Cowlitz indianerstamme

Cowlitz indianerstamme

Navnet Cowlitz Tribe refererer til to nordvestlige indianergrupper, Nedre og Øvre Cowlitz og floddræning, der var deres oprindelige hjem. Placeret i det indre sydvest for nutidens Washington State, omfattede stammernes oprindelige område omkring 3.750 kvadratkilometer. Af nogle beretninger betyder navnet Cowlitz "åndelig søger." De flere talrige Nedre Cowlitz beboede 30 landsbyer langs Cowlitz-floden, cirka en kilometer fra Columbia-floden nordpå til den nuværende by Mossyrock. Upper Cowlitz boede i landsbyer øst for Mossyrock, og lejrede derefter i varmt vejr ved høje forhøjninger af Cascade Crest, derefter langs Tieton-floden flere miles øst for toppen. Om vinteren boede Cowlitz i nærheden af ​​fiskfyldte vandløb i robuste cedertræhuse . Fremførelsen af ​​dans og sang søgte at sikre tilgængelighed af mad og undgå ondt. I foråret flyttede familier til prærierne for at grave wapato (indisk kartoffel) og camas løg, som gav stivelse til deres kost. Ud over sin mad-indsamlingsfunktion, var camping en ramme for social interaktion. Da ungdommen kom, gik cowlitz-unge på faste quests for at søge visioner om en åndsguide for at hjælpe dem med at blive produktive medlemmer af stammen. På grund af deres isolerede placering, Cowlitz var strammere end andre salish-talende bands ved Columbia River og kysten. De udvekslede også varer gennem spil, hestevæddeløb og powwows. De tidligste historiske beretninger om Cowlitz begyndte i 1811 med ankomsten af ​​Pacific Fur Company -agenter fra Astoria. Denne åbning i Cowlitz -landet gav Hudson Bay Company, der fusionerede med North West Company, en chance for at handle med de indfødte. En epidemi i 1829 og 1830, der menes at være en virulent asiatisk influenza, blev båret ind af kaptajn John Domines ' Amerikansk skib Owyhee. Berørte landsbyer blev til helvedescener med sygdom og død, og befolkningerne faldt voldsomt. I midten af ​​1800-tallet voksede indfødte og ikke-indfødte forbindelser episodisk grimme som pionerer, bakket op af USA. Traktatbruddet førte til den amerikanske regerings konfiskation af område og ressourcer uden Cowlitz 'samtykke. Da krig mellem indianerne og hvide brød ud samme år, blev Cowlitz -stammen sikret, at de ville blive forbeholdt, hvis deres ophidsede unge modige ikke deltog i kampene. Imidlertid blev tilsyneladende ignoreret forsikringen om et Cowlitz -forbehold til gengæld for samarbejde.

I 1906 stævnede en Cowlitz -chef ved navn Atwin Stockum den føderale regering for at hente flere jordstykker til sin stamme og inspirerede dermed til en række tvister med regeringen over årtier. I løbet af 1900'erne forsatte Cowlitz -stammen et ensomt forsvar af sine interesser. Også i begyndelsen af ​​det 20. århundrede udviklede systemet med høvdinger sig til et system med valgte præsidenter. Desuden opstod der i 1950 en forfatningsmæssig valgfri stamrådsstruktur. Washington begyndte at håndhæve sine fiske- og dyrelivsregler mod indianere i 1920, hvilket fremkaldte konfrontationer mellem håndhævere og Cowlitz. Den langsigtede kamp blev endelig løst med udstedelse af ID-kort til Cowlitz, der gav bærere ret til at fiske og jagte for at blive forsørget.

I 1950'erne forsøgte Cowlitz at afholde byen Tacoma fra at bygge en vandkraftsdam på Cowlitz -floden nær stedet for Taoup, en gammel Cowlitz -landsby. Byen sejrede, og dæmningen bagvand oversvømmede individuelle besiddelser og stammegravsteder. I 1946 skiftede indsatsen for Cowlitz-krav til landkrav fra at behandle kongressen til den nye indiske kravskommission, der blev oprettet af USA. I 1951 indgav Cowlitz-lederne et begæring om jordkrav mod den føderale regering. Tyveogtyve år senere fandt kommissionen til fordel af Cowlitz indianerstamme ved at hævde, at regeringen i virkeligheden havde frataget stammen "... dens oprindelige indiske titel den 20. marts 1863 uden betaling af nogen kompensation derfor." Kommissionen anerkendte endvidere et samlet areal på 1,66 millioner hektar, cirka to tredjedele af det oprindelige landareal. Forliget, der blev indgået af USA, beløb sig til omkring en halv dollar acre. Gennem de sidste to årtier af århundredet pressede Cowlitz på deres bestræbelser på at vinde formel anerkendelse fra den føderale regering.


Se Indian Wars Time Table.
Native American Cultural Regions kort.


Cowlitz Indian Tribe er en føderalt anerkendt stam af Cowlitz -folk. De er en stamme på Southwestern Coast Salish og Sahaptan -folkets oprindelige folk i Pacific Northwest, der ligger i Washington.

Laks var stammens vigtigste mad, mens vildt var den vigtigste kødføde. Elg blev let drevet på sæsonen, da de flokte, og en enkelt jæger ville forfølge elgen ved hjælp af to eller tre hunde. Udover rådyr og elg jagtede de bjørn, den store hornbjergged, bæver, bjergbæver og vaskebjørn.


The Long View: History of the Cowlitz Indian Tribe

Konceptet med at definere skarpe grænser for at modregne en gruppes territorium fra en andens er typisk for angloamerikanere, men det er et fremmed begreb for indianere.

De havde løst definerede anvendelsesområder, og en gruppes territorium ville ofte overlappe stærkt med andres.

Den hvide mand har brug for grænser for at tegne sine kort, men indianere havde aldrig begrebet at kunne sige, at nogen ejer en del af Jordens Moder. Hun ejer os. Talrige forskellige grupper kan være sammen i en huckleberry patch.

Følgende grænser skal forstås i generel forstand som de grundlæggende anvendelsesområder for de fire Cowlitz Tribal -bånd.

Aboriginally havde Cowlitz den største landbase af alle de vestlige Washington-stammer.

Lad os begynde på et tidspunkt nær Yard Birds i dagens Chehalis-Centralia-område og rejse øst forbi Mount Rainiers sydlige flade til Cascade-skillet.

Drej derefter mod syd til Battleground (nær Vancouver), og fortsæt nedstrøms på Columbia River.

Landsbyerne langs gaflerne ved Lewis River var kendt som Lewis River Cowlitz Band.

De 29 landsbyer langs Cowlitz -floden fra Coweeman -floden til et stykke over Barrier Dam blev kendt som Lower Cowlitz Band.

Fjorten landsbyer opstrøms på Cowlitz -floden var de i Upper Cowlitz Band.

Fortsæt ned ad Columbia River fra mundingen af ​​Cowlitz River i yderligere 15 til 20 miles, drej til højre ind i Willapa Hills og området ved Kwalhiokwa Cowlitz Band.

Vi tager nu et sving til højre, før vi kommer til Willapa Bay og tager en linje, der tager os tilbage til vores startpunkt ved Yard Birds i Chehalis.

Cowlitz -stammen besatte hele det område, der nu er Cowlitz og Clark Counties, og dele af Lewis, Pierce, Skamania og Wahkiakum amter.

Du kan se, at Cowlitz -stammen besatte den største del af det, der nu er kendt som den sydvestlige del af staten Washington.

Omkring 1840 krydsede Cowlitz Columbia -floden og etablerede en landsby nær det nuværende sted i Rainier, Ore. Ellers var Columbia -floden den sydlige grænse for deres eksistens.

De havde en fælles grænse med Chinook på nedstrøms side af Columbia River. I nord grænser Lower Cowlitz til Chehalis -stammen, mens Upper Cowlitz grænser op til Upper Nisqually -stammen.

I øst grænsede de op til Yakama -stammen.

Næste uge: De sprog, der tales af Cowlitz -stammen.

Roy I. Rochon Wilson var en valgt leder af Cowlitz -stammen i tre årtier og er forfatter til mere end 30 bøger, herunder flere historier om Cowlitz -stammen. Han er en pensioneret ordineret metodistpræst og nuværende åndelig leder for stammen. Wilson bor i nærheden af ​​Winlock.


Roy I. Rochon Wilson: History of the Cowlitz Indian Tribe

De fire divisioner eller bands i Cowlitz -stammen var konsekvensen af ​​geografiske, historiske og sproglige faktorer.

Undersøgelsen af ​​de sproglige faktorer er ganske interessant, fordi Cowlitz -stammen var usædvanlig, men ikke unik, i at have inddelinger, der var forskellige i sprog: Salishan og Sahaptin. Cowlitz var den sydligste af de Salish -talende stammer, der boede i det vestlige Washington og British Columbia.

Ifølge Horatio Hale adskilte Nisqually, Chehalis, Cowlitz og Tillamook sig "betydeligt på dialekt." Paul Kane sagde, at "Cowlitz også har deres separate tale." George Simpson sagde: "Hver flod langs kysten er beboet af en anden stamme, der taler et andet sprog eller en anden dialekt."

Hver stamme talte sin egen dialekt, og lingvisterne siger, at disse dialekter blev opdelt i to serier: "K" -dialektserien og "C" -serien. De nordlige og sydlige Salish -talende stammer talte dialekter i "C" -serien, mens de centrale stammer talte dialekt i "K" -serien.

Cowlitz var den eneste stamme, der talte dialekter i begge serier.

Upper Cowlitz og Lewis River Cowlitz talte en dialekt af "K" -serien, mens Lower Cowlitz og Kwalhiokwa Cowlitz talte en dialekt af "C" -serien.

Da hver af stammerne ikke forstod dialekten fra deres nabostamme, kommunikerede de med hinanden i det fælles handelsstam mellem stammer-Chinook Jargon.

Upper Cowlitz havde en fælles grænse med Yakama og Sahaptin -talende bands i Yakama og Klickitat. Cowlitz-Yakama-stien tillod mange Upper Cowlitz at vove sig over kaskaden Opdel i Sahaptin-talende land, og gennem århundrederne bragte mange af disse Upper Cowlitz-mænd tilbage Sahaptin-talende koner, derfor blev Taidnapam-dialekten i Sahaptin i løbet af denne tid et almindeligt sprog af Upper Cowlitz.

Klickitats var de rejsende handelshandlere, der ikke kun rejste langt mod øst, men også rejste mod vest gennem Lewis River -landet.

Over tid forblev mange af dem i Cowlitz-landet og giftede sig med Lewis River Cowlitz. Upper Cowlitz og Lewis River Cowlitz blev ofte identificeret ved deres Taidnapam -dialektnavn.

Da de hvide mænd ankom til stedet, talte Cowlitz flersproget to forskellige dialekter af Salish, Taidnapam-dialekten fra Sahaptin og det intertribale handelssprog-Chinook Jargon. Med den hvide mands ankomst fandt de det nødvendigt også at lære at tale engelsk og fransk. Hvorfor blev de af mange betragtet som dumme, uvidende vilde?

Så sent som i 1950 stødte antropologer stadig på enklaver fra Cowlitz, med hvem der skulle kræves tolke, fordi de havde ringe eller ingen brug for det engelske sprog.

Vi har 26 bogstaver i vores engelske alfabet, men der er 46 bogstaver i Lower Cowlitz -alfabetet. Salish -sproget har mange dybe gutturale lyde, der næsten var umulige for den hvide mand at ytre.

Nogle af Upper Cowlitz stednavne er stadig med os, f.eks. "Cispus", navnet på en mytologisk kriger.

Skyo Mountain, nær Packwood var til Upper Cowlitz "tiska'ya", der betyder "skunk".

Skookumchuck kommer fra en kombination af to ord i det intertribale handelssprog: "skookum", der betyder "kraftfuld" og "chuck", der betyder vand.

Næste uge: De værktøjer, der bruges af indianerstammen Cowlitz.

Roy I. Rochon Wilson var en valgt leder af Cowlitz -stammen i tre årtier og er forfatter til mere end 30 bøger, herunder flere historier om Cowlitz -stammen. Han er en pensioneret ordineret metodistpræst og nuværende åndelig leder for stammen. Wilson bor i nærheden af ​​Winlock.


Respekthistorie flettet ind i Pendletons partnerskab med Cowlitz Tribe

Nadia Niaitin kontrollerer kvaliteten af ​​en rulle vævet uld på Pendletons Washougal -mølle. Fotos af Nathan Howard/The Columbian Photo Gallery

COWLITZ INDIAN RESERVATION — I slutningen af ​​sit show satte Nick Offerman sin guitar i nærheden af ​​sin personligt håndlavede ukulele, tog en bue og begav sig af scenen i Cowlitz Ballroom.

Men sangerinden, skuespilleren og komikeren, der er bedst kendt for sin rolle på NBC ’s “Parks and Recreation ” nåede ikke til trappen.

To Cowlitz Indian Tribe -medlemmer klædt i stil med deres forfædre guidede Offerman tilbage til centrum. De foldede et flerfarvet tæppe ud og viklede det rundt på entertainerens skuldre, da et andet stammemedlem fortalte publikum, at tæppet blev givet som en gave.

Offerman greb øjeblikket og greb tæppet. Derefter kiggede han ned i et af tæppens hjørner og opdagede et mærke.

“Det er en Pendleton! ” udbrød han.

Offerman var kun den seneste Cowlitz Ballroom entertainer, der var draperet i stammetæppet. Andre omfatter sangerinden LeAnn Rimes, komikerne Amy Schumer og Jay Leno samt rockbandet REO Speedwagon fra 1970’erne.

Foræringen af ​​et stammetæppe vævet på Pendleton Woolen Mills kan endnu ikke kaldes en tradition, da kasinoet mellem Ridgefield og La Center knap er to år gammelt, og festsalen åbnede sidste år. På dette tidspunkt er det mere en praksis. Det blev startet af stammemedlem David Barnett, som var medvirkende til casinoets oprindelse og tog de nødvendige skridt til at skabe tæppet, for det meste for at blive givet til stammen ’s 4.200 medlemmer.

Barnett siger, at han anerkendte historien om Pendletons forhold til stammer og virksomhedens dygtighed til stammetæpper, da han sidste år søgte bistand til at væve et Cowlitz -tæppe. På den måde sluttede Cowlitz sig til andre indianerstammer, der har fået tæpper skabt af det privatejede, ærværdige mærke i Portland.

Lang historie

Pendleton Woolen Mill blev inkorporeret 16. februar 1909 i Pendleton, Ore. Maskiner blev købt gennem en obligationsudstedelse i Pendleton sammen med penge fra en familie, der var dybt knyttet til uldindustrien. C.P. Biskop, familiepatriark, var Pendleton Woolen Mill ’s første præsident.

Tidligere var en købmand i Salem, Ore., Bishop gift med Martha Ann “Fannie ” Kay, som var en afgørende rådgiver for hendes far i driften af ​​hans Thomas Kay Mill i Salem, Ore. Ifølge Pendleton -virksomhedens historie, Fannie lovede at få sin egen mølle, da hendes ældste bror arvede Thomas Kay Mill. Gennem hendes indsats og andre vendte uldproduktionen tilbage til det østlige Oregon i form af Pendleton Woolen Mill.

Virksomheden krediterer Fannie Kay Bishop for at vejlede møllens formative udvikling, i høj grad ved at opdrage tre sønner, der en dag ville blive Pendletons ejere.

En af hendes tre sønner, C.M. “Clarence ” Bishop, købte Washougal uldmølle i 1912.

I dag er Pendleton i sin sjette generation af familieejerskab.

Ved begyndelsen af ​​det 20. århundrede var der mere end tusind uldne tekstilfabrikker i Amerika. I dag er der tre, og Pendleton ejer to af dem — i Pendleton og Washougal.

Stammeforhold

Pendletons forhold til indianerstammer er næsten lige så lange som virksomhedens historie. Lokale stammer var virksomhedens første kunder, begyndende med de første tæpper produceret i september 1909.

“Pendleton og stammerne har en gensidig respekt for hinanden, ” sagde virksomheden i en erklæring, der ledsagede en beretning om sin historie, “ bundet sammen af ​​en arv på 110 år. ”

Forholdet stivnede i 1910 med den første Pendleton Round-Up rodeo. Arrangørerne af den første begivenhed ønskede, at stammer skulle deltage, men var usikre på, at det ville ske. De søgte hjælp fra Roy Bishop. Bishop, en af ​​Fannie Kay Bishop ’s tre sønner, overtalte områdestammer til at deltage i Pendleton Round-Up i 1910. Stammer har deltaget siden.

Pendleton ’s første tæppedesigner, Joe Rawnsley, tilbragte ofte måneder med lokale stammer og lærte deres præferencer for elementer i deres tæpper. Stammetæpperne blev konstrueret dengang som nu i jacquard -metoden og skabte vævede mønstre i et struktureret uldstof.

I dag producerer virksomheden tæpper til stammer, ikke kun i det nordvestlige Stillehav, men i hele USA, sagde talskvinde Linda Parker, der afviste at afsløre antallet af stammekunder.

Typisk er tilpassede tæpper ikke til kommercielle formål, ” sagde virksomheden i en erklæring. De er givet til ære for begivenheder på livets rejse: fødsel, ægteskab, voksen alder, eksamen og endda død samt særlige fester og gaver. ”

Disse specialkørte stammetæpper er ikke tilgængelige for offentligt salg. Men Pendleton producerer en anden type stammetæppe, dvs.

I samarbejde med indianske kunstnere producerer virksomheden tæpper og donerer en del af salgsindtægterne til American Indian College Fund. Et College Fund Collection -tæppe introduceres hvert år mest detail for $ 319. I 1990 etablerede Pendleton et stipendium til college -fonde, der nu er vurderet til mere end $ 1 million. American Indian College Fund har hjulpet mere end 1.000 studerende, siger virksomheden.

I begyndelsen af ​​april afslørede Pawnee-Yakama-kunstneren Bunky Echo-Hawk i år tæppe for College Fund Fund. Echo-Hawk præsenterede det første tæppe for sin ven, Wieden + Kennedy medstifter David Kennedy, en mangeårig tilhænger af College Fund. Afsløringen og præsentationen fandt sted på reklamebureauets hovedkvarter i Portland.

Washougal

Vævning af stammetæpper finder sted på møllen i Pendleton. Men efterbehandling af tæpper — inklusive trimning og syning på stofkanter samt stammelapper — finder sted i Washougal.

Washougal -møllen er en sammenstilling. Dens ydervægge, indvendige møbler og robuste maskiner er farvet i triste nuancer af mursten, beton og stål. Men garnerullerne i enorme rullende kurve, der vælter gennem væve og stablet som færdige, vævede produkter er en kakofoni af eksploderende farve.

Omkring et dusin arbejdere forberedte jacquardtæpper i forskellige designs under et besøg for nylig. Nogle trimmede enorme ruller af stoffet til deres 64 x 80 tommer, mens andre arbejdere syede kanterne og endnu andre foldede tæpperne, vedhæftede produktinformation og lagde dem i Pendleton-kasser.

I et nærliggende hjørnekontor holdt et grønt arkiv skuffer fulde af stablede lapper, der afventer fremtidig vedhæftning til tæpper. Næsten alle de læderlignende patches indeholdt detaljer om en stamme, tæppet designer og andre oplysninger.

Patchen til Cowlitz Indian Tribe indeholder logoet for fisk-floden-bjergene, tæppens nummer i det pågældende løb og navnene på tæppekunstneren — Jeanne St. Martin — og den fyr, der betalte for tæppe, David Barnett.

Barnett, et stammemedlem, krediteres med at have lagt grunden, der førte til Cowlitz Indian Tribe ’s partnerskab med Mohegan -stammen og etableringen af ​​ilani på de 156 hektar, der fungerer som stammens forbehold. Aftalen har gjort Barnett, en ejendomsudvikler, endnu mere velhavende, selvom han nægter at dele detaljer.

Imidlertid sagde han, at han betalte $ 150 pr. Stk. Til Pendleton for hvert af de 2.000 tæpper, han bestilte og i alt $ 300.000 $.

Han vil give et tæppe til ethvert stammemedlem over 18 år, der ønsker et. Det er hans måde at give tilbage, sagde han til stammemedlemmer, der var vidne til den næsten 20-årige indsats, der resulterede i reservationen og kasinoet.

Barnett sagde, at han og St. Martin begyndte at arbejde sammen med Pendleton for cirka tre år siden om projektet.

Galleri: Pendleton Woolen møller Fotogalleri

Tæppet indeholder elementer, han ønskede: Stamens logo og slogan — “We Are The Forever People ” — i midten og et zig-zag-mønster på to kanter, der repræsenterer stamme ’s vævning og kurv- gør dygtighed. Tæpperne indeholder også hyldest til svedestuer, heste, ørne og stammemedlemmer.

Jeg ville have hende til at tegne dem til at se ud som om de kom fra hieroglyffer i huler, der blev begravet, da de byggede dæmninger på Cowlitz -floden, ” sagde Barnett. Jeg fortalte hende, hvad jeg ville, og hun leverede. ”


HistoryLink.org

Byen La Center ligger på den nordlige bred af East Fork ved Lewis -floden i det nordvestlige Clark County, cirka 16 miles nord for amtsædet i Vancouver. Cowlitz indianere beboede en bred vifte fra så langt nord som nutidens Mossyrock til inden for få miles fra Columbia mod syd, men blev stort set fordrevet af hvide nybyggere. Tidligt La Center fungerede som handelscentrum for handel med Lewis River og havde fordel af den blomstrende tømmerindustri. Udtømning af skovene og manglen på andre industrier førte til en lang periode med tilbagegang, i 1980'erne bragte byen til kanten af ​​konkurs. En beslutning om at tillade hasardspil med kort, der er omfattet af en voldsom skat på 10 procent, leverede hårdt nødvendige indtægter. Efter år med ringe eller ingen fremgang balloner befolkningen fra mindre end 500 i 1990 til mere end 2.500 i 2010. Byen nu (2010) har ambitiøse planer for videre udvikling, men disse kan til dels afhænge af resultatet af en igangværende tvist med Cowlitz -stammen over stammens planer om at bygge et stort kasino -kompleks ved siden af ​​Interstate 5 i udkanten af ​​La Center.

Lewis Cowlitz -folket

East Fork har sin kilde i Gifford Pinchot National Forest, flyder gennem Clark County forbi La Center og munder ud i Lewis -hovedfloden lige under byen Woodland. Lewis -floden blev kaldt Cathlapotle af Chinook -indianerne, hvis hovedby lå tæt ved mundingen ved Columbia River. Cowlitz var imidlertid de oprindelige indbyggere i området.

Cowlitz -indianerne var en meget spredt stamme, der levede i små grupper spredt gennem det indre, hvad der nu er Cowlitz, Lewis og nordlige Clark amter. Stammen havde to store divisioner, den øvre og den nedre Cowlitz. Selvom de ofte delte det samme område og fulgte lignende skikke, giftede Upper Cowlitz sig med Sahaptan-talende indianere fra øst for Cascades og til sidst vedtog deres sprog, hvorimod Lower Cowlitz beholdt stammens traditionelle salishan-tunge. En undergruppe af Lower Cowlitz boede i landsbyer ved Lewis -floden og blev kendt som "Lewis Cowlitz" i det nittende århundrede, de blev ofte fejlagtigt identificeret som Klickitat.

Ordet "Cowlitz" menes at betyde "at fange medicinånden", en henvisning til en overgangsritual, hvor unge mænd ville fjerne sig selv til hellige steder langs Cowlitz -floden på faste vandreture, i fællesskab med åndeverdenen. Nogle kilder hævder, at Lewis og Clark "opdagede" Cowlitz ved Fort Clatsop i 1805, men andre er uenige, og det forekommer usandsynligt. Columbia River -kystlinjen var domineret af Chinooks, der ikke altid kom særlig godt ud af Cowlitz. Den første velregistrerede kontakt mellem stammen og vesterlændinge kom i 1811, da Astorians fra Pacific Fur Company vågede op ad Cowlitz-floden fra krydset med Columbia og havde et fredeligt møde med snesevis af Cowlitz, der rejste i floden i kanoer. Et senere og meget mindre lykkeligt møde fandt sted i 1818, da en gruppe af Iroquois -indianere ansat i North West Company overfaldt flere Cowlitz -kvinder. Den krænkede stamme dræbte en Iroquois og sårede to andre, og Iroquois tog gengæld ved at angribe en nærliggende landsby i Cowlitz og dræbte omkring et dusin.

Selvom de var inde i landet, undslap Cowlitz ikke epidemien med "periodisk feber", der begyndte at hærge kyststammer i 1829, en pest, der menes at have været importeret på et amerikansk skib, Owyhee. Da sygdommen brændte sig selv i begyndelsen af ​​1840'erne, havde den decimeret den indianske befolkning i det sydvestlige Washington. Den samlede Cowlitz -befolkning i 1800 blev anslået til 80.000 i 1860, estimaterne for de overlevende Lower Cowlitz varierede fra 150 til 350.

Cowlitz, der boede i nærheden af ​​det nuværende La Center, da de første hvide nybyggere ankom, var efter alt at dømme ikke truende, på trods af to mislykkede forsøg i begyndelsen af ​​1850'erne på at forhandle en reservationstraktat med den amerikanske regering. Cowlitz holdt sig stort set ude af de indiske krige i 1855-1856, selvom Klickitat, med hvem Lower Cowlitz i vid udstrækning havde giftet sig, deltog. Men deres fredelige hensigter blev ikke taget til pålydende værdi - mange medlemmer af stammen sad ude i krigen i tilbageholdelseslejre, pacificeret af løftet om endelig at få et acceptabelt forbehold, når fjendtlighederne sluttede. Og en Cowlitz -chef, Umtux, blev dræbt under mystiske omstændigheder i november 1855, mens han førte nogle af hans folk væk fra tilbageholdelse i Fort Vancouver på grund af frygt for, at de var ved at blive angrebet af skræmte hvide nybyggere. Umtux død var den eneste tilskadekomne, og faktisk den eneste vold, i "slaget", der førte til navngivningen af ​​byen Battle Ground.

Dette løfte om en reservation til Cowlitz skulle ikke opfyldes i flere levetider. Faktisk skete det stik modsatte. I 1863 åbnede en bekendtgørelse Cowlitz -land for hvid bosættelse, og i løbet af de følgende år blev de resterende Cowlitz yderligere spredt i hele det sydvestlige Washington og det nordlige Oregon. Stammens gradvise bortskaffelse fortsatte ind i det tyvende århundrede, da veje og til sidst jernbaner åbnede interiøret for et stadig større antal hvide nybyggere. I en ægte Catch-22 indtog forbundsregeringen den holdning, at da stammen nu var jordløs, kunne den ikke længere betragtes som en stamme.

Sent i sit liv opsummerede chef Atwin Stockam, der var over 100 år gammel, da han døde i 1912, desværre og kortfattet sin stammes historie siden nybyggernes ankomst:

"For længe siden tilhørte alt dette land indianere - laks i chuck [floden], mowich [hjorte] og moollok [elg] i bakkerne. Så kommer hvide mænd. Atwin deres ven. Nu tilhører alt dette land en hvid mand" ("De ubesatte: Cowlitz -indianerne i Cowlitz -korridoren").

Gennem den sidste halvdel af det nittende århundrede og det meste af det tyvende forsøgte Cowlitz at opretholde en stammeidentitet og opnå officiel anerkendelse, en opgave, der blev vanskeliggjort af flere omstændigheder. For det første talte Upper og Lower Cowlitz ikke engang det samme sprog, en kendsgerning, der vejede tungt imod tanken om en samlet stamme. Også Lower Cowlitz havde især frit giftet sig med flere andre stammer, mest fremtrædende Klickitats, og deres individuelle identitet var til en vis grad blevet underordnet større og mere sammenhængende grupper. Og endelig var et betydeligt antal overlevende Cowlitz "Metis", efterkommere af børn født af ægteskaber mellem Cowlitz-kvinder og fransk-canadiske fangere. Der var nok Metis til at danne Meti-samfund, ofte fransktalende og romersk-katolske, der levede adskilt fra andre Cowlitz, og dette komplicerede yderligere kampen om anerkendelse.

Chef Atwin Stockam sagsøgte den føderale regering i 1906 og søgte at inddrive flere stykker jord for sin stamme, og dette var åbningsskuddet på en række juridiske kampe, der ebbed og flød i næsten de næste 100 år. Throughout the twentieth century, the Cowlitz carried on a lonely battle for recognition, always opposed by bureaucrats and sometimes opposed by recognized tribes that feared a Cowlitz gain might be their loss. Finally, after decades of struggle, in January 2002 the Cowlitz, now 2,400 strong, were granted full recognition as a tribe, and they set about putting together a reservation.

The First Settlers

The 1850 the passage of the federal Donation Land Claims Act spurred a tidal wave of settlement across the western United States. The first non-Natives to put down permanent roots in the La Center area were John H. Timmen and Aurelius Wilkins, who in 1852 laid claims to land about five miles up the East Fork (some early histories refer to it as the "South Fork") of the Lewis River from the present townsite. John Pollock, who with his brother staked a claim on the south bank of the Lewis, arrived later that same year. These trailblazers worked clearing the land and tilling the soil, and soon a growing but scattered agricultural community was in place.

There does not appear to have been a major concentration of Cowlitz Indians in the area when the settlers arrived, but those who were there coexisted peacefully with the newcomers. However, when the Indian wars erupted in 1855, the white people living in their isolated homesteads were panicked by reports of coming attacks by "renegade" Natives. Women and children were rounded up and taken down the Lewis River to the Columbia, where they crossed to Oregon and took shelter in the St. Helens blockhouse. The men who stayed behind formed the Lewis River Rangers, a 44-man volunteer "army" that did not meet with the approval of the regular U.S. Army, stationed at Fort Vancouver to the south. But hostilities did not break out along the Lewis River, the Indian uprising was soon quelled, women and children returned, and the farmer-soldiers put down their arms and returned to work.

A Center of Commerce

For most of the 1800s, rivers were the primary means to travel into the interior of Western Washington, and it didn't take long after settlement began for commercial vessels to penetrate the lower reaches of the East Fork of the Lewis. In the early days, river traffic consisted of bringing people and supplies into the area and shipping agricultural products out. The boats, all steam-powered sternwheelers, ranged as far east as Stoughton's Landing, a few miles upriver from the future site of La Center. In the summer when the water was low, smaller vessels called lighters would ferry goods and people upriver from wherever the larger ships were forced to stop.

Some sources say that the first steamship to arrive in the vicinity of what would become La Center was the Eagle, in 1854, but others put the date as late as 1868. It is certain, however, that by 1870 there was regular scheduled commerce on the East Fork. In that year the Sluge, a 45-foot steam-powered sternwheeler, started running up and down the river, stopping at each scattered homestead to trade "dry goods and groceries for cash, butter, eggs and honey" ("Steamboat Era on Lewis River, 1854-1920"). The Swallow'scareer on the river came to an unhappy end in 1874, when she was capsized and sunk by a floating snag. Other sternwheelers making the East Fork run in those early days were the Maskot og Walker.

For reasons that are no longer apparent, the site of present-day La Center was first known as "Podunk," a name that may not then have had the negative connotations that it has today. One of the original upriver settlers, John Timmen, is credited with founding the town that is now La Center in 1871. It is also not clear just exactly what Timmen did to earn the credit as town founder, as it was a well-known riverboat captain, William G. Weir (1834-1902), who a year later built the first house there and opened its first store and post office. In any event, it was Timmen who, on December 6, 1874 (at least one source says 1875), filed the town's first plat, and wisely changed its name from Podunk to Timmen's Landing. Another small mystery is when the name "La Center" or "LaCenter" was first adopted: Some sources say that it was within a few years of the original plat others hold that the name change did not occur until the town was formally incorporated in 1909. What is undisputed is that the name was intended to convey, albeit in a mixture of French and English, the town's role as the center of commerce for northern Clark County.

In 1874 the economy of La Center was almost entirely agricultural, and Timmen donated land to H. M. Knapp, a Deputy Grand Master of the Masonic "Patrons of Husbandry," for a local Grange. Knapp built a two-story structure to house the organization, reputed to be the first grange in Washington Territory.

Taking the Forests

For the first few years of its existence, La Center was by all accounts a very quiet place, peopled mostly by farmers, dairymen, and a very few tradesmen. It was not long, however, until the potential of the area's vast timber resource was realized, and logging became the area's first real industry.

In 1876, Joseph D. Banzer (1837-1902) and a partner who is identified only as "Titus" started the area's first commercial logging operation, using oxen, Cayuse ponies, and horses to haul logs to their mill or to the river to be floated downstream to the Columbia and on to Vancouver and Portland. The company was credited with putting 700,000 feet of logs into the East Fork, although the record does not indicate the time period in which this occurred.

Despite its relative isolation, some growth took place. A woman named Mary Brazee Fairhurst added to the town plat in 1884, and the following year it would be reported that La Center, in addition to its farms and mills, had two hotels, a Methodist church, a grist mill, a brickyard, and a post of the Grand American Army of the Republic, a fraternal organization for Union veterans of the Civil War. A devastating fire destroyed the town's wharves and warehouses in 1890, but they were soon rebuilt and the small settlement continued to prosper.

The New Century

The historical record for La Center is quite sparse for the last decades of the nineteenth century, but it is clear that logging, lumber mills, dairies, and farming were what sustained the area's small population. A state government report from 1907 noted:

"LaCenter is a considerable town with a population of about 300. A prosperous dairying and mixed farming surrounds the place, while lumbering and logging are extensively carried on in the vicinity. Eight sawmills employing an average of forty men each are located within a radius of five miles of LaCenter and other are projected. Railroad ties in vast quantities are turned out at these mills. LaCenter has water communication with the outside world and also has stage connection with the Northern Pacific railroad at Ridgefield" (A Review of the Resources and Industries of Washington: 1907).

The foregoing passage illustrates both La Center's strengths and its weaknesses in the first decade of the twentieth century. Its mills may have provided hundreds of jobs to men who turned out tens of thousands of railroad ties for the new lines that were linking Northwest towns to each other and to the rest of America, but the railroad itself did not come to La Center. The nearest railroad access was at Ridgefield, which was only 10 miles distant, but those were 10 miles of bad road, incapable of handling commercial traffic of any significance.

But for the time being, La Center continued to prosper in a low-key way. The Coast magazine briefly profiled the town in its April 1909 issue, and its inventory of the town's businesses showed that progress had been made since the 1907 state report:

"Within a radius of seven miles around La Center there are at present about twelve sawmills engaged in cutting lumber and ties. These mills employ from forty to sixty men each . . Our business houses consist of four general stores, one drug store, two hotels, one restaurant, one livery stable, two blacksmith shops, one saloon, one hospital, one furniture store and one pool room" (The Coast).

But even this boosterish article contained bad news for the future of the town:

"A few years ago, north of La Center lay one of the finest forests of red and yellow fir that one would wish to see. Since that time about one-half of this forest has been marketed, and the logged-off lands are used for grazing and general farming" (The Coast).

Forests were a finite resource, one that the intensive logging around La Center was rapidly depleting. It was this logging and the mills it fed that had supported many of the town's other commercial activities, and the end of the jobs and income derived from the timber industry was on the horizon. The day was not far off when La Center would once again have to place more reliance on agriculture than on industry.

A Sleepy Town

In 1909, the voters of La Center decided to incorporate their town, and incorporated status was granted on August 27, 1909. One immediate effect of this was that the town was included in the 1910 federal census, and all censuses that followed. During the twentieth century, La Center remained a sleepy rural town.

The 13th Federal Census of 1910 showed stunning growth across almost all of Washington state, with the population expanding by more than 620,000, easily doubling since the previous census of 1900. And although this explosive growth slowed considerably in later decades, the state's overall population continued to expand, but La Center's did not. In 1910, the population of La Center was 288, a figure that it was not to reach again until 60 years later. By 1920, the town had only 167 residents by 1930 it had rebounded slightly, to 219. But 1940 showed another decline, to 193, and 1950 was only slightly better, with 204 residents. Between 1910 and 1950 the population of Clark County more than tripled, from approximately 26,000 to over 85,000. In that same period, the population of La Center dropped by more than 40 percent.

The tiny town had bucolic charm and peaceful country living. Yet it did not have the industrial or commercial base to support population growth. Even the routing of the original State Route 1/Pacific Highway through La Center in 1918 didn't seem to help -- thousands of newly mobile travelers passed by, but few lingered.

Gambling on the Future

During the second half of the twentieth century the little town did grow. By 1970, La Center had 300 residents, the most since counts were started 60 years earlier, and by 1990, 483 people called it home. But despite the modest increase in population, in the 1980s La Center was in dire financial straits. A moratorium on new construction was imposed due to the inadequacy of the town's sewage plant, and the wells that provided water were running dry. Given the lack of commercial activity, and the small number of residences, the tax base was insufficient to fund basic town services. Facing bankruptcy, in 1985 La Center became the only town in Clark County to license card-room gambling, and imposed a 10 percent tax on the activity. This step was not supported by everyone, but there is no doubt that it saved the town from financial ruin.

The revenues from the gambling tax breathed new life into La Center. Clark County also stepped in to help, taking over the town's water and sewage treatment facilities. Roads were repaired, and money became available to extend town services to new developments. By 2002, nearly 75 percent of the town's revenues came from the gambling tax ($3,176,413). Of more importance, these revenues allowed La Center to break out of its long slumber and attract new residents, and with them, new businesses. In recent years the town has been able to lower the gambling tax as other streams of revenue have increased.

The effect of the gambling tax on the growth of La Center has been dramatic. Without that revenue, the town may not have survived. Instead, growth exploded during the 1990s. New housing developments were built, including Southview Heights, which opened in 1995 and drew many new residents to the area, most of whom commute to work in the nearby commercial centers of Vancouver and Portland. Between 1990 and 2000, the population of La Center ballooned from 483 to 1,654 residents, or by nearly 250 percent. By April 1910, that number had increased to more than 2,500. Freed from the constraints of poverty, the city now hopes to secure its future by annexing approximately 1,675 acres from its urban growth area, a huge increase over the current 650 acres.

The Return of the Cowlitz

Given the dispossession of the Cowlitz Indians that took place over 100 years ago, it is ironic that the tribe is now perceived by many to pose the greatest threat to La Center's longterm economic health. Although new population and commercial activity has served to broaden the town's tax base, gambling-tax revenue is still crucial to its economic well-being, and the Cowlitz Tribe's plans to provide money and jobs for its 3,000 enrolled members have put it into conflict with the town.

Having fought for decades for tribal recognition, the Cowlitz are engaged in a new and protracted battle, this time over its proposal to create an "initial reservation" and develop a $500 million casino on 152 acres of land that it owns adjacent to Interstate 5 on the outskirts of La Center ("Cowlitz Casino Resort"). Among the town's primary concerns are the effect the project would have on its own gambling revenues, and on its roads and schools. So far, all attempts at compromise have failed. The final Environmental Impact Statement for the tribe's proposal was issued on May 30, 2008, but no final decision on the fate of the project has yet (June 2010) been reached.

There are persuasive arguments on both sides of the Cowlitz Casino controversy, and historical truths that weigh heavily on the relationship between the tribe and its neighbors. But whatever happens, the little town of La Center has endured decades of adversity, and in more recent years has brought itself back from the brink of ruin. Regardless of the outcome of the current dispute, there is every reason to think that La Center will continue to grow and prosper in future years.

Washington State Department of Commerce

Mary Kiona (1868-1970), famed Cowlitz basket weaver, n.d.

Courtesy United States Forest Service

People posing with large cedar tree, La Center, 1892

Courtesy Clark County Historical Museum (Image No. P15.18.3)

Flood damage, East Fork Lewis River, La Center, 1894

Courtesy Clark County Historical Museum (Image No. P24.1.5.3)

Main Street, La Center, 1899

Courtesy Clark County Historical Museum (Image No. P15.18.0.2B)

La Center, looking south, ca. 1900

Courtesy Clark County Historical Museum (Image No. P15.18.4.5)

View of La Center looking north, bridge across East Fork of Lewis River, n.d.

Courtesy Clark County Historical Museum (Image No. P24.1.5.2)

Steamer La Center at dock, East Fork Lewis River, La Center, ca. 1910


Cowlitz Tribe

This article contains interesting facts, pictures and information about the life of the Cowlitz Native American Tribe of the Northwest Pacific Coast.

Facts about the Cowlitz Native Indian Tribe: Flatheads
The Cowlitz tribe were a Native American Indian people, members of the Chinook nation, who controlled areas on the western part of the Columbia river. The Cowlitz tribe belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, yet shared a similar lifestyle to the inland tribes. The Cowlitz people were organized into settlements that consisted of plankhouses made from the abundant cedar trees. The Cowlitz tribe were many of the Northwest Native Indians who used tattoos to decorate their skins and re-shaped their heads according to the customs of their people. This drastic change in their appearance and their elongated, flat heads led to the nickname of 'Flatheads'. Refer to the Flathead article to learn more about their lifestyle and method of creating the elongated and flat shape of their heads.

Facts about the Cowlitz Native Indian Tribe: Lifestyle
As can be seen by the following map the people of the Cowlitz tribe lived in close proximity to many other Native Indian tribes. The Cowlitz tribe consists of two distinct groups: the Upper Cowlitz (Taidnapam) and the Lower Cowlitz (Kwalhiokwa). The Lower Cowlitz occupied 30 villages along the Cowlitz River from modern day Mossyrock southward to within a mile of the Columbia River. There lifestyle was similar with their neighbors and details of the types of clothes they wore, their religion, the food they ate, their plank houses and their dugout canoes. For details of their way of life refer to the Chinook Tribe.

Facts about the Cowlitz Native Indian Tribe: Mount Coffin - Cowlitz Burial Ground
Mount Coffin was a headland in what is now Longview, Cowlitz County, Washington. Coffin Mountain was so called because it was the burial site of the Cowlitz (Skillute) tribe. The Cowlitz burial site consisted of a great number of canoes that contained the bodies of Native Indians, each being carefully wrapped in blankets, and supplied with many of his personal effects in the form of jewelry, clothes, blankets, baskets, weapons and tools.

Facts about the Cowlitz Native Indian Tribe: Religion and Beliefs
The Cowlitz tribe were great fishers, and believed that the salmon were a divine gift from the wolf-spirit Talapus. The wolf-spirit Talapus was believed to have created the salmon to save the Cowlitz from extinction at a legendary time of near disaster. The Cowlitz tribe celebrated the 'First Salmon feast' which honored the salmon. The name Cowlitz means "seeker" in a spiritual sense and reflects their tradition of undertaking Vision Quests.

Where did the Cowlitz tribe live?
The Cowlitz are people of the Northwest Coast Native American cultural group, often referred to as Flatheads. The location of their tribal homelands are shown on the map, in the interior southwest of what is now the State of Washington. The geography of the region in which they lived dictated the lifestyle and culture of the tribe.

  • They lived in the Pacific Northwest coastal region in the state of Washington.
  • The location of their villages were along the north side of the Columbia River
  • Land: Tall dense forests, oceans, mountains and rivers. The climate consisted of hot summers and cold, rain drenched winters
  • Animals: The animals included Mountain goats and sheep, racoon, beaver, deer, moose, bear and elk
  • Fish: Shell fish, sturgeon and salmon
  • Natural Resources: Red cedar trees, berries, seeds, bulbs, roots, forests, mountains, rivers

Map showing location of the
Cowlitz Tribe

The Cowlitz Tribe: The Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Lewis and Clark expedition made contact with the Cowlitz tribe in 1806. The following article, Journals of Lewis and Clark: Native Indians, provides details of their encounters with the Native American Indians who inhabited the region. On April 20th, 1806, Meriwether Lewis wrote of the Skillutes (Cowlitz) ". they are poor, dirty, proud, haughty, inhospitable, parsimonious and faithless in every respect, nothing but our numbers I believe prevents their attempting to murder us at this moment. & quot

Who were the most famous leaders and chiefs of the Cowlitz tribe?
The most famous leaders and chiefs of the tribe included Chief Atwin Stockam, Chief Cheholtz, Chief Kiscox and Chief Schanewa.


The original language of Cowlitz tribes, the Cowlitz language, belonged to the Salishan family of languages among Northwest Coast indigenous peoples. Later, the Upper Cowlitz adopted the Sahaptin language from east of the Cascade Mountains. Modeste Demers reported that the Cowlitz peoples were fluent in Chinook Jargon. [6]

The Cowlitz Indian Tribe were federally recognized on February 14, 2000, and their acknowledgement was reaffirmed in 2002. They are now recognized officially by the United States federal government, and are in the process of establishing federally recognized tribal lands (such as on a reservation) near Longview, Washington. The tribal offices are in Longview, Washington.

The Cowlitz political system evolved:

"from a strong system of chiefs, to an elective presidential system in the early 20th century and a constitutional elective Tribal Council system after 1950. Chief How-How (c. 1815), Chief Kiscox (c. 1850), Chief Umtux (c. 1850), Chief Scanewa (c. 1855), Chief Richard Scanewa (c. 1860) and Chief Antoine Stockum [Atwin Stokum] (1878) led the Cowlitz in the 19th century. Twentieth century figures include Chief Baptiste Kiona (1912), President Dan Plamondon (1921), President John Ike Kinswa (1922), Chairman John B. Sareault (c. 1925), Chairman Jas. E. Sareault (c. 1930), Chairman Manual L. Forrest (1950), Chairman Joseph Cloquet (1959), Chairman Clifford Wilson (1961) and Chairman Roy Wilson (1974)." [7]


Adresse: 1055 9th Avenue Suite B, Longview, WA 98632
Phone: (360) 577-8140
Email: Kontakter – Choose a department, then click on a name for their email address

Recognition Status: Federally Recognized

Traditional Name / Traditional Meaning: Upper Cowlitz: Taidnapam, and Lower Cowlitz: Kwalhiokwa

Common Name / Meaning of Common Name:

Alternate names / Alternate spellings / Mispellings:

Name in other languages:

Område: Pacific Northwest

State(s) Today: Washington

Traditional Territory:

The Cowlitz tribe was historically based along the Cowlitz and Lewis Rivers, as well as having a strong presence at Fort Vancouver.

Confederacy: Salish

Reservations: The Cowlitz Reservation was established in 2010 near La Center, in Clark County, Washington.
Land område:
Tribal Headquarters: Longview, Washington
Time Zone: Pacific

Population at Contact:

Registered Population Today: Over 2,000.

Tribal Enrollment Requirements:

Genealogy Resources:

Charter:
Name of Governing Body:
Number of Council members: 16, plus executive officers
Dates of Constitutional amendments:
Number of Executive Officers: Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary, Treasurer

Language Classification:

Salishian -> Tsamosan -> Inland -> Cowlitz

Language Dialects:

The Cowlitz people were originally two distinct tribes: the Lower Cowlitz and the Upper Cowlitz. Only the Lower Cowlitz (Northwest Coast) spoke Cowlitz the Upper Cowlitz, (east of the Cascade Mountains), were a Sahaptin speaking tribe, and spoke a dialect of Yakama.

Number of fluent Speakers:

Bands, Gens, and Clans

Related Tribes:

Traditional Allies:

Traditional Enemies:

Ceremonies / Dances: Smelt, Salmon and River Ceremonies

Modern Day Events & Tourism:

The Cowlitz Pow-Wow is one of the largest in southern Washington.

Legends / Oral Stories:

Art & Crafts:

The Cowlitz produced fully imbricated (scalloped or overlapping edges), coiled baskets with strong geometric designs. These were made of bear grass, cedar root, horse tail root and cedar bark and were used to gather berries and fruits. Such baskets were often repaired and kept through many generations.

Subsistance:

Economy Today:

Religion & Spiritual Beliefs:

Burial Customs:

Wedding Customs

Radio:
Aviser:

Salish Chiefs and Leaders:

Chief Scanewea
Chief How-How (Circa 1815)
Chief Kiscox (Circa 1850)
Chief Umtux (Circa 1850)
Chief Scanewa (Circa 1855)
Chief Richard Scanewa (Circa 1860)
Chief Antoine Stockum [Atwin Stokum] (1878)


Welcome

Welcome to Cowlitz Indians. I am changing my selection of which tribe I am studying. I originally selected the Chinook Indians, however, I have come to realize that I live in the heart of the Cowlitz Indian territory. I am very interested in the Cowlitz Indians and learning their history, hopefully attend the Pow Wow this year. As I go through my class I hope to add as much information about this tribe as I can and learn their ways and their history. I am hoping to learn and share as much about this tribe as I can. I chose this tribe because of their relation to the Columbia and Cowlitz Rivers. The Columbia River is such a vital feature to the Pacific Northwest and has affected almost every person in Washington and Oregon.


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