldater gik tabt, og to vurderinger døde af sår. Cdr C W Byas, Ty/Act/Sub Lt M H Furnivall RNR og Paymaster Lt Cdr T T Pheophilus blev såret.

Bevæbnet handelscruiser HEKTOR (Kaptajn F Howard DSC Rtd) blev bombet af japanske fly og udbrændt i Colombo, hvor hun var ved at vende tilbage til handelsopgaver. Lt Cdr (E) W Peterson RNR gik tabt.

Destroyer TENEDOS (Lt R Dyer), som reparerede fejl, blev også sænket af japansk bombardement ved Colombo. Lt R J Stokes RNR, Lt F H George RNVR, Ty/Sub Lt W B S Begg RNVR og tredive ratings gik tabt.

Ubådsdepotskibet LUCIA blev ramt af splinter. To ratings blev dræbt.

Destroyer DECOY var også i havnen med sin hovedfoderpumpe nedbrudt, men blev ikke beskadiget.

En flyvning med seks sværdfisk på 788 eskadron blev angrebet af fly fra hangarskib HIRYU, og alle seks skød ned (1) Lt SM de L Longsdon og hans observatør Sub Lt NA MacKay blev hårdt såret og TAG Petty Officer (A) J Heath lettere såret, (2) Sub Lt (A) AWD Beale DSC og hans TAG Leading Airman FH Edwards blev dræbt, (3) Sub Lt PA Meakin styrtede landede på stranden og blev alvorligt såret. Hans TAG, Naval Airman GEH Skingley blev dræbt, (4) Ty/Act/Sub Lt (A) CT Shaw RNVR blev dræbt og hans observatør Sub Lt JE Cope såret, (5) Lt C Pountney og hans observatør Sub Lt G Creese blev sårede og TAG Underofficer Airman J Hall alvorligt såret. Hall døde af sår, og (6) Lt D Carter blev skudt ned, og hans TAG, Leading Airman DA Bolton døde af sår.

To Fulmars på 806 eskadrille fra LANKA gik tabt, og deres piloter blev dræbt - Ty/Sub Lt (A) KJM Pettitt RNVR, da hans Fulmar styrtede ned i junglen og Ty/Sub Lt (A) LK White -Smith RNVR, da hans blev skudt ned.

Let krydser GLASGOWs hvalross styrtede ned nær landingspladsen Clampalmin. Sub Lt D A Baptie blev dræbt.

En Albacore af 827 Squadron fra hangarskibet INDOMITABLE blev skudt ned. Sub Lt R J F Streatfield, Sub Lt T Weston og Naval Airman K Porter gik tabt.

Mandag den 6. april

Destroyer HAVOCK (Lt Cdr G R G Watkins DSC), der havde forladt Malta til Gibraltar tidligere på dagen, blev ødelagt på den tunesiske kyst i 36-52-27N, 11-08-30E, med en rating dræbt. Lt Cdr Watkins, Lt JB Burfield DSC, Lt MA Baille-Grohman, Lt (E) R Andrewes, Ty/Surgeon Lt RD Royds MB, CHB RNVR, Ty/Sub Lt CJ Spearin RCNVR, Act/Sub Lt RH Lack RNVR, all ratings og omkring 100 passagerer, i alt omkring 250, blev interneret, men befriet den 11. november efter invasionen af ​​Nordafrika. Blandt passagererne var Cdr RF Jessel, Sub Lt RF Morgan RNVR og Lt Cdr (E) MH Sayers of destroyer LEGION, Sub Lt (A) JB Blakely RNVR, Sub Lt (A) DJ Bunyan RNVR og Sub Lt (A) TG Davison RNVR fra 828 Squadron, ST ANGELO og Midshipman J Duncan og Midshipman DM Ellis, der var blevet udtaget til slagskibet QUEEN ELIZABETH den 30. november. Kirurg Lt Royds døde den 25. september under internering.

______

Indisk sloop INDUS blev sænket af japansk bombardement i Akyab, Burma, og ti besætninger blev såret.

Onsdag den 8. april

I tyske bombeangreb på Malta blev let krydser PENELOPE målrettet. Lt J S Miller og to ratings blev dræbt.

Torsdag den 9. april

FORTSÆTTER JAPANSE CARRIER AIRCRAFT ATAACKS IN INDIAN OCEAN AND ON CEYLON

Hangarskib HERMES (Kaptajn R F J Onslow, MVO DSC) blev sænket af japansk bombardement øst for Ceylon. Ty/Sub Lt (E) AHL Briggs, Lt Cdr EAN Gardiner, Lt (A) AF Russell og Ty/Sub Lt (A) H Worthy RNVR fra 814 Squadron, og en rating blev dræbt, og Capt Onslow, Surgeon Lt Cdr RS Anderson RNVR, Ty/Lt RW Luk RANVR, Ty/Sub Lt (A) JCG Cranston RNVR af 814 Squadron, Commissioned Gunner (T) FW Grant DSC, Ty/Act/Shipwright GC Grey, Cdr MFL Henstock, Boatswain CA Hincks, Gunner FJ Jordan, Ty/kapellan Rev ACH Leeke RNVR, Lt WA McLachlan RNVR, Lt Cdr (E) CH Martin, Observer Sub Lt (A) JS Quayle RNVR af 814 Squadron, Pilot Ty/Sub Lt (A) WG Thomson RNVR på 814 Eskadron, Lt Cdr TB Wardle, to hundrede otteogfyrre bedømmelser, og syvogtyve marinesoldater mangler. Kirurg Cdr J M McNamara døde af sår den 9., Lt Cdr R T Shaw den 11., seks ratings, en den 12. og en den 16., og en marine.

Operationer med RAF 273 Squadron. Observatør Ty/Sub Lt (A) A L Mass RNVR af 824 Squadron og Flight Officer A Gregg RAF gik tabt i det samme fly.

Australsk destroyer VAMPIRE (Cdr W T A Moran RAN) blev sænket af japansk bombardement øst for Ceylon. Seks ratings blev dræbt, en døde af sår, og Cdr Moran og en RN signalman rating manglede.

Corvette HOLLYHOCK (Lt Cdr T E Davies OBE RNR) blev angrebet af japansk bombardement øst for Ceylon, mens eskorteret tankskib ATHELSTANE. Tanker ATHELSTANE blev sænket. Mens redningen af ​​overlevende blev korvetten ramt af to bomber og sank inden for 30 til 45 sekunder. Davies, Ty/Lt B Simpson RNR, Ty/Sub Lt D J Cory RNVR og fyrre seks vurderinger manglede. Seksten overlevende blev reddet af ATHELSTANEs båd.

Skærm EREBUS på Trincomalee havde lettere skader på grund af en næsten uheld. Ni ratings blev dræbt, og 22 besætningsmedlemmer blev såret

Operationer mens de var lånt til RAF Squadron 11. Observatører Ty/Sub Lt (A) F W Bonnell RNVR og Ty/Sub Lt (A) En Peace RNVR på 806 Squadron gik tabt.

Udlånt til RAF Squadron 273 (F). Piloter Ty/Act/Sub Lt (A) R F H Jacob RNVR og Ty/Sub Lt (A) P R Peirano RNVR fra 803 Squadron gik tabt.

Lørdag den 11. april

Anti-ubåd trawler ST CATHAN (Lt J Mackay RNR), udlånt til den amerikanske flåde, blev sænket i kollision ud for South Carolina. Ty/Sub Lt H B Hodgshon RNVR, Ty/Sub Lt G P Allwork RNVR og tyve ni ratings gik tabt.

Mandag, 13. april

Ubåd THRASHER sank tysk damper ATLAS (2297grt) nær Benghasi.

Tirsdag, 14. april

Destroyer CHURCHILL og den polske PIORUN eskorterede konvoj TC.14 af soldatskibe BATORI og LETITIA til Canada. Destroyerne bar hver fem tons russisk guld, efter at det var blevet bragt fra Ærkeenglen af ​​den lette krydser KENYA i konvoj QP.3. Skibene ankom til Halifax den 16.

______

Undervandsbåd OPHOLDER (Lt Cdr M D Wanklyn VC, DSO) blev sænket af den italienske torpedobåd PEGASO nord for Tripoli. Cdr Wanklyn, Lt P R H Allen, Ty/Sub Lt J H Norman DSC RNVR, Lt F Ruck-Keene DSC og otteogtyve bedømmelser gik tabt sammen med passager L/Cpl C Parker fra senge- og hertsregimentet.

Lørdag, 18. april

Tysk damper SEEFAHRER (2978grt) blev sænket på en mine nær Borkum.

______

Ubåd THRASHER sank tysk damper BELLONA (1297grt) nær Tobruk.

Mandag, 20. april

Ubåd TRIDENT sank tysk damper HODOR (5386grt) NV for Namsos.

______

Eskorte destroyere COTSWOLD og QUORN, eskorterende konvoj FS.80, ramte miner ud for Aldeburgh. COTSWOLD blev alvorligt beskadiget nær stævnen. Fem ratings blev dræbt og tyve tre såret. Hun blev taget på slæb af destroyer LEEDS, som senere blev lettet af slæbebåd SUPERMAN med slæbebåd KENIA og bjærgningsfartøj DAPPER assisterende. Bugseret til Shotley Spit og strandet, blev hun flyttet igen den 3. maj og ført til Chatham, reparationer afsluttet 8. maj 1943. QUORN havde to ratings dræbt og en såret. Hun blev bugseret af patruljeslup SHEARWATER og havde brug for 17 uger til at reparere og færdiggjorde ved Chatham den 19. august.

Onsdag den 22. april

Russisk ubåd M.173 sank tysk damper BLANKENESE (3323grt) ud for Kirkenes.

Mandag den 27. april

Undervandsbåd TRANG TIL (Lt Cdr E P Tomkinson DSO) blev sænket af italienske fly ud for Ras el Hilal. Cdr Tomkinson, Lt D B Allen, Lt J M S Poole DSC, Ty/Lt J S D Ransome DSC RNR, otteogtyve ratings og 11 RN -ratingpassagerer for Alexandria gik tabt.

Torsdag, 30. april

Let krydstogtskib EDINBURGH blev beskadiget af U.456 nær Murmansk. Lt (E) V G Manfield, Act/Lt (E) J Moir og tolv ratings gik tabt.

KAN

Lørdag, 2. maj

Efter hendes torpedoing den 30. april, let krydser EDINBURGH (Kaptajn H W Faulkner) blev sænket af tyske destroyer -torpedoer i Barents hav. Yderligere tre tre bedømmelser manglede, og Ty/Act/Sub Lt R A Rendel RNVR blev såret.

Destroyer FORESTER mistede Lt Cdr G P Huddart og destroyer FORESIGHT mistede Lt R A Fawdry i dette engagement.

______

Polsk ubåd JASTRZAB (Lt Cdr Romanowski), der havde forladt Holy Loch den 22. april, blev ved en fejl angrebet af den norske destroyer ST ALBANS (Lt Cdr S V Storeheil) og den britiske minestryger SEAGULL ud for Nordnorge. To britiske kommunikationsbedømmelser gik tabt med tre af de polske besætninger. Cdr Romanowski og britiske sub Lt M A Hanbury RNVR var blandt seks sårede. Da fejlen blev indset, reddede ST ALBANS og SEAGULL de overlevende, hvorefter SEAGULL skød den hårdt beskadigede ubåd.

Søndag den 3. maj

Tysk damper KONSUL CARL FISSER (5843grt) blev sænket af britisk bombardement nær Aalsund.

Mandag den 4. maj

Tysk damper KLAUS FRITZEN (2936grt) blev sænket ved Maaloy nær Bergen ved britisk bombning.

______

Tysk damper WARTENFELS (6181grt) blev spredt på Diego Suarez.

Tirsdag den 5. maj

Tysk damper SIZILIEN (4647grt) blev sænket ved bombardementer nær Borkum.

______

LANDINGS I DIEGO SAUREZ, MADAGASCAR

Corvette AURICULA (Lt Cdr S L B Maybury) blev minedrevet i Courrier Bay, Madagaskar, og sank den næste dag i Operation IRONCLAD

Fredag ​​den 8. maj

Undervandsbåd OLYMPUS (Lt Cdr H G Dymott), der bar overlevende fra ubåde PANDORA, P.36 og P.39, gik tabt, da hun ramte en mine, der forlod Malta Harbour, seks miles fra St Elmo's Light. Cdr Dymott, Lt BH Band DSC, Lt RA Milne-Thomson, Lt HN Edmonds DSC af P.36, Lt JA Lindsell fra PANDORA, Lt N Marriott DSC på P.39, Sub Lt GP Bulmer af P.39, Warrant Engineer HG Howes, Ty/Lt RPG Owen RNR fra S.39, Act/Sub Lt D Hawkyard RNR på P.39, Sub Lt JF Wilford RNVR og syvoghalvfjerds ratings 22 fra S.39, tre fra light cruiser PENELOPE og to fra S.36, gik tabt. De ni overlevende - tre fra OLYMPUS og seks fra S.39, nåede at svømme i land.

Mandag, 11. maj

Destroyers JERVIS, KIPLING, JACKAL og LIVELY forlod Alexandria for at angribe en tysk-italiensk konvoj undervejs til Benghazi, og blev i stedet angrebet af tyske bombefly i det østlige Middelhav den 11. KIPLING (Cdr A St Clair Ford DSO) og LIVLIG (Lt Cdr W F E Hussey DSO, DSC) blev sænket, og JACKAL (Cdr R Mc P Jonas DSC) blev beskadiget på samme tid som KIPLING og sank på slæb næste dag. Tilskadekomne var som følger:

KIPLING - seks vurderinger dræbt, Lt (E) P G Fyers -Turner DSC og 17 ratings mangler, Act/Sub Lt A J C Baker RNR døde af sår to dage senere og en rating døde af sår i august.

LIVELIG - Cdr Hussey og en rating dræbt, og syvogfyrre ratings mangler. Lt Cdr (E) A H Bacchus blev såret.

JACKAL - fem ratings dræbt, tre savnede og en døde af sår.

JERVIS reddede 630 overlevende fra de tre skibe.

______

Slæbebåd C.308 (Boatswain C M Radcliffe) blev sænket af tysk bombning på Malta. Bådemand Radcliffe og ni ratings gik tabt.

______

Anti-ubåd trawler BEDFORDSHIRE (443grt, Lt R B Davis RNR), udlånt til USN, blev sænket af U.558 ud for Cape Lookout, North Carolina. Lt Davis, Ty/Sub Lt H Chitterbuck RNVR, Ty/Sub Lt B Hall RNVR, Ty/Sub Lt T Cunningham RNVR og alle ratings gik tabt.

Fredag, 15. maj

Let krydser TRINIDAD (Kaptajn LS Saunders) blev sænket i Barentshavet. Lt (E) J G Boddy, fireogtyve bedømmelser og tolv marinesoldater manglede. Py/Ty/Kirurg Lt R P M Miles RNVR, blev såret.

Lørdag, 23. maj

Tysk damper ASUNCION (4626grt) blev sænket på en mine i norske farvande.

Onsdag den 27. maj

Minestryger FITZROY (Cdr A C A C Duckworth) blev sænket ved at udvinde Great Yarmouth. En vurdering døde af sår, og tolv manglede. Ty/Kirurg Lt G P Fahrni RCNVR blev såret.

Maj, diverse

På tidspunktet for landingen ved Diego Suarez forsøgte franske dampskibe MARECHAL GALLIENI (1559grt) og AMIRAL PIERRE at flygte til Lourenco Marques. AMIRAL PIERRE blev opfanget og skrammet selv. MARECHAL GALLIENI blev taget til fange og ført til en sydafrikansk havn.

Baggrundsbegivenheder - juni -oktober 1942

Malta, Atlantic & amp; russiske konvoykampe, Raid on Dieppe, Battles of Midway, Alamein og for Guadalcanal

JUNI

Onsdag, 3. juni

Hvalfangeren COCKER (ex-KOS XIX, Lt D H Crampton RNR) blev sænket af U.331 ud for Bardia. Ty/Lt M P Gallop RNVR og fjorten vurderinger manglede. Ty/Lt D M Engeler RANVR blev såret.

Fredag ​​den 12. juni

Destroyer LUND (Lt Cdr J W Rylands) blev sænket af ubådstorpedo i det østlige Middelhav. Fire vurderinger døde af sår, og Ty/Act/Gunner B J Fleetwood, Ty/Sub Lt A C Hermon-Hodge RNVR og hundrede og seks vurderinger manglede.

Søndag, 14. juni

MALTA KONVOJERER BETJENINGER HARPOON OG KRAFTIG

Let krydser LIVERPOOL blev beskadiget af en italiensk torpedobomber i HARPOON og blev taget på slæb af destroyer ANTELOPE

Mandag, 15. juni

MALTA CONVOYS HARPOON OG VIGOROUS (fortsat)

Letcruiser NEWCASTLE i VIGOROUS blev hårdt beskadiget af en motortorpedobåd. Der var ingen tilskadekomne.

Destroyer BEDOUIN (Cdr B G Scurfield OBE) blev sænket af flytorpedo i det centrale Middelhav. Sub Lt C N Parker, Lt F T Skinner og seksogtyve bedømmelser manglede. Cdr Scurfield, Lt P Bullard, Sub Lt RJ Evans RNVR, Lt Cdr (E) JS Mc N Jay, Lt EAS Manners, Ty/Lt JG Marshall RNVR, Ty/Lt JAR Moller RNVR, Ty/Sub Lt CJ Montgomery RNVR, Ty /Kirurg Lt R St. CMooney RNVR, Schoolmaster RSG Wilson og 203 vurderinger blev taget til fange.

Destroyer HASTY (Lt Cdr N H G Austen) i VIGOROUS blev hårdt beskadiget af tysk motortorpedobåd S.55 i 34-10N, 22-00E. En vurdering blev dræbt, elleve savnet, og en døde af sår. Destroyer HOTSPUR scuttled HASTY

Escort destroyer AIREDALE (Lt Cdr A G Forman) i VIGOROUS blev hårdt beskadiget af bombning i 33-50N, 24-00E. Lt J C K McCKinsman og fireogfyrre ratings gik tabt. Ni officerer og 124 ratings blev reddet, før AIREDALE blev ødelagt af søsterskibet ALDENHAM, en af ​​hvis officerer, Lt H T Tanner blev dræbt samme dag.

Australsk destroyer NESTOR (Cdr A S Rosenthal DSO RAN) i VIGOROUS blev hårdt beskadiget af bombning i 33-36N, 24-30E. Hun blev taget på slæb af destroyeren JAVELIN, men måtte ødelægges den 16.. Tre RAN og en RN -rating gik tabt.

______

Anti-ubåd trawler KINGSTON CEYLONITE (448grt, Skipper W Mc K Smith RNR), udlånt til USN, blev sænket på en mine i Chesapeake Bay. Skipper Smith, Ty/Skipper T O FLeiper RNR og atten ratings manglede.

Tirsdag den 16. juni

MALTA CONVOYS HARPOON OG VIGOROUS (fortsat)

Let krydser HERMIONE (Kaptajn G N Oliver DSO) blev senket ved U.205 i det vestlige Middelhav i 33-20N, 26-00E. Cdr (E) STG Bartwell DSC, Lt (E) LF Guppy, Paymaster Cdr GCG Marfell, Warrant Engineer LRB Pearce, Warrant Engineer W Wright, Ty/Surgeon Lt JW Ashley BM, BCh RNVR, Paymaster Lt GB Kidd RNVR, Ty/Lt RJ Browne RCNVR og syv ni bedømmelser gik tabt. Fire hundrede og fyrre besætning blev reddet.

Onsdag den 17. juni

Destroyer VILD SVAN (Lt Cdr C E L Sclater) blev sænket af tysk bombning i de vestlige tilgange. 31 ratings gik tabt.

Søndag, 21. juni

Tysk damper REICHENFELS (7744grt) blev sænket af en britisk torpedobomber i 34-43N, 11-58E.

______

Undervandsbåd S.514 (Lt Cdr R M E Pain), som havde mistet sin escortkorvette PRIMROSE i lav sigt, blev sænket af canadisk minestryger GEORGIAN, eskorterende konvoj CL.43, i 46-33N, 53-40W. Cdr Pain, Lt W A Phillimore, Ty/Lt C A Bentley RNR, Ty/Lt J Taylor RNR, Ty/Lt (E) J F Magill RCNR og syvogtredive ratings gik tabt. Corvette DIANTHUS forlod St Johns senere samme dag for at slutte sig til PRIMROSE i hendes søgen efter ubåden.

______

Sydafrikansk minestrygende hvalfanger PARKTOWN (Lt L J Jagger, SASDF) blev sænket af en italiensk motortorpedobåd ud for Tobruk. Jagter blev dræbt. Sub Lt E R Francis blev såret.

Søndag, 28. juni

Tysk damper SAVONA (2120grt) forlod Benghazi den 28., eskorteret af italiensk torpedobåd CIRCE og to tyske S-både, og gik tabt efter stranding nær Sidi Sueicher.

JULI

Søndag, 5. juli

Russisk ubåd SC/320 sank tysk damper ANNA (677grt) vest for Memel.

Torsdag den 9. juli

Anti-ubåd trawler MANOR (314grt, Skipper B Pile RNR) blev sænket af en tysk motortorpedobåd i Den Engelske Kanal. Skipper Pile, Ty/Skipper J Jaques RNR, Skipper J Wood RNR og seksogtyve bedømmelser manglede.

Lørdag den 25. juli

Anti-ubåd trawler LAERTES (Act/Skipper Lt P J Quinlan DSC RNR) blev sænket af en U.201 ud for Freetown i 6-00N, 14-17W. Skipper Quinlan, Skipper A Lawrence RNR, Ty/Skipper J Reid RNR og seksten ratings manglede.

AUGUST

Søndag, 2. august

MALTA CONVOY, BETJENING PEDESTAL

Udpeget WS 21, men faktisk ikke korrekt en af ​​konvojerne i denne serie, da titlen blev anvendt på de skibe, der var bestemt til Operation Pedestal, en nødhjælpskonvoj til Malta fra Storbritannien Inden de passerede Gibraltar -stræderne den 10.8.42, dog var konvoj bærede den viste stil, og konvojsejladsordren er derfor inkluderet fra Clyde, hvorfra den sejlede den 2.8.42, indtil den passerede strædet den 10.8.


Franklin D. Roosevelt begravelse

Præsident Roosevelts død den 12. april 1945 overraskede hele verden. Selvom hans nærmeste havde frygtet, at siden hans genvalgskampagne, at hans tid var nær, var offentligheden ikke klar over alvoren i hans tilstand, selvom fotografier fra Yalta viste hans fysiske forværring. Præsidenten rejste i hemmelighed til Yalta -konferencen efter hans indvielse den 20. januar og rapporterede senere om den rejse i en tale til kongressen den 1. marts. Lovgivere var chokerede over hans slidte og skrøbelige udseende. Seks uger senere døde præsident Roosevelt i Warm Springs, Georgia.

Ferdinand Magellan -toget returnerede præsidenten til Washington den 14. april, og hans kiste blev båret på en kasse i et militærtog fra Union Station til Det Hvide Hus. Mindst 500.000 mennesker så lydløst til i den varme aprilsol. Kisten blev bragt ind i East Room, hvor den ville blive i cirka fem timer. Hundredvis af sørgende samledes i East Room, hvor han lå i staten. Thousands more gathered outside along the iron fences. After a simple funeral service the caisson returned to Union Station and the coffin was placed aboard a train to be taken for burial at Hyde Park, New York.

An "all services" honor guard with President Roosevelt's casket in the East Room of the White House, April 14, 1945.


Bracero Agreement (1942-1964)

During World War II, the U.S. government negotiated with the Mexican government to recruit Mexican workers, all men and without their families, to work on short-term contracts on farms and in other war industries. After the war, the program continued in agriculture until 1964.

Resources

Bracero Program Primary Sources

Includes archive and videos

Spørgsmål til diskussion

What motivated the United States to pursue this program in a period of immigration restriction?

What were the general terms of the bracero program?

Why would Mexican workers wish the enter the bracero program?

Resumé

Labor shortages during World War II led the U.S. government to negotiate with the Mexican government to recruit Mexican workers, all male and without their families, to work on short-term contracts in U.S. agriculture and in other war industries. After the war, Mexican workers were restricted to agriculture, as U.S. and Mexican authorities renegotiated the terms of the program several times. Mexicans participated in the belief that becoming braceros temporarily would enable them to acquire additional skills and knowledge while earning higher wages than available in Mexico. In practice, many became trapped in cycles of working abroad for higher wages in harsh manual labor agricultural jobs in the United States. The bracero program’s costs, employers’ abuse, and officials’ corrupt practices led many Mexicans to seek work in the United States illegally outside of its auspices, and readily found employment with U.S. agricultural conglomerates and other employers seeking workers for lower wages. The bracero program persisted until 1964, despite its many problems, when labor and civil rights reformers successfully pressured for its termination.

Braceros awaiting transport in Mexicali

Kilde

August 4, 1942

For the temporary migration of Mexican agricultural workers to the United States. As revised April 26, 1943, by an exchange of notes between the American embassy at Mexico City and the Mexican Ministry for Foreign Affairs.

General Provisions

1) It is understood that Mexicans contracting to work in the United States shall not be engaged in any military service.

2) Mexicans entering the United States as result of this understanding shall not suffer discriminatory acts of any kind in accordance with the Executive Order No. 8802 issued at the White House June 25, 1941.

3) Mexicans entering the United States under this understanding shall enjoy the guarantees of transportation, living expenses and repatriation established in Article 29 of the Mexican Federal Labor Law as follows . . . .

4) Mexicans entering the United States under this understanding shall not be employed to displace other workers, or for the purpose of reducing rates of pay previously established . . . .

1. a) Contracts will be made between the employer and the worker under the supervision of the Mexican Government. (Contracts must be written in Spanish.)

1. b) The employer shall enter into a contract with the sub- employer, with a view to proper observance of the principles embodied in this understanding.

1. The Mexican health authorities will, at the place whence the worker comes, see that he meets the necessary physical conditions . . .

The master contracts for workers submitted to the Mexican government shall contain definite provisions for computation of subsistence and payments under the understanding.

1. The term of the contract shall be made in accordance with the authorities of the respective countries.

2. At the expiration of the contract under this understanding, and if the same is not renewed, the authorities of the United States shall consider illegal, from an immigration point of view, the continued stay of the worker in the territory of the United States, exception made of cases of physical impossibility.

Savings Fund

The respective agencies of the Government of the United States shall be responsible for the safekeeping of the sums contributed by the Mexican workers toward the formation of their Rural Savings Fund . . . .

As it is impossible to determine at this time the number of workers who may be needed in the United States for agricultural labor employment, the employer shall advise the Mexican Government from time to time as to the number needed. The Government of Mexico shall determine in each case the number of workers who may leave the country without detriment to its national economy.


April 1942 — 4th Guard Force officer

Indlæg af Leo Niehorster » 04 Jul 2014, 14:44

During Operation "N", (mopping up the NEI. 01.–23.04.42, covering the invasion force landings at Fak-Fak, Babo, Sorong, Manokwari, Moemi, Nabire, Seroei, Sarmi and Hollandia, New Guinea.)

Der er en Capt Shibuya in charge of the 4th Guard Unit, which contained elements of Sasebo Combined Naval SNLF, 24th Special Base Unit. Is this the same
Capt Shibuya Shiro (44) 渋谷紫郎
who commanded the 16th Destroyer Division between 25.07.41–01.08.42 ?

And also, would that mean that men of the 16th DesDiv were also present in the 4th Guard Unit?

Re: April 1942 — 4th Guard Force officer

Indlæg af ijnfleetadmiral » 05 Jul 2014, 05:07

It's more than likely a different officer named Shibuya. DesDiv 16 at this time was assigned to DesRon 2, 2nd Fleet.

DesDiv 16 - CAPT Shibuya Shiro (44)

Yukikaze (Division Flagship)
Commanding Officer - CDR Tobita Kenjiro (50)
Torpedo Officer - LT Shirato Toshizo (64)
Gunnery Officer - LT Fujita Torajiro (61)
Navigator - LT Kato Seiichi (63)

NOTE: On 15 April 1942, LT Ishikuma Tatsuhiko (65) became Gunnery Officer, while on 20 April 1942, LTJG Morita Takashi (67) became Navigator.

Hatsukaze
Commanding Officer - CDR Takahashi Kameshiro (49)

Amatsukaze
Commanding Officer - CDR Hara Tameichi (49)
Executive Officer - LT Iwabuchi Goro (61)
Navigator - LTJG Koyama Toshiro

NOTE: On 1 April 1942, Navigator LTJG Koyama was promoted LT.

Tokitsukaze
Commanding Officer - CDR Nakahara Giichiro (48)

Re: April 1942 — 4th Guard Force officer

Indlæg af hisashi » 05 Jul 2014, 08:17

If 4th guard unit means 第四防備隊 (4th bobitai), something seems wrong. Before the war this unit had its headquarter in Saipan and part of rthem was in Ponape(Pohnpei). At war this unit moved to Truk under 4th fleet. I believe 41st keibitai (Truk), 42nd keibitai(Ponape, a company in Truk), and 43rd keibitai (Palau) were formerly the 4th bobitai. In short, though part of them might participate in the landings, bobitai HQ had static nature.
In March 1942 Sasebo 2nd SNLF and Sasebo combined SNLF headquarter were merged into 23rd special base force, based on Kota Makassar. According to 23rd SBF wartime log (JACAR C08030263300), in Apr 1942 they secured Celebes Island and did no more landing.

IJN raised 24th-26th SBF in neighboring area from late 1942 to 1943.

According to communication log in war diary Apr 1942, 2nd desron (JACAR C08030094400) 2nd fleet was anxious about destroyers' maintenance schedule for their sortie to Midway. Shibuya's 16th desdiv was one of groups scheduled for Midway, but many of destroyers were kept in hands of Takahashi (3rd fleet, taskforce for operation H) and Ozawa (southern expeditionary fleet, operation M) as they had ones in March.
So Shibuya Shiro was certainly there, but I cannot find the reason to think he (concurrently) commanded landing troops, and 4th guard force seemed not participated in the battle there.

And I am afraid to say I cannot find any name list for 4th guard force.

Re: April 1942 — 4th Guard Force officer

Indlæg af Leo Niehorster » 05 Jul 2014, 08:18

Thank you for your response.

The reason I thought it might be Capt Shibuya Shiro [44] 渋谷紫郎 is because the destroyers Yukikaze and Tokitsukaze (both part of the 16th Destroyer Division) were part of the mentioned Operation "N".

Sorry, I should have been more specific. The Naval Landing Force (commanded by the unidentified Capt Shibuya) involved in this operation apparently did not have a designation, (for example: Shibuya Detachment . ). This NFL had the 4th Guard Unit (under Cdr. Fujimura, Giichi [55] 藤村義朗 , ), and the 24th Special Base Force (unknown commander).

Re: April 1942 — 4th Guard Force officer

Indlæg af hisashi » 05 Jul 2014, 11:38

Cdr. Fujimura, Yoshikazu(藤村義一) later (perhaps after the war) changed his name as 藤村義朗 (Fujimura Yoshiro). His memoir was published in the name of 藤村義朗. Giichi is a common reading for 義一. All the same man.

But he cannot be there because he was serving in Germany from May 1940 as an atache in Berlin.

As I explained, 24th SBF did not exist yet in Apr 1942. It was raised in Dec 1942. Perhaps the author mistook 23rd and 24th.

Re: April 1942 — 4th Guard Force officer

Indlæg af Leo Niehorster » 05 Jul 2014, 13:01

Thank you for looking this material up. Always prefer to have no data than wrong data.

Perhaps, you might have an idea of which other naval lands unit(s) besides the 4th Guard Force/Unit were involved in the Operation "N"? (By the way, which of those designations — Force or Unit — is correct?) The source I have indicates

Re: April 1942 — 4th Guard Force officer

Indlæg af ijnfleetadmiral » 05 Jul 2014, 17:10

I have 24th Base Force as activated on 5 February 1942 under RADM (later VADM) Hatakeyama Koichiro (39). Source for this info is Nishida's "Materials of IJN" site:

Here's what I have on Fujimura. can anyone fill in any blanks? TIA if you can.

Fujimura Yoshikazu
Eta Jima Class 55 (Class Rank Unknown)
Promoted Midshipman - 28 March 1927
Promoted Ensign - 15 November 1927
Promoted Lieutenant (j.g.) - 30 November 1929
Promoted Lieutenant - 1 December 1932
Chief Gunnery Officer, Nagatsuki - 15 November 1934 - .
Chief Gunnery Officer, Ayanami - . - .
Chief Gunnery Officer, Itsukushima - . - .
Promoted Lieutenant Commander - 15 November 1938
Assistant Naval Attache, Germany - May 1940 - .
Promoted Commander - 1 November 1943

Re: April 1942 — 4th Guard Force officer

Indlæg af hisashi » 05 Jul 2014, 18:50

Thank you for corrections. And I found many in the war diary of 24th SBF (JACAR C08030264000).

RAdm Hatakeyama and five staff officers were 'attached' to HQ, 3rd fleet from 10 to 21 Jan 1942, but they were to have appointments in newly raised 24th SBF. They arrived to Dabao in 23 Jan and they joined in Kure 1st SNLF. It was the only unit available, earmarked for the 24th SBF.

Hatakeyama led their landing to Ambon. Then the order of creating 24th SBF at Ambon came in 5 Feb.

Then 4th guard unit (4th keibitai) appeared under the 24th. A pencil comment to wartime diary reads 'Sasebo 1st SNLF'. As I explained 23rd SBF took Sasebo combined SNLF HQ and Sasebo 2nd SNLF, Sasebo 1st must be somewhere. and perhaps here. 4th keibitai was renamed Sasebo 1st SNLF.

War diary explained the 24th SBF offered 502 men for operation N, 476 men for Christmas Island. group for operation N was led by lieutenant Saegusa. At the end of March 24th SBF had 2719 men including to-be-dispatched groups.

Saegusa's men occupied Fak-Fak, Babo, Manokwari, Ternate and 'bura', unknown katakana place. Apparently they were only a part of forces in operation N.

Then who was Shibuya? Seeing that he was a captain, he might be the commander of 4th guard unit/Sasebo 1st SNLF.

Re: April 1942 — 4th Guard Force officer

Indlæg af Leo Niehorster » 05 Jul 2014, 18:55

Thought I would show you the source of my (mis)information regarding the naval land forces involved in Operation "N". This image is an excerpt from the Japanese Monograph No. 79A
Chart 3, Page 5b
"Naval Landing Forces for Dutch New Guinea Invasion — 15 March 1942"

Now I know that the JM are not always quite reliable, so would you please providing the correct units.

Edited to add:
We seem to be posting at the same time.

Re: April 1942 — 4th Guard Force officer

Indlæg af hisashi » 06 Jul 2014, 19:55

4th guard unit had 1158 men in the end of March EXCEPT those participated in the detachment. I cannot figure out how many in 500 were from 4GU and the rest , from Kure 1st SNLF. Anyway 1158 men were in Anbon both at the end of March and the end of April, according to 24th SBF.


In the following input I partly use entries of 'Imperial Japanese Navy Tokusetsukansen Data Base'.
http://www.geocities.jp/tokusetsukansen/


In Apr 1942 the following ships were at the disposal of 24th SBF(from War Diary).
Seian Maru 西安丸 Auxiliary Anti-sub net layer (4 12cm gun)
Dai 15 Fukuei Maru 第15福栄丸 Auxiliary Anti-sub boat
Dai 5 Takunan Maru 第5拓南丸 Auxiliary Anti-sub boat
Dai 17 Shonan Maru 第15昭南丸 Auxiliary Anti-sub boat
'Torpedo Boat' Tomozuru
'Torpedo Boat' Hatsukari
Taiko Maru 大興丸 Auxiliary Gunship
Okuyo Maru 億洋丸 Auxiliary Gunship
Banyo Maru 萬洋丸 Auxiliary Gunship
Minesweeper No.11 and 12


4 Apr Banyo Maru with SBF men raided Solong and took 10 POWs. After that landing force evacuated, with no personnel left. Similarly, Banyo-Maru and a group of SBF men raided (date in April)
14 'Chidore' Island
15 'Mare' Island
20 'Jairoro'
21 'Dojinga'
In total they took 43 POWs. Except five places I quoted in the last post, they did not leave permanent force. It was the reason the number of places Japanese force landed did not coincide with the number of occupation detachments.
Taiko Maru similarly made a hit-and-run landing to 'Jairoro' in 8 Apr. Okuyo Maru was busy in freight transport from rear area.
Seian Maru participated in the landing to Fak-Fak (1 Apr), but after that she moved among secured ports.

Hokuriku Maru 北陸丸 was a freighter. She was at the disposal of New Guinea Force for operation N, that is, the commander of 11th air squadron (RAdm Fujita Ruitaro, sea-plane tender Mizuho and Chitose). 24th SBF as a whole reported to RAdm Fujita during operation N. Hokuriku Maru helped the landing of detachments. Moreover, she made landing at Moemi(14 Apr), Nabire(16) and Hollandia(17). Entries of Tokusetsukansen DB suggests they were Sasebo 1st SNLF (= 4th guard unit). They might have made hit-and-run landing and returned before long to Anbon.

I could not find out anything about Taiyo Maru.

Re: April 1942 — 4th Guard Force officer

Indlæg af Leo Niehorster » 07 Jul 2014, 09:19

Thank you for this information regarding the 24th SBF.

The details of the small mop up operations after Java are difficult to locate. I have the overall structure of the forces involved, but, as this topic proves, there are lots of bits and pieces that were missing. Particularly which individual ships visited which locations and which dates with which units, commanded by which officers.

The fifth place was apparently Hollandia (Modern: Jayapura) (2°31'S, 140°41'E), inland from Humbolt Bay, which was occupied by a small garrison on 19.04.42.

Re: April 1942 — 4th Guard Force officer

Indlæg af ijnfleetadmiral » 07 Jul 2014, 18:54

W-11 - LT Imamura Kiyoshi (61)
W-12 - LT Hanyu Hidekazu (Reserve)
Tomozuru - LCDR Suga Akiji (56)
Hatsukari - LCDR Nakao Kushuo (57)

Imamura Kiyoshi
Eta Jima Class 61 (Class Ranking Unknown)
Promoted Midshipman - 18 November 1933
Promoted Ensign - 1 May 1934
Promoted Lieutenant (j.g.) - 15 November 1935
Promoted Lieutenant - 15 November 1938
Commanding Officer, W-11 - 21 September 1941 - 30 June 1942
Commanding Officer, Tomozuru - 20 July 1942 - 1 February 1943
Promoted Lieutenant Commander - 1 May 1943

Hanyu Hidekazu
Imperial Japanese Naval Reserve
Commanding Officer, W-12 - December 1941 - 18 April 1943
Commanding Officer, Manazuru - May 1943 - .


Military Naturalization During WWII

Henry B. Hazard, designated representative
of the Immigration and Naturalization
Service, swears in Lt. Steve Pissanos,
Plainfield, N.J. as a citizen of the United
States in London, England. Lt Pissanos was
the first person to receive citizenship in the
European Theatre of Operations (May 3,
1943).


After the United States entered World War II Congress acted to provide for the expedited naturalization of noncitizens serving honorably in the U.S. Armed Forces.

The Second War Powers Act of 1942 (56 Stat. 182, 186) exempted noncitizen service members from naturalization requirements related to age, race, residence, any educational tests, fees, filing a declaration of intention, and enemy alien status. Later, a 1944 statute (58 Stat. 885) also eliminated the requirement for proof of lawful entry to the U.S.

Noncitizen service members who wished to naturalize still needed to show that they had served honorably, had good moral character, were attached to the principals of the Constitution, and had a favorable disposition toward the good order and happiness of the United States. No member of the military was forced to naturalize and service members did not “automatically” gain citizenship upon joining the Armed Forces. To become a citizen, a naturalizing service member needed to file a petition for naturalization and swear the required Oath of Allegiance.

During the War the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) oversaw the campaign to naturalize members of U.S. Armed Forces. Stateside, the INS worked with the military to identify noncitizen soldiers who wished to naturalize, helped soldiers complete the required petition, and organized swearing ceremonies. In many cases INS officials traveled to military camps to process large groups of soldier petitions. Because petitioners needed to swear the Oath of Allegiance in open court, a naturalization judge would then open a session of court at the camp and swear in the soldiers onsite.

The Second War Powers Act of 1942 also authorized the first overseas naturalizations in the nation’s history. Under its provisions, the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization could authorize designated representatives to naturalize members of the Armed Forces serving outside of the U.S. This eliminated the need for soldiers stationed overseas to swear the oath in open court and, for the first time, allowed administrative officials to perform naturalizations. The Commissioner designated representatives from the Department of State and U.S. District Attorney’s Office, but INS officials conducted the majority of overseas naturalizations.

On December 4, 1942, INS Assistant Commissioner Thomas B. Shoemaker (who served as INS’s first designated representative for overseas naturalization) naturalized James A. Finnell Hoey in the Panama Canal Zone, making Hoey the first person to receive U.S. citizenship abroad. Over the next year Shoemaker went on to naturalize 289 service members overseas.

Over the course of the war, Henry B. Hazard, INS Director of Research and Educational Services, performed more overseas naturalizations than any other INS official—by a wide margin. Between February, 1943 and early 1945, Hazard traveled nearly 100,000 miles and visited six continents in order to naturalize 6,574 service members. This made him responsible for the vast majority of INS’s overseas naturalization (INS agency officials performed a total of 7,178 overseas naturalizations) and nearly half of alleoverseas naturalizations during WWII (all designated government officials performed a total of13,587 overseas naturalizations) 1 . On April 3, 1946, the War Department recognized Hazard’s wartime service by awarding him the Medal of Freedom.

Hazard chronicled his wartime experiences in a series of articles for the Immigration and Naturalization Service periodical Monthly Review, including summaries of his earliest overseas naturalization trips (PDF, 226.14 KB) , his work in the Pacific Theater (PDF, 219.1 KB) , and a postwar reflection (PDF, 344.84 KB) . In October 1948, the Monthly Review also published INS Commissioner Watson B. Miller’s summary report on the Foreign Born in the U.S. military during WWII (PDF, 760.88 KB) .

*Full text issues of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Monthly Review are available through the USCIS History Library’s online catalog.


Royal Marines AA Units on Ceylon in April 1942

Indlæg af Rob Stuart » 20 Oct 2012, 15:35

I am attempting to confirm how many AA guns there were on Ceylon at the time of the Japanese air attacks of 5 and 9 April 1942. One of the AA units present was the 1st HAA Regt RM, apparently with B, C and D Batteries. The regiment belonged to 1 Mobile Naval Base Defence Organization (MNBDO). Some sources say there was also at least one RM LAA battery on Ceylon at the time, this battery possibly being 22 LAA Bty RM or even Devon LAA Bty RM. Can anyone comfirm this? Also, how many guns were RM HAA and LAA batteries supposed to have?

Re: Royal Marines AA Units on Ceylon in April 1942

Indlæg af Gary Kennedy » 21 Oct 2012, 15:33

The overall organisation for an Army Heavy AA Regt was a RHQ and three Btys, each Bty with two Tps of four 3.7-inch guns apiece. The Light AA Regts underwent some changes in 1942, initially having an RHQ and four Btys, each of three Tps of four 40-mm guns apiece. That altered to an RHQ and three Btys, each of three Tps of six 40-mm guns apiece during the latter part of 1942. I don't know how far off the Army WEs the RMs were though.

You may have already seen this info but there's a good attempt to disentangle the histories of the various RM units -

Re: Royal Marines AA Units on Ceylon in April 1942

Indlæg af Rob Stuart » 12 Nov 2012, 14:26

Thanks for your helpful reply. I had previously looked at the RM unit histories but I'm going through it more carefully now, and looking at my other sources, and should soon have a fairly detailed response to post. In the meantime, I have a question:

The LAA Regt establishment you give here would add up to 48 guns. My information is that the LAA regiments normally had only 36 guns. Am I mistaken?

Re: Royal Marines AA Units on Ceylon in April 1942

Indlæg af Gary Kennedy » 12 Nov 2012, 23:05

Good question, I can't give a specific answer, but I suspect it's a case of the number of Btys. In Armd Divs the LAA Regts were based on three Btys, while in the Inf Div it was four, but outside of Divs they may have gone for three Btys of 12 guns each. In that case, your 36 guns would be spot on. I'm afraid I'm not as well versed with the non-Div units, but within the Divs the 18 gun Bty appeared in the latter half of 1942. If you can confirm three Btys within the unit you're looking at, I think that would explain it. I'll have a check if any of the Defended Ports Abroad WE titles give a number of guns, but I'm not too hopeful.

Re: Royal Marines AA Units on Ceylon in April 1942

Indlæg af Rob Stuart » 13 Nov 2012, 12:35

The two Royal Artillery LAA Regiments in Ceylon when the Japanese attacked were:

-43 LAA Regt, with 181, 183 and 196 Batteries and a total of 36 guns
-55 (Devon) LAA Regt, with 163, 164 and 165 Batteries, and a total of 36 guns

Both arrived at Colombo on 4 March '42. 43 LAA Regt was on convoy DM 3, whose three ships had left the UK on 12 January in WS 15, but I'm not sure if 55 LAA Regt was in DM 3 too, but it must have left the UK in January (or earlier) to reach Colombo on 4 March.

Would you agree that these two units would have had four-gun troops in April '24?

Re: Royal Marines AA Units on Ceylon in April 1942

Indlæg af Gary Kennedy » 13 Nov 2012, 20:47

Sounds spot on to me, the only other option is two Troops of six guns each, but that's not an organisation you see until late 1944 in NWE, so I'd go with four guns per Tp, three Tps per Bty and three Btys in the Regt.

Re: Royal Marines AA Units on Ceylon in April 1942

Indlæg af Rob Stuart » 08 Jan 2013, 02:23

One of my challenges here is reconciling the list of AA units in Ceylon with the number of guns reportedly on the island at the time the Japanese attacked. There are two sources which give overall numbers:

-the History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, Anti-Aircraft Artillery 1914-55 says that there were 112 AA guns in Ceylon - 4 x 3 inch, 3 x 12 pounders, 32 x 3.7 inch, and 73 x 40 mm

-a 1943 “Battle Summary” produced by the Admiralty says that there were 110 AA guns – 42 heavy and 68 light

I think that both of these sources are probably wrong. My theory is that is that the RM heavy guns were undercounted and the RM light guns were not counted at all, and that there were in fact as many as 144 AA guns - 52 heavy and 92 light, manned by the following units:

14 AA Bty of 6 Coast Regt RA, with 4 x 3-inch guns
65 (The Manchester Regiment) HAA Regt RA (with 181, 183 and 196 Batteries), with 24 x 3.7-inch guns
1st RM HAA Regt (with B, C and D Batteries), with 24 x 3.7-inch guns

22 LAA Bty RM, with 16 x 40mm guns
43 LAA Regt RA (with 147, 148 and 264 LAA Batteries), with 36 x 40mm guns
55 (Devon) LAA Regt RA (with 163, 164 and 165 LAA batteries), with 36 x 40mm guns
3 x 12-pdr, manned by an unspecified unit, possibly 2 HAA Regt of the Ceylon Garrison Artillery (CGA)
1 additional 40mm gun, manned by one of the above units

My evidence, from primary documents held by the UK National Archives and other sources, is as follows:

(1) By December 1937 four of the 12 AA guns authorized for Ceylon had been issued. These were almost certainly 3-inch guns.

(2) On 3 September 1939 the Ceylon garrison included 6th Heavy Regiment RA, at Trincomalee, with two batteries of coast defence guns and 14 Anti-Aircraft Battery, RA. This battery undoubtedly had the four 3-inch guns.

(3) At some point prior to December 1941, the 2nd AA Regiment of the Ceylon Garrison Artillery (CGA) was formed, with 1st, 2nd and 3rd Heavy and 4th Light AA Batteries. By 5 April 1942 they probably had very few men and very few guns. I would speculate that they manned the three 12-pounder guns and maybe some AA machine guns but perhaps nothing else until later. (1st Regiment CGA was a coast regiment and manned the 9.2-inch and 6-inch guns at Colombo.)

(4) A 2 January 1942 ORBAT for “Trincomalee Fortress”, which I think includes in-place units plus reinforcements about to arrive, includes the following:

A.A. Bde. M.N.B.D.O. [Mobile Naval Base Defence Organization - a Royal Marines unit]
One Heavy A.A. Regt (24 guns) [1 HAA Regt RM]
One Light A.A. Bty (16 guns) [22 LAA Bty RM]

(5) On 15 January the War Office advised Wavell that convoy WS 15, from the UK, was carrying 55th LAA Regt, which was a mobile unit, and 65th HAA and 43rd LAA Regt’s, both of which were static units. It added that the LAA Regts were all three-battery units. (Upon entering the Indian Ocean, WS15 split into three convoys: WS 15A, WS 15B and DM 3.)

(6) On 1 February convoy AJ.1, consisting of City of Paris and Yoma, arrived at Colombo from Aden. City of Paris was carrying 1375 MNDBO personnel, apparently including 1st Royal Marines Anti-Aircraft Brigade HQ and 1st Royal Marines Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment. The latter consisted of B, C and D Batteries [and, I think, 22 LAA Bty RM]. In February the Brigade HQ was re-designated HQ AA Ceylon.

(7) A 3 February signal from OC Troops Ceylon giving his current ORBAT lists the following AA units:

HQ MNBDO
One Heavy [AA] Bty MNBDO [probably has 8 x 3.7inch]
One Troop Light [AA] Bty MNBDO [probably has 8 x 40mm.]
14 AA Bty 6 Coast Regt [presumably still with 4 x 3inch]
HQ 2 AA Regt CGA and one Bty without guns

Regt HQ MNBDO [presumably the HQ of 1 HAA Regt RM]
Two Heavy AA Bty MNBDO [probably have 8 x 3.7inch each]
One Light AA Bty MNBDO, less one troop [probably has 8 x 40mm.]

(8) On 12 February “22 LAA Battery RM” deployed to Trincomalee’s China Bay airfield, according to the ORB of 273 Sqn, which was at China Bay. (At most there would have been 8 x 40mm guns, since one troop was sent to Colombo.)

(9) On 16 February the War Cabinet Joint Planning Staff in London recommends the diversion to Ceylon of the following from convoy DM 3, which was then due to arrive in the NEI on 4 March

1 Hy A.A. Regt (24 guns)
1 Lt A.A. Regt (36 guns)
1 A/Tk Regt (48 guns)

… and the diversion to India and Ceylon of the following from convoy DM 4, which was then due to arrive in the NEI on 9 April:

2 Hy A.A. Regts (48 guns)
2 and 1/3 Lt A.A. Regts (84 guns)

On 18 February the British Chiefs of Staff ordered the diversion of DM 3 as recommended. The heavy AA unit was undoubtedly 65 HAA Regt but it’s not clear if the light AA unit was 43 LAA Regt or 55 LAA Regt.

I have no information on the AA units in DM 4 – I don’t know which units they were, where they went or when they got there – but probably none of them arrived in Ceylon by 9 April.

(10) On 23 February London advised the Australian government that by 28 February there would be 52 heavy and 64 light AA guns (a total of 116) in Ceylon, with more on the way.

The 52 heavy guns would presumably be the 4 x 3-inch of 14 AA Bty RA, the 24 x 3.7-inch of 1 HAA Regt RM, and the 24 x 3.7-inch guns of 65 HAA Regt RA.

The 64 light guns are harder to account for. If they were counting 22 LAA Bty RM, with 16 x 40mm guns, and whichever 36-gun LAA Regt was expected to arrive on 4 March, that would be only 52 guns. The difference of 12 guns could be accounted for by one more LAA battery. Or there was a muddle and whoever compiled these numbers thought that the two LAA regiments had 24 guns each: 24 + 24 + 16 = 64. Or there was some other reason altogether. (I expect that no one in London was counting the three 12 pounders.)

(11) On 4 March Convoy DM 3 arrived at Colombo. The C-in-C Eastern Fleet diary says the AA units carried by DM 3 were the 43rd Light and 65th Heavy, which is consistent with the information about DM 3 noted above in the minutes of February COS meetings. The History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery says that 43rd and 55th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiments both arrived on 4 March, each with 36 x 40 mm Bofors guns. CinC India’s 28 February signal 4357/G 28/2 says that Wavell planned to retain the 43rd Light and 65th Heavy in Ceylon and use 55th mobile light in India.

(12) On 31 March the Joint Planning Staff in London issued a report which says there were 52 heavy and 52 light AA guns on Ceylon. I think that there were indeed 52 heavy AA guns but more than 52 light AA guns.

(13) At Trincomalee on 9 April, 55 LAA Regt’s 163 Bty had 6 killed and 43 LAA Regt’s 264 Bty had two killed, according to Commonwealth War Graves Commission information. This would confirm that these two batteries, and by extension the rest of their regiments, were on Ceylon.

(14) On 14 April the HQ of the Australian forces then on Ceylon promulgated a list of code names covering all units and formations in Ceylon. The AA units included in the list were:

2 A.A. Regt, C.G.A.
1 A.A. Regt, RM
65 Hy A.A. Regt, RA
55 Lt A.A. Regt, RA
163 Lt A.A. Bty
164 Lt A.A. Bty
165 Lt A.A. Bty
43 Lt A.A. Regt, RA
147 Lt AA Bty 43 Regt RA
22 Lt A.A. Regt [actually 22 LAA Bty]

A similar code name list issued on 26 April includes the following:

2 A.A. Regt, C.G.A.
1 A.A. Regt, RM
B Bty, 1 A.A. Regt, RM
C Bty, 1 A.A. Regt, RM
D Bty, 1 A.A. Regt, RM
22 Lt A.A. RA [22 LAA Bty RM]
43 Lt A.A. Regt, RA
147 Bty, 43 Regt RA
148 Bty, 43 Regt RA
264 Bty, 43 Regt RA
55 Lt A.A. Regt, RA
163 Bty, 55 Lt A.A. Regt, RA
164 Bty, 55 Lt A.A. Regt, RA
A Tp, 164 Bty, 55 Lt A.A. Regt, RA
B Tp, 164 Bty, 55 Lt A.A. Regt, RA
165 Bty, 55 Lt A.A. Regt, RA
65 Hy A.A. Regt, RA
181 Bty, 65 Hy A.A. Regt, RA
183 Bty, 65 Hy A.A. Regt, RA
196 Bty, 65 Hy A.A. Regt, RA

(15) On 2 May Admiral Layton, who was C-in-C Ceylon, advised Churchill that there were 62 heavy and 100 light AA guns on Ceylon at that time. This is 10 more heavy and 8 more light AA guns than I’ve estimated were present on 5 April. This could indicate that additional weapons had been found for 2 AA Regt CGA between 9 April and 2 May, or that my information is incorrect. I have not yet been able to access any of the war diaries of the AA units concerned and hope then when I do this discrepancy can be resolved.