Mohandas Gandhi - Biografi, fakta og overbevisninger

Mohandas Gandhi - Biografi, fakta og overbevisninger

Vært verden over for sin ikke-voldelige filosofi om passiv modstand, var Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi kendt for sine mange tilhængere som Mahatma, eller "den stor-sjælede." Han begyndte sin aktivisme som indisk immigrant i Sydafrika i begyndelsen af ​​1900'erne, og i årene efter første verdenskrig blev han den ledende skikkelse i Indiens kamp for at opnå uafhængighed fra Storbritannien. Gandhi, der var kendt for sin asketiske livsstil-ofte kun klædt i lænde og sjal-og from hinduistisk tro, blev fængslet flere gange under sin forfølgelse af manglende samarbejde og foretog en række sultestrejker for at protestere mod undertrykkelsen af ​​Indiens fattigste klasser, blandt andre uretfærdigheder. Efter delingen i 1947 fortsatte han med at arbejde mod fred mellem hinduer og muslimer. Gandhi blev skudt ihjel i Delhi i januar 1948 af en hinduistisk fundamentalist.

Tidligt liv

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi blev født den 2. oktober 1869 på Porbandar i den nuværende indiske delstat Gujarat. Hans far var dewan (chefminister) i Porbandar; hans dybt religiøse mor var en hengiven udøver af Vaishnavisme (tilbedelse af den hinduistiske gud Vishnu), påvirket af jainisme, en asketisk religion styret af principper om selvdisciplin og ikke-vold. I en alder af 19 forlod Mohandas hjemmet for at studere jura i London ved det indre tempel, en af ​​byens fire juraskoler. Da han vendte tilbage til Indien i midten af ​​1891, oprettede han en advokatpraksis i Bombay, men fik kun lidt succes. Han accepterede snart en stilling hos et indisk firma, der sendte ham til sit kontor i Sydafrika. Sammen med sin kone, Kasturbai og deres børn, forblev Gandhi i Sydafrika i næsten 20 år.

Gandhi blev forfærdet over den diskrimination, han oplevede som indisk immigrant i Sydafrika. Da en europæisk magistrat i Durban bad ham tage sin turban af, nægtede han og forlod retssalen. På en togrejse til Pretoria blev han smidt ud af et førsteklasses jernbaneafdeling og banket ned af en hvid vognmand efter at have nægtet at opgive sit sæde for en europæisk passager. Denne togrejse tjente som et vendepunkt for Gandhi, og han begyndte snart at udvikle og undervise i begrebet satyagraha ("sandhed og fasthed") eller passiv modstand, som en måde for manglende samarbejde med myndigheder.

Fødsel af passiv modstand

I 1906, efter at Transvaal -regeringen havde vedtaget en bekendtgørelse om registrering af dens indiske befolkning, ledede Gandhi en kampagne for civil ulydighed, der ville vare i de næste otte år. I sin sidste fase i 1913 gik hundredvis af indianere, der boede i Sydafrika, herunder kvinder, i fængsel, og tusinder af strejkende indiske minearbejdere blev fængslet, pisket og endda skudt. Endelig, under pres fra de britiske og indiske regeringer, accepterede Sydafrikas regering et kompromis, der blev forhandlet af Gandhi og general Jan Christian Smuts, som omfattede vigtige indrømmelser såsom anerkendelse af indiske ægteskaber og afskaffelse af den eksisterende meningsmåling for indianere.

I juli 1914 forlod Gandhi Sydafrika for at vende tilbage til Indien. Han støttede den britiske krigsindsats i 1. verdenskrig, men forblev kritisk over for koloniale myndigheder for foranstaltninger, han følte var uretfærdige. I 1919 lancerede Gandhi en organiseret kampagne for passiv modstand som reaktion på parlamentets vedtagelse af Rowlatt -love, som gav koloniale myndigheder nødbeføjelser til at undertrykke subversive aktiviteter. Han bakkede op, efter at vold brød ud-herunder massakren af ​​britisk-ledede soldater af omkring 400 indianere, der deltog i et møde i Amritsar-men kun midlertidigt, og i 1920 var han den mest synlige skikkelse i bevægelsen for indisk uafhængighed.

Leder af en bevægelse

Som en del af sin ikke-voldelige ikke-samarbejdskampagne for hjemmestyre, understregede Gandhi betydningen af ​​økonomisk uafhængighed for Indien. Han gik især ind for fremstilling af khaddar eller hjemmespundet stof for at erstatte importerede tekstiler fra Storbritannien. Gandhis veltalenhed og omfavnelse af en asketisk livsstil baseret på bøn, faste og meditation gav ham ærbødighed for sine tilhængere, der kaldte ham Mahatma (sanskrit for "den stor-sjælede"). Gandhi blev investeret med alle myndigheder fra den indiske nationale kongres (INC eller Congress Party) og gjorde uafhængighedsbevægelsen til en massiv organisation, der førte boykot af britiske producenter og institutioner, der repræsenterede britisk indflydelse i Indien, herunder lovgivere og skoler.

Efter at sporadisk vold brød ud, annoncerede Gandhi modstandsbevægelsens afslutning, til forskrækkelse for hans tilhængere. Britiske myndigheder anholdt Gandhi i marts 1922 og forsøgte ham for oprør; han blev idømt seks års fængsel, men blev løsladt i 1924 efter at have været opereret for blindtarmsbetændelse. Han afstod fra aktiv deltagelse i politik i de næste flere år, men lancerede i 1930 en ny civil ulydighedskampagne mod koloniregeringens skat på salt, som i høj grad påvirkede indianernes fattigste borgere.

En delt bevægelse

I 1931, efter at britiske myndigheder havde givet nogle indrømmelser, afbød Gandhi igen modstandsbevægelsen og gik med til at repræsentere kongrespartiet ved Round Table Conference i London. I mellemtiden blev nogle af hans partifæller - især Mohammed Ali Jinnah, en ledende stemme for Indiens muslimske mindretal - frustrerede over Gandhis metoder og hvad de så som mangel på konkrete gevinster. Gandhi blev anholdt, da han kom tilbage af en nyligt aggressiv kolonialregering, og begyndte en række sultestrejker i protest mod behandlingen af ​​Indiens såkaldte "urørlige" (de fattigere klasser), som han omdøbte Harijans eller "Guds børn". Fasten forårsagede et oprør blandt hans tilhængere og resulterede i hurtige reformer af det hinduistiske samfund og regeringen.

I 1934 meddelte Gandhi, at han trak sig tilbage fra politik i, såvel som sin fratrædelse fra kongrespartiet for at koncentrere sin indsats om at arbejde i landdistrikterne. Gandhi blev trukket tilbage i den politiske kamp ved udbruddet af Anden Verdenskrig og tog igen kontrol over INC og krævede en britisk tilbagetrækning fra Indien til gengæld for indisk samarbejde med krigsindsatsen. I stedet fængslede britiske styrker hele kongressens ledelse og bragte de anglo-indiske forhold til et nyt lavpunkt.

Gandhis opdeling og død

Efter at Labour Party overtog magten i Storbritannien i 1947, begyndte forhandlinger om indisk hjemmestyre mellem briterne, Congress Party og Muslim League (nu ledet af Jinnah). Senere samme år gav Storbritannien Indien sin uafhængighed, men opdelte landet i to herredømme: Indien og Pakistan. Gandhi var stærkt imod Partition, men han gik med til det i håb om, at hinduer og muslimer efter uafhængighed kunne opnå fred internt. Midt i de massive optøjer, der fulgte efter Partitionen, opfordrede Gandhi hinduer og muslimer til at leve fredeligt sammen og foretog en sultestrejke, indtil optøjer i Calcutta ophørte.

I januar 1948 gennemførte Gandhi endnu en faste, denne gang for at skabe fred i byen Delhi. Den 30. januar, 12 dage efter at fasten sluttede, var Gandhi på vej til et aftenbønnemøde i Delhi, da han blev skudt ihjel af Nathuram Godse, en hinduistisk fanatiker, der var rasende over Mahatmas bestræbelser på at forhandle med Jinnah og andre muslimer. Den næste dag fulgte cirka 1 million mennesker processionen, da Gandhis lig blev ført i stat gennem byens gader og kremeret på bredden af ​​den hellige Jumna -flod.

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Biografi af Mohandas Gandhi, indisk uafhængighedsleder

Mohandas Gandhi (2. oktober 1869 - 30. januar 1948) var far til den indiske uafhængighedsbevægelse. Mens han kæmpede for diskrimination i Sydafrika, udviklede Gandhi sig satyagraha, en ikke -voldelig måde at protestere mod uretfærdighed. Da han vendte tilbage til sit fødested i Indien, brugte Gandhi sine resterende år på at afslutte britisk styre i sit land og forbedre livet for Indiens fattigste klasser.

Hurtige fakta: Mohandas Gandhi

  • Kendt for: Leder for Indiens uafhængighedsbevægelse
  • Også kendt som: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Mahatma ("Great Soul"), nationens far, Bapu ("far"), Gandhiji
  • Født: 2. oktober 1869 i Porbandar, Indien
  • Forældre: Karamchand og Putlibai Gandhi
  • Døde: 30. januar 1948 i New Delhi, Indien
  • Uddannelse: Jura, indre tempel, London, England
  • Udgivne værker: Mohandas K. Gandhi, Selvbiografi: Historien om mine eksperimenter med sandhed,Frihedens kamp
  • Ægtefælle: Kasturba Kapadia
  • Børn: Harilal Gandhi, Manilal Gandhi, Ramdas Gandhi, Devdas Gandhi
  • Bemærkelsesværdigt citat: "Det virkelige mål for ethvert samfund kan findes i, hvordan det behandler sine mest sårbare medlemmer."

Mahatma Gandhi Biografi: Familie, historie, bevægelser og fakta

Mahatma Gandhi blev født den 2. oktober 1869 på Porbandar, Gujarat. Hvert år den 2. oktober observeres Gandhi Jayanti. I år markerer dagen 151 års fødselsdag.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi eller Mahatma Gandhi var en kendt frihedsaktivist og en autoritær eller magtfuld politisk leder, der havde spillet en vigtig rolle i Indiens kamp for uafhængighed mod det britiske styre i Indien. Han blev også betragtet som landets far. Uden tvivl havde han også forbedret livet for Indiens fattige mennesker. Hans fødselsdag fejres hvert år som Gandhi Jayanti. Hans ideologi om sandhed og ikke-vold påvirkede mange og blev også vedtaget af Martin Luther og Nelson Mandela for deres kampbevægelse.

Den 30. januar blev Mahatma Gandhi myrdet af Nathuram Godse, og denne dag betragtes som Martyrs dag eller Shaheed Diwas.

Fulde navn: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Født: 2. oktober 1869
Fødselssted: Porbandar, Gujarat
Død: 30. januar 1948
Dødssted: Delhi, Indien
Dødsårsag: Skudt med pistol eller attentat
Far: Karamchand Gandhi
Mor: Putlibai Gandhi
Nationalitet: Indisk
Ægtefælle: Kasturba Gandhi
Børn: Harilal Gandhi, Manilal Gandhi, Ramdas Gandhi og Devdas Gandhi
Erhverv: Advokat, politiker, aktivist, forfatter

I Sydafrika i omkring 20 år protesterede Mahatma Gandhi mod uretfærdigheder og racediskrimination ved hjælp af den ikke-voldelige metode til protester. Hans forenklede livsstil vandt ham, beundrere, både i Indien og omverdenen. Han blev populært kendt som Bapu (far).

"Den bedste måde at finde dig selv på er at miste dig selv i andres tjeneste." - Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi: Tidligt liv og familiebaggrund

Han blev født den 2. oktober 1869 i Porbandar, Gujarat. Hans fars navn var Karamchand Gandhi og hans mors navn var Putlibai. I en alder af 13 var Mahatma Gandhi gift med Kasturba, som er et arrangeret ægteskab. De havde fire sønner, nemlig Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas og Devdas. Hun støttede alle hendes mands bestræbelser indtil hendes død i 1944.

Hans far var Dewan eller chefminister i Porbandar, hovedstaden i et lille fyrstedømme i det vestlige britiske Indien (nu Gujarat -stat). Mahatma Gandhi var søn af hans fars fjerde kone Putlibai, der tilhørte en velhavende Vaishnava -familie. Lad os fortælle dig, at han i sine tidligere dage var dybt påvirket af historierne om Shravana og Harishchandra, da de afspejlede sandhedens betydning.

Mahatma Gandhi: Uddannelse

Da Gandhi var 9 år, gik han på en lokal skole i Rajkot og studerede det grundlæggende i regning, historie, geografi og sprog. Som 11 -årig gik han på et gymnasium i Rajkot. På grund af hans bryllup, mindst omkring et år, blev hans studier forstyrret, og senere sluttede han sig til og afsluttede sin skolegang. Han sluttede sig til Samaldas college i Bhavnagar i 1888 i Gujarat. Senere, en af ​​hans familievenner Mavji Dave Joshi for at forfølge yderligere studier, dvs. jura i London. Gandhiji var ikke tilfreds med studierne på Samaldas College, og derfor blev han begejstret for London-forslaget og formåede at overbevise sin mor og kone om, at han ikke vil røre ikke-veg, vin eller kvinder.

"Først ignorerer de dig, så griner de af dig, så kæmper de med dig, så vinder du." - Mahatma Gandhi

Afsted til London

I 1888 rejste Mahatma Gandhi til London for at studere jura. Derefter 10 dage efter ankomst sluttede han sig til det indre tempel, en af ​​de fire London Law colleges, og studerede og praktiserede jura. I London sluttede han sig også til et Vegetarian Society og introducerede Bhagavad Gita af nogle af hans vegetariske venner. Senere satte Bhagavad Gita indtryk og påvirkede hans liv.

Mahatma Gandhi: I Sydafrika


I maj, 1893 han tog til Sydafrika for at arbejde som advokat. Der havde han den førstehåndsoplevelse af racediskrimination, da han blev smidt ud af togets førsteklasses lejlighed på trods af at han havde førsteklasses billet, fordi den var forbeholdt hvide mennesker, og ingen indianere eller sorte måtte rejse i den første klasse. Denne hændelse havde en alvorlig indvirkning på ham, og han besluttede at protestere mod racediskrimination. Han bemærkede endvidere, at denne type hændelse var ret almindelig mod hans indianerkollegaer, der nedsættende blev omtalt som coolies.

22. maj 1894 Gandhi etablerede Natal Indian Congress (NIC) og arbejdede hårdt for at forbedre indianernes rettigheder i Sydafrika. I en kort periode blev Gandhi leder af det indiske samfund i Sydafrika. Tirukkural gammel indisk litteratur, oprindeligt skrevet på tamilsk og senere oversat til forskellige sprog. Gandhiji var også påvirket af denne gamle bog. Han blev påvirket af ideen om Satyagraha, der er en hengivenhed af sandhed og gennemførte i 1906 ikke-voldelig protest. Han vendte tilbage til Indien i 1915, efter at have tilbragt 21 år af sit liv i Sydafrika, og uden tvivl kæmpede han for borgerrettigheder, og på dette tidspunkt blev han omdannet til en ny person.

Mahatma Gandhi: Rolle i indisk uafhængighedsbevægelse

I 1915 , Gandhiji vendte permanent tilbage til Indien og sluttede sig til den indiske nationale kongres med Gopal Krishna Gokhale som hans mentor.

Gandhis første store præstation var i 1918, da han ledede Champaran og Kheda agitationer i Bihar og Gujarat. Han ledede også Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement, Swaraj og Quit-India bevægelse mod den britiske regering.

Mahatma Gandhi: Satyagraha


Gandhi identificerede sin overordnede metode til ikke-voldelig handling som Satyagraha. Gandhijis Satyagraha påvirkede eminente personligheder som Nelson Mandela og Martin Luther i deres kamp for frihed, lighed og social retfærdighed. Mahatma Gandhis Satyagraha var baseret på sande principper og ikke-vold.

"Lev som om du skulle dø i morgen. Lær som om du skulle leve for evigt." - Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi: Døden

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi blev myrdet 30. januar 1948 af Nathuram Godse. Godse var en hinduistisk nationalist og medlem af den hinduistiske Mahasabha. Han anklagede Gandhi for at favorisere Pakistan og var imod læren om ikke-vold.

"Du må være den forandring, du ønsker at se i verden." - Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi: Litterære værker

Gandhi var en produktiv forfatter. Nogle af hans litterære værker er som følger:

• Hind Swaraj, udgivet i Gujarati i 1909.

• Han redigerede flere aviser, der omfattede Harijan på gujarati, på hindi og det engelske sprog Indian Opinion, Young India, på engelsk og Navajivan, en gujarati -månedsskrift.

• Gandhi skrev også sin selvbiografi, Historien om mine eksperimenter med sandhed.

• Hans andre selvbiografier omfattede: Satyagraha i Sydafrika, Hind Swaraj eller indisk hjemmestyre.

Mahatma Gandhi: Priser

• I 1930 , Blev Gandhi kåret til Årets mand af Time's Magazine.

• I 2011 , Time Magazine udnævnte Gandhi til et af de 25 bedste politiske ikoner nogensinde.

• Han modtog ikke Nobels fredspris på trods af at han var nomineret fem gange mellem 1937 og 1948.

• Indiens regering institutionaliserede den årlige Gandhi -fredspris til fornemme socialarbejdere, verdensledere og borgere. Nelson Mandela, lederen af ​​Sydafrikas kamp mod apartheid, modtog prisen.

"Lykke er når det, du tænker, det du siger, og det du gør er i harmoni." - Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi: Film

Ben Kingsley portrætterede Mahatma Gandhi i 1982 filmen Gandhi, der vandt Oscar for bedste film.

Derfor ville Mahatma Gandhi blive husket for altid, da han spredte budskabet om ikke-vold, sandhed, tro på Gud, og han kæmpede også for Indiens uafhængighed. Hans metoder inspirerede forskellige ledere, unge ikke kun i Indien, men også ud af Indien. I indisk historie betragtes han som en mest fremtrædende personlighed og som den enkleste person, der bærer dhoti. Han spredte budskabet om swaraj og lærte indianere at blive uafhængige.

"Ingen kultur kan leve, hvis den forsøger at være eksklusiv." - Mahatma Gandhi

"Tro er ikke noget at forstå, det er en tilstand at vokse ind i." - Mahatma Gandhi


Vigtig bog relateret til Mahatma Gandhi

  • 'Gandhis fange' er en bog skrevet af Uma Dupfeli Mistri, datter af Gandhijis søn, Manilal.
  • 'Jeg følger Mahatma' er en bog skrevet af K.M. Munshi.
  • K Narayan skrev "Waiting for the Mahatma".
  • 'Aweekwith Gandhi, Gandhi og Stalin and Life of Mahatma Gandhi er bogen skrevet af Fischer.
  • Gandhijis selvbiografi "Mine eksperimenter med sandhed" blev skrevet i 1922, mens han sad i fængsel. Det beskriver hans liv fra 1869 til 1921. Det blev oversat til engelsk af Mahadev Desai.

"De kommende generationer kan skræmme tro på, at en sådan som denne nogensinde i kød og blod gik på denne jord", sagde Einstein om Gandhiji. "Sandhed og ikke-vold er mine guder" Gandhiji. Urørlighed er en forbrydelse mod Gud og menneskelige Gandhiji.


Mahatma Gandhi

Mohandas Gandhi var leder af Indiens uafhængighedsbevægelse. Da Indien var en koloni i Storbritannien, brugte Gandhi ikke -voldelige metoder til at protestere mod britisk styre. Hans indsats gav ham titlen Mahatma. Mahatma betyder "stor sjæl".

Tidligt liv

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi blev født den 2. oktober 1869 i Porbandar, Indien. I sin ungdom lærte han religionerne hinduisme og jainisme. Nonviolence er en af ​​jainismens hovedideer.

I sine skoleår blev Gandhi betragtet som en gennemsnitlig elev. I 1887 afsluttede han sine studier ved University of Bombay. Derefter flyttede han til England for at studere jura. Han vendte tilbage til Indien i 1891. Han forsøgte at starte en advokatkarriere, men det lykkedes ikke.

Arbejde i Sydafrika

I 1893 tog Gandhi et job i en britisk koloni i Sydafrika. Der så han europæere mishandle indiske nybyggere. Han kom ind i politik for at kæmpe for indiske rettigheder.

Gandhi brugte først sin metode til ikke -voldelig protest i 1906. Han sagde til indianerne, at de ikke skulle adlyde britiske love, som de mente var forkerte. Han sagde også, at de skulle forblive fredelige, uanset hvordan de blev straffet for deres handlinger. Denne nye protestmetode blev kendt som satyagraha, eller "hengivenhed til sandhed."

Protester i Indien

Gandhi vendte tilbage til Indien i 1915. Inden for få år blev han Indiens mest magtfulde politiske leder. Han ledede store protester i 1920–22, 1930–34 og 1940–42. Gandhis tilhængere stoppede med at bruge britiske varer. De nægtede at gå ind i britiske domstole og skoler. I 1930 ledede Gandhi en protest mod en britisk skat på salt. Han førte indianere til en march til havet for at indsamle deres eget salt. Gandhi blev undertiden fængslet for sine handlinger.

Uafhængighed

Gandhi blev fængslet i to år under anden verdenskrig. Han og andre indiske ledere havde krævet øjeblikkelig uafhængighed som Indiens pris for at hjælpe Storbritannien i krigen. Efter at han blev løsladt, fortsatte Gandhi med at arbejde for uafhængighed.

Indien vandt endelig sin uafhængighed i 1947. Det var en stor sejr for Gandhi. Men han var skuffet, fordi Indiens land blev delt i to nye lande: Indien og Pakistan. Før og efter Indias division blev landet revet af sammenstød mellem hinduer og muslimer. Gandhi forsøgte at slutte fred. Den 30. januar 1948 i byen Delhi blev han skudt og dræbt af en hinduistisk mand.

Plads i historien

Gandhi var en af ​​de største politiske og sociale ledere i det 20. århundrede. Hans brug af ikke -voldelig protest førte til sidst til hans lands uafhængighed. Inden for sit land støttede han både hinduer og muslimers rettigheder. Han søgte også bedre behandling for grupper, alle andre så ned på.

Gandhi blev beundret af mange indflydelsesrige mennesker på hans tid og senere. Albert Einstein, et af de største genier i videnskabshistorien, beundrede Gandhi dybt. Mange andre, der har kæmpet for ligestilling og retfærdighed, blev inspireret til at følge den vej, Gandhi havde smidt. Martin Luther King, Jr., lærte om Gandhis filosofi om ikke -vold og brugte den til at vinde sejre for borgerrettighedsbevægelsen i USA.


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Mahatma Gandhi Biografi, Mahatma Gandhi Ji, Mohandas Gandhi, Mahatma Gandhi Historie, Biografi af Mahatma Gandhi, Mahatma Gandhi Story, Mahatma Gandhi Information, Gandhi Biografi, Mahatma Gandhi Barndom

Mahatma Gandhi biografi

Mahatma Gandhi har været nøgleleder for Indien & rsquos uafhængighedsbevægelse samt arkitekten for en eller anden form for ikke-voldelig civil ulydighed, der kunne påvirke hele verden. Indtil Gandhi blev myrdet i 1948, motiverede hans lære og liv aktivister som Martin Luther King Jr. og Nelson Mandela.

Hvem var Mahatma Gandhi?

Mahatma Gandhi var pioner i Indien & rsquos ikke-voldelige uafhængighedsbevægelse mod britisk styre og også i Sydafrika, der fortalte indianernes borgerrettigheder. Produceret i Porbandar, Indien, studerede Gandhi jura og organiserede boykot mod britiske foreninger i rolige former for civil ulydighed. Han var blevet myrdet af en Nathuram Godse i 1948.

Mahatma Gandhi Tidligt liv og uddannelse

Den indiske nationalistiske leder Gandhi (født Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) blev født den 2. oktober 1869 i Porbandar, Kathiawar, Indien, som dengang var en del af det britiske imperium. i det vestlige Indien. Hans mor, Putlibai, var en dybt religiøs kvinde, der fastede regelmæssigt.

Unge Gandhi var en genert, umærkelig elev, der var så frygtsom, at han sov med lyset tændt, selv som teenager. I de følgende år gjorde teenageren oprør ved at ryge, spise kød og stjæle forandringer fra husstandere.

Selvom Gandhi var interesseret i at blive læge, håbede hans far, at han også ville blive statsminister og styrede ham til at gå ind i advokatbranchen. I 1888 sejlede den 18-årige Gandhi til London i England for at studere jura. Den unge indianer kæmpede med overgangen til vestlig kultur.

Da han vendte tilbage til Indien i 1891, lærte Gandhi, at hans mor var død bare uger tidligere. Han kæmpede for at få fodfæste som advokat. I hans første retssag blev en nervøs Gandhi blanket, da tiden var inde til at krydsforhøre et vidne. Han flygtede straks fra retssalen efter at have refunderet sin klient for sine advokatsalærer.

Gandhi & rsquos Religion og overbevisning

Gandhi voksede op med at tilbede den hinduistiske gud Vishnu og følge Jainism, en moralsk streng indisk religion, der gik ind for ikke-vold, faste, meditation og vegetarisme.

Under Gandhi & rsquos første ophold i London, fra 1888 til 1891, blev han mere engageret i en kødløs diæt og sluttede sig til forretningsudvalget for London Vegetarian Society og begyndte at læse en række forskellige hellige tekster for at lære mere om verdensreligioner.

Gandhi boede i Sydafrika og fortsatte med at studere verdensreligioner. & ldquoDen religiøse ånd i mig blev en levende kraft, og rdquo skrev han om sin tid der. Han fordybede sig i hellige hinduistiske åndelige tekster og tog et liv i enkelhed, stramhed, faste og cølibat, der var fri for materielle goder.

Mahatma Gandhi i Sydafrika

Efter at have kæmpet for at finde arbejde som advokat i Indien, opnåede Gandhi en etårig kontrakt om at udføre juridiske tjenester i Sydafrika. I april 1893 sejlede han til Durban i den sydafrikanske stat Natal.

Da Gandhi ankom til Sydafrika, blev han hurtigt forfærdet over den diskrimination og raceadskillelse, som indiske immigranter stod over for fra hvide britiske og boermyndigheder. Efter hans første optræden i en retssal i Durban blev Gandhi bedt om at fjerne sin turban. Han nægtede og forlod i stedet retten. The Natal Advertiser hånet ham på tryk som & ldquoan uvelkommen besøgende. & Rdquo

Ikke -voldelig civil ulydighed

Et skelsættende øjeblik fandt sted den 7. juni 1893 under en togrejse til Pretoria, Sydafrika, da en hvid mand protesterede mod Gandhi & rsquos tilstedeværelse i førsteklasses jernbaneafdeling, selvom han havde en billet. Gandhi nægtede at flytte bag på toget og blev tvang fjernet og smidt af toget på en station i Pietermaritzburg.

Gandhi & rsquos handling af civil ulydighed vækkede i ham en beslutsomhed om at dedikere sig til at bekæmpe & ldquodeep -sygdommen med farvefordomme. & Rdquo Han lovede den aften til & ldquotry, hvis det var muligt, at udrydde sygdommen og lide vanskeligheder i processen. & Rdquo Fra den aften og fremad , den lille, beskedne mand ville vokse til en kæmpe styrke for borgerrettigheder. Gandhi dannede Natal Indian Congress i 1894 for at bekæmpe diskrimination.

Gandhi forberedte sig på at vende tilbage til Indien ved udgangen af ​​sin årelange kontrakt, indtil han på sin afskedsfest fik at vide om et lovforslag for den lovgivende forsamling i Natal, der ville fratage indianere stemmeret. Medindvandrere overbeviste Gandhi om at blive og føre kampen mod lovgivningen. Selvom Gandhi ikke kunne forhindre lov & rsquos passage, henledte han international opmærksomhed på uretfærdigheden.

Efter en kort rejse til Indien i slutningen af ​​1896 og begyndelsen af ​​1897 vendte Gandhi tilbage til Sydafrika med sin kone og børn. Gandhi drev en blomstrende juridisk praksis, og ved udbruddet af Boerkrigen rejste han et allindisk ambulancekorps på 1.100 frivillige for at støtte den britiske sag og argumenterede for, at hvis indianerne forventede at have fulde rettigheder til statsborgerskab i det britiske imperium, ville de også behov for at bære deres ansvar.

Satyagraha Andolan, Champaran Satyagraha

I 1906 organiserede Gandhi sin første massecivil-ulydighedskampagne, som han kaldte & ldquoSatyagraha & rdquo (& ldquotruth og fastness & rdquo), som reaktion på den sydafrikanske Transvaal-regering & rsquos nye begrænsninger for indianernes rettigheder, herunder afslag på at anerkende hinduistiske ægteskaber.

Efter mange års protester fængslede regeringen hundredvis af indianere i 1913, herunder Gandhi. Under pres accepterede den sydafrikanske regering et kompromis, der blev forhandlet af Gandhi og general Jan Christian Smuts, der omfattede anerkendelse af hinduistiske ægteskaber og afskaffelse af en meningsmåling for indianere.

Mahatma Gandhi Tilbage til Indien

Da Gandhi sejlede fra Sydafrika i 1914 for at vende hjem, skrev Smuts, & ldquo Helgenen har forladt vores kyster, jeg håber oprigtigt for evigt. & Rdquo Ved udbruddet af første verdenskrig tilbragte Gandhi flere måneder i London.

I 1915 grundlagde Gandhi en ashram i Ahmedabad, Indien, der var åben for alle kaster. Iført en simpel lænde og sjal levede Gandhi et stramt liv viet til bøn, faste og meditation. Han blev kendt som & ldquoMahatma, & rdquo, hvilket betyder & ldquogreat soul. & Rdquo

Mahatma Gandhis modstand mod britisk styre i Indien

I 1919, hvor Indien stadig var under fast kontrol af briterne, havde Gandhi en politisk genopvågning, da den nyligt vedtagne Rowlatt Act bemyndigede britiske myndigheder til at fængsle mennesker, der mistænkes for oprejsning uden retssag. Som svar opfordrede Gandhi til en Satyagraha -kampagne med fredelige protester og strejker.

Vold brød i stedet ud, som kulminerede den 13. april 1919 i massakren på Amritsar. Tropper ledet af den britiske brigadegeneral Reginald Dyer affyrede maskingeværer i en skare ubevæbnede demonstranter og dræbte næsten 400 mennesker.

Gandhi var ikke længere i stand til at love troskab til den britiske regering, og returnerede de medaljer, han tjente for sin militærtjeneste i Sydafrika, og modsatte sig Storbritannien og rsquos obligatoriske militære udkast til indianere til at tjene i første verdenskrig.

Gandhi blev en ledende skikkelse i den indiske hjemmestyrebevægelse. Han opfordrede til masseboykotter og opfordrede han embedsmænd til at stoppe med at arbejde for kronen, studerende til at stoppe med at gå på statslige skoler, soldater til at forlade deres stillinger og borgere til at stoppe med at betale skat og købe britiske varer.

I stedet for at købe britisk fremstillet tøj begyndte han at bruge et bærbart snurrehjul til at producere sin egen klud. Snurrehjulet blev hurtigt et symbol på indisk uafhængighed og selvhjulpenhed.

Gandhi overtog ledelsen af ​​den indiske nationale kongres og gik ind for en politik med ikke-vold og manglende samarbejde for at opnå hjemmestyre. Selvom han blev idømt seks års fængsel, blev Gandhi løsladt i februar 1924 efter blindtarmsbetændelse.

Han opdagede ved sin løsladelse, at forholdet mellem Indien og rsquos -hinduer og muslimer udviklede sig i løbet af hans fængselstid. Da vold mellem de to religiøse grupper blussede op igen, begyndte Gandhi i efteråret 1924 en tre ugers faste for at opfordre til enhed. Han forblev væk fra aktiv politik i store dele af de sidste 1920'ere.

Mahatma Gandhi og saltmarts

Gandhi vendte tilbage til aktiv politik i 1930 for at protestere mod Storbritannien og rsquos Salt Acts, som ikke kun forbød indianere at indsamle eller sælge salt & mdasha kostfoder og mdashbut pålagde en tung skat, der ramte landet & rsquos fattigste særligt hårdt. Gandhi planlagde en ny Satyagraha-kampagne, Saltmarschen, der indebar en march på 390 kilometer/240 kilometer til Det Arabiske Hav, hvor han ville samle salt i symbolsk trods for regeringens monopol.

& ldquoMin ambition er ikke mindre end at konvertere det britiske folk gennem ikke-vold og dermed få dem til at se det forkerte, de har gjort mod Indien, og rdquo skrev han dage før marchen til den britiske vicekonge, Lord Irwin.

Iført et hjemmespundet hvidt sjal og sandaler og bærende en vandrestok, tog Gandhi ud af sit religiøse tilbagetog i Sabarmati den 12. marts 1930 med et par dusin tilhængere. Da han ankom 24 dage senere til kystbyen Dandi, svømmede marchernes rækker, og Gandhi brød loven ved at lave salt fra fordampet havvand.

Saltmarschen udløste lignende protester, og massiv civil ulydighed fejede over Indien. Cirka 60.000 indianere blev fængslet for at have brudt saltlovene, herunder Gandhi, der blev fængslet i maj 1930.

Alligevel forhøjede protesterne mod saltlovene Gandhi til en transcendent skikkelse rundt om i verden. Han blev kåret til Time magazine & rsquos & ldquo Årets mand & rdquo for 1930.

Gandhi blev løsladt fra fængslet i januar 1931, og to måneder senere indgik han en aftale med Lord Irwin om at afslutte Salt Satyagraha i bytte for indrømmelser, der omfattede frigivelse af tusinder af politiske fanger. Aftalen holdt imidlertid stort set saltlovene intakte. Men det gav dem, der boede ved kysterne, ret til at høste salt fra havet.

Hoping that the agreement would be a stepping-stone to home rule, Gandhi attended the London Round Table Conference on Indian constitutional reform in August 1931 as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. The conference, however, proved fruitless.

Mahatma Gandhi Protesting &ldquoUntouchables&rdquo Segregation

Gandhi returned to India to find himself imprisoned once again in January 1932 during a crackdown by India&rsquos new viceroy, Lord Willingdon. He embarked on a six-day fast to protest the British decision to segregate the &ldquountouchables,&rdquo those on the lowest rung of India&rsquos caste system, by allotting them separate electorates. The public outcry forced the British to amend the proposal.

After his eventual release, Gandhi left the Indian National Congress in 1934, and leadership passed to his protégé Jawaharlal Nehru. He again stepped away from politics to focus on education, poverty and the problems afflicting India&rsquos rural areas.

6 Movements Led by Mahatma Gandhi for India&rsquos Independence , Movements of Mahatma Gandhi

  1. Champaran Movement (1917) &ndash The Champaran Movement in 1917 was the first Satyagraha movement inspired by Gandhi and a major revolt in the Indian Independence Movement. Farmers of Bihar were protesting against the farming of indigo with barely any payment for it. The farmers oppressed Mahatma Gandhi when he returned to India from Sout Africa in 1915. They wanted Mahatma Gandhi to use the same methods that he had used in South Africa to organize mass uprisings by people to protest against injustice.Champaran Movement is the first popular movement which gave direction to India&rsquos youth and freedom fighters.
  2. Kheda Movement (1918) &ndash The Kheda Movement of 1918 was a major revolt in the Indian independence movement. The movement was started in the Kheda district of Gujarat by the Mahatma Gandhi during the period of the British Raj. People of Kheda were unable to pay the high taxes levied by the British due to crop failure and a plague epidemic.Therefore, Mahatma Gandhi organised this movement to support the peasants of Kheda district. It was the third Satyagraha movement led by Mahatma Gandhi after Champaran Satyagraha and Ahmedabad mill strike.
  3. Khilafat Movement (1919) &ndash The Khilafat Movement of 1919 is also known as the Indian Muslim movement (1919&ndash24). The Ottoman Empire, having sided with the Central Powers during World War I, suffered a major military defeat. The Muslims were protesting for the safety of their Ottoman Caliphate. The Muslim Community launched the khilafat movement under the guidance of Mahatma Gandhi to fight against the British government to restore the collapsing status of the Caliph in Turkey. The success of this movement made Mahatma Gandhi the national leader in no time. He became a notable spokesperson of the All India Muslim Conference.
  4. Non-cooperation Movement (1920) &ndash The Non-cooperation movement was launched on 1 August 1920 by Mahatma Gandhi. Following the Rowlatt Act of 17 March 1919, and the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 13 April 1919, Indian National Congress withdrew its support for British reforms. Mahatma Gandhi launches the Non-cooperation movement with the aim of self-governance and obtaining full independence. His main motive was to establish non-cooperation, non-violence and made this non-violent movement as his weapons against Britishers. Through Non-cooperation movement Mahatma Gandhi urged the protestors to boycott Britisher&rsquos goods and services and wearing Khadi. Since then the movement became the motto of the Indian freedom movement.
  5. Salt Satyagraha Movement , Dandi march (1930) &ndash The Salt March, also known as the Salt Satyagraha, Dandi Satyagraha began with Dandi march in the year 1930. Dandi march was an act of nonviolent civil disobedience in colonial India led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi started this march with 80 of his trusted volunteers. Walking ten miles a day for 24 days, the march spanned over 240 miles, from Sabarmati Ashram, 240 miles (384 km) to Dandi formerly known as Navsari.Many people joined them along the way. After reaching Dandi, Gandhi and his followers violated the salt laws by making salt from the salted seawater.
  6. Quit India Movement (1942) &ndash The Quit India Movement or the August Movement was launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British Rule of India. Gandhi made a call to &lsquoDo or Die&rsquo in his Quit India speech delivered in Bombay session of the All-India Congress. As a consequence, the entire leadership of the Indian National Congress was imprisoned by the British officials without trial.Soon British officials realized that their days of the rule in India were over. By the end of World War II, they made clear indications of handing over the powers to India.

India&rsquos Independence from Great Britain

As Great Britain found itself engulfed in World War II in 1942, Gandhi launched the &ldquoQuit India&rdquo movement that called for the immediate British withdrawal from the country. In August 1942, the British arrested Gandhi, his wife and other leaders of the Indian National Congress and detained them in the Aga Khan Palace in present-day Pune.

&ldquoI have not become the King&rsquos First Minister in order to preside at the liquidation of the British Empire,&rdquo Prime Minister Winston Churchill told Parliament in support of the crackdown.With his health failing, Gandhi was released after a 19-month detainment in 1944.

After the Labour Party defeated Churchill&rsquos Conservatives in the British general election of 1945, it began negotiations for Indian independence with the Indian National Congress and Mohammad Ali Jinnah&rsquos Muslim League. Gandhi played an active role in the negotiations, but he could not prevail in his hope for a unified India. Instead, the final plan called for the partition of the subcontinent along religious lines into two independent states&mdashpredominantly Hindu India and predominantly Muslim Pakistan.

Violence between Hindus and Muslims flared even before independence took effect on August 15, 1947. Afterwards, the killings multiplied. Gandhi toured riot-torn areas in an appeal for peace and fasted in an attempt to end the bloodshed. Some Hindus, however, increasingly viewed Gandhi as a traitor for expressing sympathy toward Muslims.

Mahatma Gandhi&rsquos Wife and Kids

At the age of 13, Gandhi wed Kasturba Makanji, a merchant&rsquos daughter, in an arranged marriage. She died in Gandhi&rsquos arms in February 1944 at the age of 74.In 1885, Gandhi endured the passing of his father and shortly after that the death of his young baby.

In 1888, Gandhi&rsquos wife gave birth to the first of four surviving sons. A second son was born in India 1893. Kasturba gave birth to two more sons while living in South Africa, one in 1897 and one in 1900.

Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi , Partition and Death of Gandhi

The 20th century&rsquos most famous apostle of non-violence himself met a violent end. Mohandas Mahatma (&lsquothe great soul&rsquo) Gandhi, who had taken a leading role in spearheading the campaign for independence from Britain, hailed the partition of the sub-continent into the separate independent states of India and Pakistan in August 1947 as &lsquothe noblest act of the British nation&rsquo. He was, though, horrified by the violence that broke out between Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs and the eviction of thousands from their homes in the run-up to Independence Day, 15 August 1947, and undertook a fast to the death, a tactic he had employed before, to shame those who provoked and took part in the strife. Messages of support came from around the world, including Pakistan, where Jinnah&rsquos new government commended his concern for peace and harmony. There were Hindus, however, who thought that Gandhi&rsquos insistence on non-violence and non-retaliation prevented them from defending themselves against attack. Ominous cries of &lsquoLet Gandhi die!&rsquo were heard in Delhi, where Gandhi was occupying a mansion called Birla Lodge.

On 13 January, beginning what would prove to be his last fast, the Mahatma said: &lsquoDeath for me would be a glorious deliverance rather than that I should be a helpless witness of the destruction of India, Hinduism, Sikhism and Islam&rsquo, and explained that his dream was for the Hindus, Sikhs, Parsis, Christians and Muslims of all India to live together in amity. On the 20th a group of Hindu fanatics, who detested Gandhi&rsquos calls for tolerance and peace, set off a bomb some yards from him, which did no harm. It was not the first attempt on Gandhi&rsquos life, but he said: &lsquoIf I am to die by the bullet of a madman, I must do so smiling. There must be no anger within me. God must be in my heart and on my lips.&rsquo

On 29 January one of the fanatics, a man in his thirties named Nathuram Godse, returned to Delhi, armed with a Beretta automatic pistol. About 5pm in the afternoon of the next day, the 78-year-old Gandhi, frail from fasting, was being helped across the gardens of Birla House by his greatnieces on his way to a prayer meeting when Nathuram Godse emerged from the admiring crowd, bowed to him and shot him three times at point-blank range in the stomach and chest. Gandhi raised his hands in front of his face in the conventional Hindu gesture of greeting, almost if he was welcoming his murderer, and slumped to the ground, mortally wounded. Some said that he cried out, &lsquoRam, Ram&rsquo (&lsquoGod, God&rsquo), though others did not hear him say anything. In the confusion there was no attempt to call a doctor or get the dying man to hospital and he died within half an hour.

Despite the efforts of Nehru and other leaders, violence erupted in Bombay and elsewhere in India, with riots and arson. There were attacks on Brahmins, because the killer was a Brahmin. Police in Bombay had to open fire on the rioters. It was an outcome which would have profoundly horrified Gandhi himself.

Godse and a co-conspirator were executed by hanging in November 1949. Additional conspirators were sentenced to life in prison.

Mahatma Gandhi&rsquos Legacy

Even after Gandhi&rsquos assassination, his commitment to nonviolence and his belief in simple living &mdash making his own clothes, eating a vegetarian diet and using fasts for self-purification as well as a means of protest &mdash have been a beacon of hope for oppressed and marginalized people throughout the world.

Satyagraha remains one of the most potent philosophies in freedom struggles throughout the world today. Gandhi&rsquos actions inspired future human rights movements around the globe, including those of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. in the United States and Nelson Mandela in South Africa.

Gandhi forged India&rsquos independence from British rule in 1947 by staging massive peaceful demonstrations against poverty and the fight for women&rsquos rights and religious tolerance. Despite his death, Gandhi has become immortalized in our psyche as a hero of human rights and synonymous with the act of peaceful protest. He continues to inspire nonviolent human rights movements all around the world and has influenced the leadership of contemporary heavyweights like Nelson Mandela, Cesar Chavez, the Dalai Lama, and Aung San Suu Kyi.

Who called the Bapu of Mahatma Gandhi ?
Rabindranath Tagore , Rabindranath Tagore called him Bapu , Bapu is a word for &ldquofather&rdquo in many Indian languages such as Gujarati and Marathi

In honor of Gandhi&rsquos legacy, we look at some surprising facts about his personal life, career, and politics.


Mahatma Gandhi Information

  • Full Name: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
  • Date of Birth: 2nd October 1869
  • Place of Birth: Porbandar, Gujarat
  • Professions: Lawyer, politician, activist, writer
  • Father: Karamchand Gandhi
  • Mother: Putlibai Gandhi
  • Spouse: Kasturba Gandhi
  • Children: Harilal Gandhi, Manilal Gandhi, Ramdas Gandhi, and Devdas Gandhi
  • Date of Death: 30th January 1948
  • Place of Death: Delhi, India

History of Mahatma Gandhi

* In Porbandar of Gujarat Gandhi’s mother was exposed to Jainism, the people who were following totally non-violence, so it impacted even Mahatma Gandhi to have social quality.

Gandhi grew by watching the dramas of ‘Satya Harishchandra‘ who followed the truth as his life even in his extreme difficulties faced. So these helped him to follow the truth and non-violence.

* Today some of his vision come true in Gujarat, you can find the majority of the people are vegetarian and alcohol-free with the efforts taken by Narendra Modi when he was chief minister of the state.

* Mahatma Gandhi was an average student like us learning English and grew up normally as every child but distracted with early marriage at the age of 13 years.

His wife name was Kasturba Gandhi who was a relative of his family.

In the early days of Gandhi he doesn’t seem to be so good, he admits himself that he was drinking, stealing from his father’s pocket and eating meat because he was having a strong belief that the vegetarians are been weaker and ruled by dominant people, but later he changed.

Wife Kasturba Gandhi was complaining about his activities to his father-in-law but he was keeping quiet. His father died when he was at the age of 16.

* After his schooling at the age of 18 years, his family friend suggested to go to England and get trained to be a lawyer, this was a situation where the game starts.

At the time his mother gave him a sacred necklace of beats made with Tulasi plant which was loved by god Vishnu for the protection by the care of the mother with the promise and witnessed to leave her son from wine, women, and meat.

* He left Bombay on 4th September 1888 beside the opposition by his neighbors he crossed the borders and reached London.

when he left the shore in Bombay he was wearing a white and white suit to transform himself like other fellowmen who live in England.

In that country almost all people normally eat meat and drink alcohol, it was difficult for Mahatma Gandhi initially but because of the promise made to his mother he never went into the wrong route, which helped him to follow non-violence later.

* Before Gandhi left India he presided to eat meat which makes Indian strong to fight against British but when he left at the time from England he was totally opposed eating meat resulted to adopt non-violence.

Incidents of Mahatma Gandhi Faced in South Africa?

When Gandhi returned to India he was in search of work as a lawyer. Dada Abdullah a merchandiser asked him to work for his case in South Africa.

Then Mahatma Gandhi accepted the invite and went to Durban, Natal (now KwaZulu-Natal) South Africa in 1893.

In South Africa, he faced much racial discrimination and humiliation by Europeans which made him trigger to get equal rights for everyone.

When he was traveling in South Africa train with a first-class ticket and the conductor wanted him to move to the third class because he was black.

He refused to leave his seat and was expelled from the train through station master because of the only reason he was black.

He said in his Biography: “the cold was very bitter. My overcoat was in my bags, however, I failed to dare to ask them, I thought again I may be abused once more, therefore I sat and shivered in the PIETERMARITZBURG station“.

He started thinking whether his “duty”: ought he to remain back and fight for his “rights”, or ought to he come to India? His own “hardship was superficial”, “only a proof of the deep unwellness of color prejudice.”

Result made Mahatma Gandhi fight against racial and inequality by his knowledge of civil and his experience.

After Gandhi returned India he told his experience with his friends and expressed his feelings to fight against the British to get equal rights.

Gandhi slowly entered the political area fighting for a cause of right to vote for all people asked by his friends and merchant traders, with the petition named of 9,000 people and hence became the substantial force in politics Led Indian Natal Congress.

But the scenario was totally different from Gandhi’s thinking truth and non-violence because of the British.

But there was an Anglo-Zulu war between British and South Africa, he was helpless because he convinced some of the South Africans opting for non-violence which caused a disaster because they were shorted with weapons and men which made them lose and was a lesson to Gandhi.

Gandhi later created a community in Turban where he married as well but their family also accepted the reality of how they live but it was difficult to him managing the family as well as the community.

He himself became more simplest by following the new and practical philosophy of life which inspired millions of people.

Popular Movements in Mahatma Gandhi Life

He fought against British racist policies in South Africa and came back to India, Gandhi has earned some reputation for his work.

Freedom Fighters of India consist of many great leaders but in the beginning, a leader of the Indian National Congress who was named Gopal Krishna Gokhale asked Gandhi to join India’s struggle for Independence against the rule of British towards Indians.

Gokhale explained Gandhi about the current situation Indians are facing social injustice which was the foundation to join Gandhi as a member of the Indian National Congress.

A) Champaran Satyagraha (1917)

Champaran Satyagraha was the first success of Mahatma Gandhi after returning from South Africa to India. British forced the farmers to grow Indigo which was in less demand but the price was high in the market and they were forced to sell for a fixed price that made them trigger.

Gandhi was asked for help from the farmers. Gandhi followed the non-violence principle in the movement which was shocked to the administration and finally achieved by getting concessions.

B) Kheda Satyagraha (1917 – 1918)

Kheda was hit by the floods so farmers were unable to pay taxes later they asked Britishers to relax them from tax which was not agreed by them, this was observed by Gandhi and taken this case seriously which resulted in the acceptance of relaxation from tax.

C) Khilafat Movement Post World War I (1919 – 1924)

British had agreed to grant Independence if Gandhi supports the British during World War I but failed as promised, it resulted in the Khilafat Movement started.

Mahatma Gandhi understood that if Hindus and Muslims unite and fight against the British they will succeed, and tried to convince masses of both the religion, at last, he failed to do so.

D) Non-cooperation Movement (1920 – 1922)

Non-Cooperation Movement was the biggest problem faced by the British, Gandhi made his fellow men’s to stop co-operating with British because he believed only by co-operation giving by Indians to British giving the chance to rule by them.

Gandhi warned the British not to pass Rowlatt Act, as they did not pay attention Gandhi asked people to start civil disobedience against British but they tried to suppress the movement by force with firing on people who were following peace in Delhi. At this time, the British arrested Mahatma Gandhi and many protesters.

On 13th April 1919, it was a “BLACK DAY” for India because of a British officer General Dyer has ordered to open fire on a crowd who were following peace consist of all men, women, and children in the place Amritsar’s Jallianwala Bagh, the incident was known as ‘Jallianwala Bagh Massacre’.

This incident made Indians more aggressive to get Independence and rioted as they wish so, Mahatma Gandhi wanted peace hence started fasting till everyone stop rioting and follow non-violence.

E) Purna Swaraj (1922 – 1929)

Non-cooperation movement became popular throughout India by the efforts of Mahatma Gandhi.

Then he expanded the movement as Swaraj by telling people not to buy the goods made by British, he didn’t stop there he also asked the people to resign from British Government employment, stop studying in British Institutions and practice of law in court.

But a day came in 1922 Uttar Pradesh were British forced to stop the moment by arresting Gandhi on 10th March 1922, he was granted 6 years of imprisonment but he served for 2 years over there, In 1929 the Congress party officially declared as Purna Swaraj.

F) Simon Commission and Salt Satyagraha (1927 – 1930)

In the duration of the 1920s, Mahatma Gandhi focused on bridging the gap between the Indian National Congress and the Swaraj Party.

In 1927, the British had appointed Sir John Simon as head of a new constitutional reform commission, commonly known as the “Simon Commission”.

There was not even an Indian in the commission. Shaken by this, Gandhi passed a resolution in the Calcutta Congress in December 1928, asking the British government to grant him the status of Indian rule.

In case of non-compliance with this request, the British had to face a new campaign of non-violence, with the aim of total independence of the country. The resolution was rejected by the British.

The flag of India was displayed by the Indian National Congress on 31st December 1929 at its Lahore session. On January 26, 1930, it was celebrated as the Independence Day of India.

But the British recognize it and soon imposed a tax on salt which resulted in Salt Satyagraha was launched in March 1930 as an opposition to this movement.

Gandhi commenced the Dandi March with his followers, going from Ahmadabad to Dandi walking. The protest turned into successful and brought about the Gandhi-Irwin Pact in March 1931.

British Negotiations over Round Table Conferences with Gandhi (1930–32)

After the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Gandhi was invited to round tables by the British. When Gandhi demanded Indian independence, the British questioned Gandhi’s motives and asked him not to speak for the entire nation.

They invited many religious leaders and B. R. Ambedkar to represent the untouchables. The British promised many rights to various religious groups and also to the untouchables.

Fearing that this movement would further divide India, Gandhi protested against this by fasting.

After knowing the true intentions of the British in the Second Round Table Conference(7th September 1931 to 1st December 1931) in London, he invented another Satyagraha, for which he was arrested again.

G) Quit India Movement (1942)

During the Second World War, Mahatma Gandhi intensified his protests for the complete independence of India. He drafted a resolution calling on the British to leave India.

The “Quit India Movement” or “Bharat Chhodo Andolan” was the most aggressive movement launched by the Indian National Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.

Gandhi was arrested on August 9th, 1942, and detained for two years at the Aga Khan Palace in Pune, where he lost his secretary, Mahadev Desai, and his wife, Kasturba.

The Quit India movement ended in late 1943 when the British implied that total power would be transferred to the Indian people. Gandhi annulled the measure that resulted in the release of 100,000 political prisoners.

Finally Got Freedom but with the Partition (1946 – 1947)

The proposal of Independence and distribution of partitions offered by the mission of the British cabinet in 1946 was accepted by Congress, although Mahatma Gandhi advised otherwise.

Sardar Patel convinced Gandhi that this was the only way to avoid the civil war and gave his consent reluctantly.

After the Independence of India, Gandhi focused on the peace and unity of Hindus and Muslims. He launched his fast up to the death in Delhi and called on people to end community violence and emphasized that the payment of 55 crores of rupees, according to the agreement of the partition council, will be made to Pakistan.

In the end, all political leaders accepted his wishes and broke his fast.

Murder of Mahatma Gandhi (30th January 1948)

The inspiring life of Mahatma Gandhi ended in 1948, when a fanatic, Nathuram Godse, shot him point-blank.

Nathuram was a Hindu radical who blamed Gandhi for weakening India by sharing payments to Pakistan. Godse and his co-conspirator Narayan Apte were convicted later on 15th November 1949.

Mahatma Gandhi proposed the acceptance and practice of truth, non-violence, vegetarianism, Brahmacharya (celibacy), simplicity, and faith in God.

Although he is always remembered as the man who fought for the independence of India, his greatest legacy is the tools he used in his fight against the British.

Mahatma Gandhi Unknown Facts

1. Gandhi was so shy in his childhood he was fearing to talk to his friends when someone tried to talk he use to run away to the home.

2. He owned 2 Football clubs in South Africa which was started to reduce racial discrimination and spread his ideologies.

3. Gandhiji was nominated for Nobel peace prize 5 times in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947, 1948 but he never received one, Nobel committee also regretted that they did not have the chance to award him because of his death in 1948.

4. When Mahatma Gandhi died there were 8 Kilometer long funeral procession took place and the clothes of his last day still preserved in the Gandhi Museum in Madurai.

5. Gandhi got married to Kasturba Gandhi whose age was 14 years but his age was just 13, here we can observe 2 things one is child marriage and another one is Gandhiji was 1 year younger than his wife.

6. Do you know that Gandhiji was born on Friday, we got freedom on Friday, and he was murdered on Friday itself.

7. A group of Chinese visitors once gifted 3 Monkeys made with clay, he really appreciated.

8. The same British who was the enemy for Gandhi released a stamp honoring him after 21 years of his death.

9. The great APPLE company founder Steve Jobs was a big fan of Mahatma Gandhi, he tributed by wearing similar round glasses.

10. There are 53 major roads in India and 48 roads in other countries kept the name after him.

11. The spinning wheel used by Gandhiji was auctioned for 1,10,000 pounds.

12. Mahatma Gandhi was speaking English with an Irish accent because his first teacher was Irishmen.


Father of the Nation Mahatma Gandhi Biography - Mahatma Gandhi Biography

Full Name Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi)
Fødselsdag 2 October 1869 ( Gandhi Jayanti )
Fødested Porbandar (Gujarat)
Father's Name Karamchand
Parent Name (Mother Name) Putli Bai
Education Passed the matriculation examination in 1887.
He became a barrister in England in 1891 and returned to India.
विवाह (Wife Name) Kasturba - Kasturba Gandhi
Children's Name Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas, Devdas
Pris Father of India, significant contribution in getting India free
, inspirational source of truth and non-violence
, a significant contribution in India's freedom struggle Quit India movement,
Swadeshi movement, Non-cooperation movement, Swadeshi movement, etc.
Important work Revealing the importance of truth and non-violence to the people,
removing evils like untouchability

Sites to Visit in India Honoring the Life of Mahatma Gandhi

During your travels in India, consider visiting a few sites that honor the memory of Gandhi. While there, be mindful of the lesser-known facts of his life and his attempts to instill nonviolence in all of India's struggles.

  • Gandhi Memorial in Delhi: Among the most important Indian sites honoring Gandhi is the black marble Gandhi Memorial on the shores of the Yamuna River, at Raj Ghat in Delhi. This is where Gandhi was cremated in 1948 after his assassination. A quick stop at the monument during your travels in Delhi is well worth the time.
  • Sabarmati Ashram: The museum at the Sabarmati Ashram (Gandhi Ashram) in the Sabarmati suburb of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, commemorates Mahatma Gandhi's life and works. Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, a Gandhi disciple, inaugurated the museum in 1963. The ashram was one of the residences of Gandhi, who lived there for 12 years with his wife, Kasturba Gandhi. In 1930, Gandhi used this ashram as his base for the nonviolent march he organized against the British Salt Law. His actions had a profound influence on the movement for Indian independence — achieved in 1947. In recognition of this, India established the ashram as a national monument.

Name: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Born: 2 October 1869 Porbandar, Kathiawar Agency, British India

Died: 30 January 1948 (aged 78) New Delhi, Union of India

Cause of death: Assassination

Other names: Mahatma Gandhi

Education: University College London

Known for: Indian Independence Movement

Political party: Indian National Congress

Religious beliefs: Hinduism

In South Africa, Gandhi faced discrimination directed at Indians. He was thrown off a train at Pietermaritzburg after refusing to move from the first class to a third class coach while holding a valid first class ticket. Traveling further on by stagecoach, he was beaten by a driver for refusing to travel on the foot board to make room for a European passenger. He suffered other hardships on the journey as well, including being barred from several hotels. In another incident, the magistrate of a Durban court ordered Gandhi to remove his turban, which he refused to do. These events were a turning point in his life, awakening him to social injustice and influencing his subsequent social activism. It was through witnessing firsthand the racism, prejudice and injustice against Indians in South Africa that Gandhi started to question his people’s status within the British Empire, and his own place in society.

In 1915, Gandhi returned from South Africa to live in India. He spoke at the conventions of the Indian National Congress, but was primarily introduced to Indian issues, politics and the Indian people by Gopal Krishna Gokhale, a respected leader of the Congress Party at the time.

Gandhism Truth: Gandhi dedicated his life to the wider purpose of discovering truth, or Satya. He tried to achieve this by learning from his own mistakes and conducting experiments on himself. He called his autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth. Gandhi stated that the most important battle to fight was overcoming his own demons, fears, and insecurities. Gandhi summarized his beliefs first when he said “God is Truth”. He would later change this statement to “Truth is God”. Thus, Satya (Truth) in Gandhi’s philosophy is “God”. Nonviolence Although Mahatama Gandhi was in no way the originator of the principle of non-violence, he was the first to apply it in the political field on a huge scale. The concept of nonviolence (ahimsa) and nonresistance has a long history in Indian religious thought and has had many revivals in Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, Jewish and Christian contexts. Gandhi explains his philosophy and way of life in his autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth.


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