Statuer af apostlene

Statuer af apostlene


Apostle i kristendommen

I kristen teologi og ekklesiologi, apostle, især Tolv apostle (også kendt som Tolv disciple eller simpelthen Tolv), var Jesu primære disciple ifølge Det Nye Testamente. Under Jesu liv og tjeneste i det 1. århundrede e.Kr. var apostlene hans nærmeste tilhængere og blev de primære lærere i Jesu evangelium. [1] Der er også en østlig kristen tradition afledt af Lukasevangeliet om, at der har været så mange som halvfjerds apostle i løbet af Jesu tjeneste.

Ibrugtagning af de tolv apostle under Jesu tjeneste er nedskrevet i de synoptiske evangelier. Efter sin opstandelse sendte Jesus elleve af dem (minus Judas Iskariot, der da var død) af den store kommission for at sprede sin lære til alle nationer. Denne begivenhed er blevet kaldt spredningen af ​​apostlene.

I de Paulinske breve beskrev Paulus sig selv som en af ​​de tolv oprindelige apostel, [2] siger, at han blev kaldt af den opstandne Jesus selv under sin vej til Damaskus begivenhed. Senere betegner han sig selv som "hedningernes apostel". [3] I Apostlenes Gerninger blev han og Barnabas tildelt apostlens roller i kirken. [4]

I moderne brug omtaler missionærer under pinsebevægelser ofte sig selv som apostle, en praksis, der stammer fra det latinske svar til apostel, dvs. missio, kilden til det engelske ord missionær. For eksempel var Saint Patrick (AD 373–463 AD) "Irlands apostel", Saint Boniface (680–755) var "apostlen til tyskerne", [5] Saint José de Anchieta (1534–1597) var " Apostel i Brasilien "og Sankt Peter af Betancur (1626–1667) var" Guatemala -apostlen ".

Perioden for tidlig kristendom i apostlenes levetid kaldes den apostoliske tidsalder. [5] I løbet af det 1. århundrede e.Kr. etablerede apostlene kirker i hele Romerrigets territorier og ifølge traditionen gennem Mellemøsten, Afrika og Indien. Af apostlenes grave hævdes alle på nær to af den katolske kirkes lokaler, halvdelen af ​​dem ligger i bispedømmet i Rom. [ citat nødvendig ]


Ikoniske fotos af profeter og apostle i Rom vidner om Kristus

"Som nutidens Jesu Kristi apostle er budskabet, vi deler i dag, det samme budskab, som apostlene delte for længe siden-at Gud lever, og at Jesus er Kristus." - Præsident Russell M. Nelson

Relaterede links

Det Første Præsidentskab og De Tolv Apostles Kvorum stod mandag sammen i Rom Italien -tempelbesøgendes center for ikoniske fotografier - symboler på deres forenede vidnesbyrd om Frelseren Jesus Kristus.

Taget foran statuerne af Christus og de 12 gamle apostle af den danske billedhugger Bertel Thorvaldsen forbinder fotografierne de gamle apostles arbejde med sidste dages profeters arbejde.

Samlingen i Rom - en vigtig by i verdenshistorien og i kristendommens historie - markerede første gang i kirkens historie, at hvert medlem af Det Første Præsidentskab og De Tolv Apostles Kvorum alle havde været sammen uden for USA . Hver ledende leder deltog også i indvielsen af ​​templet i Rom Italien.

„For mere end 2.000 år siden tjente vor Frelser Jesus Kristus verden og etablerede sin kirke og hans evangelium,“ skrev præsident Russell M. Nelson i et Facebook -opslag, der delte fotografiet. "Han kaldte apostlene og gav dem dekretet om at 'gå derfor hen og undervise alle nationer'."

”I vore dage er Herrens kirke blevet restaureret. Frelseren står i spidsen for Jesu Kristi Kirke af Sidste Dages Hellige. Som nutidens Jesu Kristi apostle er budskabet, vi deler i dag, det samme budskab, som apostlene delte for længe siden-at Gud lever, og at Jesus er Kristus. ”

Hvert medlem af Det Første Præsidentskab og De Tolv Apostles Kvorum i Jesu Kristi Kirke af Sidste Dages Hellige, klædt i hvidt tempelbeklædning, stillede til et ikonisk fotografi i Rom Italy Temple Visitors Center i Rom, Italien, den Mandag den 11. marts 2019. Frontcenter er præsident Russell M. Nelson og hans rådgivere i Det Første Præsidentskab, præsident Dallin H. Oaks og præsident Henry B. Eyring. Medlemmer af De Tolv Apostles Kvorum er også inkluderet: Præsident M. Russell Ballard, ældste Jeffrey R. Holland, ældste Dieter F. Uchtdorf, ældste David A. Bednar, ældste Quentin L. Cook, ældste D. Todd Christofferson, ældste Neil L. Andersen, ældste Ronald A. Rasband, ældste Gary E. Stevenson, ældste Dale G. Renlund, ældste Gerrit W. Gong og ældste Ulisses Soares. Foto af Jeffrey D. Allred, Deseret News.

Fotografer fangede to versioner af det historiske fotografi. På det første fotografi bar Kirkens øverste ledelse gadetøj i en anden version, de bar hvidt tempelbeklædning, et symbol på renhed, værdighed og renlighed i sidste dages hellige templer.

Et ekstra fotografi af præsident Russell M. Nelson blev taget foran statuen af ​​Peter. Nøglerne i Peters hånd er symbolsk for Mattæus 16:19, hvor Kristus lovede Peter: ”Jeg vil give dig nøglerne til himmelriget: og hvad du end skal binde på jorden, skal være bundet i himlen: og hvad du end skal løs på jorden skal løsnes i himlen. ”

Thorvaldsen, en dansk billedhugger født i 1770, blev optaget på Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi og senere studeret i Rom. Han døde i 1844 - samme år som Joseph Smith.

I øjeblikket før og efter fotografiet viste de øverste kirkeledere en tydelig forbindelse mellem energisk enhed og venskab, da de hilste og interagerede sammen. Alle udtrykte dyb taknemmelighed for den invitation, præsident Nelson gav dem til at deltage i de historiske begivenheder omkring indvielsen af ​​templet i Rom.

Præsident Nelson sagde, at Herren fortalte ham at tage hele Det Første Præsidentskab og De Tolv Apostles Kvorum til Rom for indvielsen. "Jeg fulgte bare de instruktioner, jeg modtog," sagde han. "Det var meget klart for mig."

Ældste Jeffrey R Holland fra De Tolv Apostles Kvorum sagde, at det er uden fortilfælde, at Det Første Præsidentskab og De Tolv Apostles Kvorum skal være sammen “i så bemærkelsesværdige rammer af en så fantastisk grund.”

Der er kun få gange i historien, hvor hele den øverste ledelse af Kirken har været sammen uden for Utah, den seneste var tempelindvielsen i Nauvoo Illinois i 2002.


At være sammen “er et bemærkelsesværdigt og historisk øjeblik, der berører vores hjerter dybt,” sagde ældste Ulisses Soares og sluttede sig til andre medmedlemmer i De Tolv Apostles Kvorum for at kommentere oplevelsen.

Ældste Ronald A. Rasband sagde, at han »nyder hvert minut af denne dyrebare oplevelse«.

Ældste Dieter F. Uchtdorf sagde, at en levende profet og levende apostle har samme opfordring som apostlene gjorde i oldtiden, “at forkynde evangeliet for hele verden” og tilføje: “vi er her sammen med profeten for at gøre netop det i vores moderne tid. ”

Ældste Dale G. Renlund tilføjede: ”Vi ved, at to tidligere apostle, Peter og Paul, var her, og derefter at have nutidige apostle her, er vi alle bare en bevægende oplevelse, på en eller anden måde hylder dem og hyldest til det evangelium, som vi alle forkynder. ”

Hvert medlem af Det Første Præsidentskab og De Tolv Apostles Kvorum i Jesu Kristi Kirke af Sidste Dages Hellige stillede sig foran Rom Italien-templets besøgscenter i Rom, Italien, mandag den 11. marts 2019. Frontcenter er præsident Russell M. Nelson og hans rådgivere i Det Første Præsidentskab, præsident Dallin H. Oaks og præsident Henry B. Eyring. Medlemmer af De Tolv Apostles Kvorum er også inkluderet: Præsident M. Russell Ballard, ældste Jeffrey R. Holland, ældste Dieter F. Uchtdorf, ældste David A. Bednar, ældste Quentin L. Cook, ældste D. Todd Christofferson, ældste Neil L. Andersen, ældste Ronald A. Rasband, ældste Gary E. Stevenson, ældste Dale G. Renlund, ældste Gerrit W. Gong og ældste Ulisses Soares. Foto af Jeffrey D. Allred, Deseret News.

Hvert medlem af Det Første Præsidentskab og De Tolv Apostles Kvorum i Jesu Kristi Kirke af Sidste Dages Hellige stillede sig foran Rom Italien-templets besøgscenter i Rom, Italien, mandag den 11. marts 2019. Frontcenter er præsident Russell M. Nelson og hans rådgivere i Det Første Præsidentskab, præsident Dallin H. Oaks og præsident Henry B. Eyring. Medlemmer af De Tolv Apostles Kvorum er også inkluderet: Præsident M. Russell Ballard, ældste Jeffrey R. Holland, ældste Dieter F. Uchtdorf, ældste David A. Bednar, ældste Quentin L. Cook, ældste D. Todd Christofferson, ældste Neil L. Andersen, ældste Ronald A. Rasband, ældste Gary E. Stevenson, ældste Dale G. Renlund, ældste Gerrit W. Gong og ældste Ulisses Soares.


Apostlenes statuer - Historie

Peterskirken - en kort historie

Hvor St. Peters nu står, var engang et vognløbsstadion, bygget i kejser Caligula, Claudius og Nero (40-65). Det var det første århundrede i vores æra. Nero var kejseren, der begyndte den første store forfølgelse af kristne i Rom. Under hans terrorstyre blev mange kristne fængslet og dræbt her på det nyligt færdige stadion (& quotCircus & quot på latin).

Blandt de første kristne, der blev rundet af Neros soldater, var lederen af ​​det kristne samfund i Rom, Sankt Peter Apostel. Han var sandsynligvis kommet til Rom omkring år 40 og var derfor omkring 25 år i byen og forkyndte den gode nyhed og tydeligvis fik mange konvertitter til kristendommen - til mange efter Neros smag.

Mange af disse kristne blev kastet til de vilde dyr som en del af underholdningen på stadion. Mange blev dog korsfæstet. En lav mur delte stadionets arena, så vognløbene fandt sted omkring dem. Nogle, får vi at vide af Tacitus, kronikeren i Romerriget, fik hældt olie og tjære over deres kroppe, og de blev tændt for at oplyse stadion i sensommeraftenerne.

Stadionet, cirka seks hundrede meter langt, strakte sig fra omkring enden af ​​den vestlige fløj af søjlegangen til langt ud over apsis i den nuværende basilika. Sankt Peters korsfæstelsessted er traditionelt markeret som svarende til basilikaens venstre fløj, mere eller mindre hvor alteret i St. Joseph er i dag.

Bagefter tog nogle af hans venner Pietes lig og begravede det på den nærmeste kirkegård. Det var lige udenfor og til højre for stadion. Peters grav er der stadig, under forsiden af ​​det pavelige alter og cirka 20 fod under gulvhøjden i basilikaen.

Konstantins Basilika

Da kristne til sidst fik deres frihed (313), under kejser Konstantin, efter mere end to hundrede års forfølgelse, blev det besluttet at bygge en basilika over apostlenes prinss grav. Mange ting havde ændret sig i de to hundrede år. Kristne var blevet så mange i Rom, at forfølgelse blev bedømt kontraproduktivt. I modsætning til hedensk praksis mødtes kristne ofte til tilbedelse. De havde brug for stadig større bygninger - meget større end fortidens bittesmå hedenske templer. Konstantin sørgede for bygningen af ​​en række af disse "basilikaer" og især for den største af dem, der blev rejst over Peters grav på skråningen af ​​Vatikanets bakke.

Michelangelos basilika (1506-1626)

Denne bygning varede gennem århundrederne indtil 1500. Det var dengang i en sådan forfalden tilstand, at pave Julius II besluttede at erstatte den med en ny og mere storslået struktur. Arbejdet begyndte i april 1506. Mange store kunstnere var involveret i konstruktionen og udsmykningen: Bramante, Sangallo, Raphael, Michelangelo, Maderno, Della Porta, Bernini, Fontana. De mest bemærkelsesværdige bidrag er imidlertid de af Michelangelo, Maderno og Bernini. I en alder af 72, i 1546, var Michelangelo forpligtet til at påføre bygningen af ​​den nuværende basilika af pave Paul III. Da han døde, var konstruktionen af ​​det græske tværsnit, der omgav det pavelige alter og Peters grav, kun afsluttet til toppen af ​​tromlen: de store vinduer, der er under kuppelens vendte skål. Selve skålen, ændret i form fra den halvrundede form af Michelangelos design til den i dag ovale form, blev færdiggjort af Della Porta i maj 1590. Paven var Sixtus V.

Pave Paul V besluttede i begyndelsen af ​​1600 -tallet, at det græske korsdesign var for lille. Han forpligtede sin arkitekt, Maderno, til at trække den forreste væg af Michelangelos bygning ned og forlænge den østlige ende af basilikaen med 116 yards. Det blev afsluttet i 1626, og i de følgende 30 år tilføjede Gian Lorenzo Bernini søjlegangen.

Den enorme 10 hektar store udbredelse af Berninis søjlegang er pilgrimens introduktion til St. Peters. Dens design indeholder en solskive, en kalender og de velkomne arme fra Guds omfavnelse, da han strækker sig ud for at modtage alle, der kommer for at betale deres respekt ved graven til den første pave. Obelisken i midten, samt bestemmelse af tidspunktet og datoen ved sin skygge, tager os tilbage i årtusinderne gennem historien om den gamle basilika, Circus of Nero, de skibsbygningsfærdigheder hos romerne, der transporterede den på tværs havet fra Alexandria i Egypten i løbet af det første århundrede af den kristne æra. Det tager os også tilbage gennem faraoernes århundreder, måske til det egyptiske fangenskab af Israel. Så Moses det, før han førte sit folk til frihed?

Fra balkonen over centraldøren kommer paven til at tale til verdens folk efter sit valg og til jul og påske, når han giver sin velsignelse "Urbi et Orbi" (til Rom og til verden) .

De fem kunstneriske bronzedøre, der fører fra indgangen til basilikaen, har hver deres historie. Den bedst kendte er den mindste til højre, den hellige dør. Den er forseglet af en væg på indersiden og åbnes i jubelåret (de hellige år), som er tider med åndelig fornyelse i Kirken. Den nuværende bronze Holy Door er værket af Vico Consorti (1950), mens de andre døre, fra højre til venstre, er af Crocetti (1963), Filarete (1438), Minghuzzi (1977), Manzu (1963). Over den centrale port er mosaikken af ​​Giotto, evangeliescenen, hvor Peter vakler, mens han går på vandet i Galilæas Sø, mens ud over glasdøren i den nordlige ende er Berninis hesteskulptur af kejseren Konstantin.

Når vi går ind i basilikaen, normalt ved døren til sakramenterne (ved Crocetti), ser vi Pietaen i kapellet til højre. Når man bevæger sig så tæt som muligt på bagsiden af ​​den centrale dør, er det muligt at have et samlet overblik over bygningen (204 meter lang og dække et område på næsten seks hektar). Pladsen er stor nok til at rumme omkring 90.000 mennesker. Imidlertid består siddepladserne, der er installeret til ceremonier, hvor paven præsiderer, af 11.500 stole. Disse er placeret i områderne med udsigt til det centrale alter. De enorme statuer repræsenterer 39 af grundlæggerne og grundinderne i forskellige religiøse ordener og menigheder.

Omkring tredive meter fra bagsiden af ​​den centrale dør er den cirkulære, røde porfyrsten, hvorpå Karl den Store knælede for at blive kronet af pave Leo III juleaften i år 800.

Modsat Pieta -kapellet, på venstre side, er dåben. Billedet på bagvæggen er en mosaikgengivelse af maleriet af Maratta. Emnet er Kristi dåb. Døbefonten (monumental struktur) er i to dele. Den øverste del er forgyldt bronze, der viser Guds lam. Det er af Domenico Fontana. Bassinet, symbolet på dåbens åndelige udrensning, var kejser Otto II sarkofag i den konstantinske basilika. I kuplen repræsenterer mosaikken de tre former for dåb: ved vand, ved blod, ved lyst. Trekanterne under kuplen repræsenterer folkene på de fire kontinenter (før opdagelsen af ​​Australien), der kommer for at modtage dåb.

I buegangen ud over dåben findes Stuart -monumenterne: til højre monumentet (af Canova) for kardinal Henry Stuart og hans bror (Bonnie Prince Charlie) sammen med deres far. Til venstre, billedet af Maria Clementina Sobieska, mor til kardinal og prins.

Alteret i det næste kapel er dedikeret til Maria under titlen Mary's Presentation (en af ​​de mange repræsentationer af Mary i St. Peter's). Under alteret er kisten indeholdende lig af pave St. Pius X (d. 1914). Til højre monumentet for pave Johannes XXIII (d. 1963) af Emilio Greco og til venstre det af Benedikt XV (d. 1923) af Canonica.

I den næste buegang er monumentet til højre for pave Innocent VIII (d. 1942) af Pollaiolo fra den gamle basilika og til venstre monumentet for St. Pius X.

Kapellet til venstre er korkapellet. Mosaikken mindes definitionen på Mary's Immaculate Conception (8.XII.1854). Korbænkene er værket af Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

Når vi flytter til midten af ​​basilikaen, kan vi prøve at forestille os, at endevæggen på Michelangelos græske korsdesign var her, umiddelbart efter korkapellet. Temaet for det græske korsdesign er skrevet med de 5 høje bogstaver i kuplens bund: Du er Peter, og på denne klippe vil jeg bygge min kirke, og jeg vil give dig nøglerne til Himmeriget. Dette er Kristi ord (Mt 16: 17-18 Joh 1:42). Kristus byggede en kirke, ikke af mursten og mørtel, men et samfund. Simon, omdøbt til Cephas (klippen), er grundlaget for den kirke. Hans grav er centrum for Michelangelos græske kors. Inden for den kirke (bygning eller samfund) er tilhængerne af Peter (og Kristus). Omkring dem er de monumenter, der minder dem om århundrederne med kristen tradition. I dag er de selv en del af den tradition. De er kommet for at hylde ved Peters grav og hjemmet til hans efterfølger (paven).

Bevæger vi os under kuplen, ser vi de fire enorme statuer omkring alteret: St. Helena (4. cent.) Repræsenteret med Kristi kors, som hun bragte fra Jerusalem til Rom, St. Veronica med håndklædet, som ifølge from tradition, hun præsenterede for Kristus på vej til Golgata, og hvorpå han efterlod sit ansigts aftryk, St. Longinus med spydet, som han som romersk soldat gennemborede Kristi livløse legeme på korset. Den fjerde statue er af Sankt Andreas, den første af de tolv apostle, der tog imod Kristi invitation: "Kom følg mig" (Joh 1), og senere martyrdød ved korsfæstelse på et X-formet kors i Grækenland. Han repræsenterer alle dem, der har været parate til at tage imod Kristi invitation, og som har bevist deres oprigtighed ved at acceptere martyrium.

I kuplen repræsenterer mosaikkerne indbyggerne i himlen: Kristus, Maria, Johannes Døberen, apostlene, englene, der bærer instrumenterne fra Kristi lidenskab og død mod midten. Endelig repræsenterer mosaikken i loftet på lygten, 390 fod over gulvet, Gud Faderen, der præsiderer over himlen.

Himlen (kuplen) og jorden (gulvniveauet) bringes sammen af ​​de cirkulære mosaikker i bunden af ​​kuplen, der repræsenterer de fire evangelister (Mattæus, Markus, Lukas, Johannes). De har skrevet historien om Kristus: Gud bliver en af ​​os for at vise os vejen til himlen.

Fra området nær det centrale alter ses mange af Berninis værker: baldakinen over alteret, alabastervinduet med en due, der repræsenterer Helligånden, der guider paveens undervisning som kirkens overhoved (repræsenteret af formanden- Cathedra støttet af de fire biskopper), de fire altaner omkring alteret, statuen af ​​St. Longinus og (fremad og langt til venstre) monumentet for pave Alexander VII (d. 1617).

Det centrale alter i St. Joseph, i venstre transept, er angiveligt over det sted, hvor St. Peter blev dræbt i Cirkus i Nero.

Området til højre for det pavelige alter (højre tværsnit med kapellet i St. Processus og Martinianus) var stedet for Vatikanrådet 1 (1869), mens sessionerne i Det andet Vatikankoncil (1962-65) fandt sted i hovedsagen basilikaens gang.

Overfor korkapellet er det salige sakramentskapel, det vigtigste sted for bøn og hengivenhed i St. Peters. Kristus, til stede i form af det brød, der blev indviet i messen, er i tabernaklet. Det tabernakel med bronzeenglene, der knæler i tilbedelse, er Gian Lorenzo Berninis værk.

Ud over det salige sakramentskapel, mod indgangen, er kapellet St. Sebastian. Kisten under alteret indeholder resterne af salige Innocent XI (d.1689).

Endelig har kapellet nærmest den hellige dør Pieta af Michelangelo på alteret. En ungdommelig Maria, hvis udtryk er af dyb sorg, men af ​​ro i stedet for kval, mens hun stirrer, ikke så meget på kroppen, men over hendes søns livløse legeme, på det sted, hvor vi som tilskuere skulle stå, bare ud over alterets trin. Den døende Kristus gav Maria til Johannes som sin mor. Vi er brødre og søstre til John, den nye familie af Mary, og det er på os, hendes børn, at Mary kigger.


Når historiens tabere skriver historien

Jeg besøgte en sommerlejr i det vestlige Rusland i juli 2015. Dens tema var "militær patriotisme", og det involverede snesevis af teenagere, der slentrede rundt i telte, kæmper, hugger træ og laver guirlander. De tog også historietimer. Joseph Stalin, den sovjetiske leder, der dræbte millioner af sovjetiske borgere, blev husket med glæde.

"Uanset dit syn på Stalin, kan du ikke benægte, at han var en stærk leder," fortalte en rådgiver mig senere over dampende skåle kålsuppe. »Stalin vandt krigen. Han gjorde det muligt for os at gå til rummet. Man kan ikke bare smide sådan en person ud af historien. ”

Rusland har ikke stået over for de mørkere dele af sin fortid, noget jeg brugte meget tid på at tænke på som korrespondent der. Men mit eget land har også hukommelsesproblemer. Tag borgerkrigen. Historikere fortæller os, at det blev kæmpet om slaveri. Men en helt anden version blev ikke afkølet i sidste måned på en Applebee i Delaware.

"Det er for forenklet til at sige, at krigen var over slaveri," sagde Jeffrey Plummer, leder af et lokalt kapitel for de sønner af de konfødererede veteraner. "Det er det, der er blevet lært på skolerne, men der er mere til det."

Selektiv hukommelse ser ud til at være et globalt fænomen. Tænk på Tyrkiet og dets tomme sted, hvor det armenske folkedrab skulle være. Eller Japan med sin skrøbelighed om sin aggression og massemord i Kina. Det starter som en grundlæggende menneskelig impuls til at tage brodden ud af nederlag eller undgå at indrømme noget grusomhed. Men det er også en måde at hjælpe med at klare en vanskelig gave. Og som en vækst på en træring kan den holde fortiden ude af køl, indtil en fremtidig generation er modig nok til at rette den.

"I de fleste lande er du mere tilbøjelig til at få unddragelse og nationalistiske versioner af historien end hårdt at kæmpe med de mørkere dele af din fortid, og USA er ingen undtagelse," sagde Gary Bass, professor i politik og internationale anliggender ved Princeton.

I USA er borgerkrigen fortsat "den mest splittende og uløste oplevelse, amerikanerne nogensinde har haft," ifølge David Blight, historiker i Yale. ”Borgerkrigen er som en sovende drage. Hvis du stikker det hårdt nok, vil det løfte hovedet og ånde ild. ”

Det er dels fordi taberen fik sin egen fortolkning. Syd, der stod over for katastrofalt tab af liv og masseødelæggelse på europæisk skala, skrev sin egen historie om krigen. Det kastede sig ud som en underdog overvældet af Nordens overlegne tal, men hvis sag - en ædel kamp for staters rettigheder - var retfærdig. Norden så den anden vej. Nordlige eliter var mere interesserede i at genetablere økonomiske bånd end at holde deres forpligtelser over for sorte forfatningsmæssige rettigheder. Den politiske vilje til at fuldføre genopbygningen døde.

"Hele forestillingen om ære for Konføderationen og de ofre, som din familie bragte, blev en del af det, vi underviste på skolerne," sagde Charles Dew, en historiker fra Williams College, hvis bog "Apostles of Disunion" beskriver de hvide supremacistiske argumenter, der lå til grund for Sydens sag om at forlade Unionen.

For at rette optegnelsen holdt Dew taler om sin bog i begyndelsen af ​​2000'erne som en del af National Park Service's bestræbelser på at afklare årsagerne til krigen. Nogle publikummer trak sig tilbage og sagde: "Min familie ejede ikke slaver, så hvordan kunne de have kæmpet for slaveri?"

"Jeg forsøger ikke at nedgøre dine forfædre," sagde Mr. Dew, at han fortalte dem. "Jeg forsøger at forklare, hvorfor krigen kom og bede alle om at overveje spørgsmålet med et åbent sind."

I Rusland blev folk kvalt af hukommelsen. Da Sovjetunionen faldt, oversvømmede fortidens synder nutiden. Aviser skrev om sovjetiske undertrykkelser. Forskere begyndte at dokumentere politiske drab. Alt dette, da russerne mistede deres job, deres besparelser, deres respekt i verden og deres værdighed. De havde ikke råd til at miste deres fortid. Så Stalin blev manden, der førte Sovjetunionen til sejr i Anden Verdenskrig og industrialiserede en bonde nation.

Tyskland er undtagelsen. Det tog en generation, men det tyske samfund stod over for sin nazistiske fortid og er fremstået som en forbilledlig demokratisk kultur. Det skyldes dels den ekstreme karakter af det nationalistiske socialistiske styre og ødelæggelsen af ​​krigen, det medførte. Tyskerne måtte affinde sig med Holocaust. Nazistyret havde måske overvundet depressionen, men dets tiltagende brutalitet efterlod ingen forløsende kvaliteter.

"I USA var slaveri indlejret i et forfatningsmæssigt regime, der i det mindste mundtligt tilbød universaliserende rettigheder," sagde Charles Maier, professor i det 20. århundredes historie ved Harvard. "Den tyske sag havde ingen tilsvarende."

Men mens topnazister blev retsforfulgt lige efter krigen, mens verden så på, kæmpede det almindelige tyske samfund ikke fuldt ud med forbrydelserne før i 1960'erne. Der var et politisk skift til venstre, der opmuntrede unge tyskere, der stillede hårde spørgsmål om deres forældres fortid. Selv i dag er der ingen store mindesmærker for de måske en halv million tyskere, der døde i allierede bombekampagner i Hamborg, Dresden og andre byer, da det ville ses som en påstand om ækvivalens.

I årene umiddelbart efter krigen var det japanske samfund faktisk foran det tyske samfund med hensyn til at møde sin fortid, sagde Ian Buruma, forfatter til "The Wages of Guilt: Memories of War in Germany and Japan." Venstrefolk havde derefter en stærk stemme i medierne og universiteterne, opmuntret af liberale i den amerikanske besættelse, og historien, der blev undervist i, begyndte at kæmpe med Japans kriminalitetskrig mod andre asiatiske folk. Men den tidlige opgørelse gik i stå i politik: USA besluttede sammen med japanske liberale, at problemet var japansk militarisme og gav landet en pacifistisk forfatning. Det fremmedgjorde retten og forårsagede et brud, der vedvarer den dag i dag.

"I Japan blev historien politiseret," sagde Buruma. "Når du hører en højreorienteret sige: 'Det hele er en venstreorienteret myte, er vi ikke så skyldige, som folk siger,' hvad han egentlig siger, er 'vi vil revidere forfatningen og efterkrigstiden, som blev pålagt af Forenede Stater.' "

Argumentet om konfødererede monumenter har overrasket historikere som Dr. Blight, der har studeret krigen i årtier. Det er et øjeblik for offentlig uddannelse som ingen anden, men med risici. Når historiens tabere får defineret historien, kan den skabe splid - med allierede, med modstandere eller endda med vores medborgere. Men det kan også pludseligt, følelsesmæssigt skynde sig at rette op på det. Historikere siger, at de konfødererede statuer skal fjernes langsomt, med overvejelser, ikke ødelagt midt om natten.

"Denne pludselige, næsten vrede for at slippe af med monumenter krænker på en måde vores instinkter som historikere," sagde han. “Vær forsigtig, sænk farten. Hvis de tages ned, lad os bevare og kurere dem. Disse er en del af vores historiske landskab. Bare at ødelægge dem er ikke lærerigt. ”


Vatikanet: Ældste kendte billeder af apostlene Andrew og John fundet

Det ældste kendte billede af apostlene Andrew og John er blevet opdaget i katakomber under byen Rom, der dateres tilbage til det 4. århundrede e.Kr., meddelte arkæologer tirsdag.

Malerierne blev fundet på samme sted, hvor det ældste kendte maleri af St. Paul blev opdaget sidste år, sagde den pavelige kommission for hellig arkæologi tirsdag.

De er en del af en gruppe malerier omkring et billede af Jesus som den gode hyrde på loftet af det, der menes at have været en romersk adelskvinde, sagde eksperter.

Et maleri af St. Peter udgør det fjerde medlem af gruppen, men man tror, ​​at der eksisterer ældre billeder af ham, siger eksperter i Vatikanet.

Deres inddragelse i graven viser, at aristokraterne var blandt de sidste romere, der konverterede til kristendommen, sagde arkæolog Fabrizio Bisconti.

Den romerske matron må have været meget rig, sagde han, som farver og rigdom i dekorationen viser.

Billederne af apostlene og#039 hoveder og skuldre mod en dyb rød baggrund blev afdækket efter to års arbejde, sagde eksperter i Vatikanet.

Arkæologer brugte en ny laserteknologi til at fjerne lag af hvidt carboncalcium deponeret på kalkmalerierne gennem århundreder uden at forstyrre malerierne.

De er placeret i katakomberne i St. Tecla, en af ​​de 40 romerske katakomber under Rom. Det sidder under en moderne otte-etagers bygning i et arbejderkvarter. Det er lukket for offentligheden, og dets indgang er for det meste skjult.

Vatikanet brugte omkring 60.000 euro (ca. 74.000 dollar) på det arkæologiske arbejde, hedder det. Apostlene var en gruppe på et dusin mænd i henhold til kristen tradition, som spredte Jesu evangelium efter hans korsfæstelse.


Et nærmere kig på symbolikken af ​​Christus og de gamle apostles statuer i Rom

Bertel Thorvaldsens original Christus statuen er i Vor Frue Kirke i København, Danmark. Foto af Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Relaterede links

Nøgler. En pose penge. En ørn. Og talrige instrumenter, der repræsenterer en martyrdød.

Det er nogle af de symboler, der findes på de 12 gamle apostles statuer af den danske billedhugger Bertel Thorvaldsen, som har været omtalt i Vor Frue Kirke i København, Danmark, i næsten 200 år og nu i Jesu Kristi Kirke af Sidste Dages Kirke Saints 'Rome Italy Temple Visitors' Center.

Hver base, der bærer en apostelstatue, har indskrevet en græsk ækvivalent til denne apostels navn. Jo større Christus statuen har en kortere sokkel med "Venite a Me" og "Matteo 11:28" - italiensk for "Kom til mig" og Mattæus 11:28, der lyder: "Kom til mig, alle I, som arbejder og er tunge belastede og Jeg vil give dig hvile. ”

Christus

Det Christus statue is seen with outstretched arms as welcoming, inviting, enveloping, with the hands and feet of the resurrected Christ shown with the wounds of the crucifixion. That differs from other similar statues and depictions of the Savior either suffering through the crucifixion or with arms reaching upward in a show of power.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s original Christus statue is in the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

The pierced hand of a replica of Bertel Thorvaldsen’s Christus statue in the visitors’ center for the Rome Temple in Rome, Italy, on Friday, November 16, 2018. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

The following are some of the representations of symbolism found with Thorvaldsen’s statues of the 12 ancient Apostles.

Peter (Petrus)

The keys held in Peter’s right hand are symbolic of Matthew 16:19, where Christ tells Peter, “I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.”

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of Peter, one of the Twelve Apostles, holds keys at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of Peter, one of the Twelve Apostles, holds keys at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

James, brother of John (Iacobus Frater Iohannes)

James is depicted holding a shepherd’s staff or walking stick and sporting hat behind his left shoulder. Tradition has James preaching in Spain, with many Christian pilgrims walking the Camino de Santiago route to Santiago de Compostela, believed by some to be the Apostle’s burial location.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of James the elder, one of the Twelve Apostles, holds a staff at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s James, the son of Alpheus, holds a staff at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of James the elder, one of the Twelve Apostles, holds a staff at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

John (Iohannes)

The lack of a beard underscores the youth of John, and the writing slate and pencil symbolize his role as an evangelist and one of the authors of the four Gospels. At his feet is an eagle, which was one of the winged creatures mentioned in Revelation 4:7, with John the author of that New Testament book.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of John, one of the Twelve Apostles, holds a tablet at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of John, one of the Twelve Apostles, is shown without a beard at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of John, one of the Twelve Apostles, holds a tablet at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Paul (Paulus)

In collections of Apostle statues, Paul often takes the place of Judas Iscariot. In his left hand, he holds a sword. Traditions have Paul suffering death under Emperor Nero sometime between 62 and 68 AD. As a Roman citizen, Paul was spared crucifixion and is believed to have been beheaded instead.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of Paul holds a sword at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of Paul holds a sword at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Matthew (Matthaeus)

Like fellow evangelist John, the statue of Matthew holds a writing slate and a pencil. Beside the right foot is a bag of money, with Matthew’s original profession being a tax collector.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of Matthew, one of the Twelve Apostles, holds a tablet at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. There is also a bag of money by his feet, in reference to his former job as a tax collector. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of Matthew, one of the Twelve Apostles, holds a tablet at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

A winged child that was part of Bertel Thorvaldsen’s original statue of Matthew in Copenhagen is not part of this replica at the visitors’ center for the Rome Temple in Rome, Italy, on Friday, November 16, 2018. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Philip (Philippus)

The statue in Copenhagen is holding a small cross, since tradition has Philip often preaching of Christ’s crucifixion as well as being crucified upside down.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of Philip, one of the Twelve Apostles, holds a small cross at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

A close replica in Rome of Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of Philip, one of the Twelve Apostles, does not hold a small cross like the original, at the visitors’ center for the Rome Temple in Rome, Italy, on Friday, November 16, 2018. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

James, son of Alpheus (Iacobus Alphaeus Filius)

Tradition has this James—who is shown holding a staff or a fuller’s club—being stoned and beaten to death with such a club near the temple in Jerusalem.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s James, the son of Alpheus, at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Thomas (Thomas)

Thomas holds a builder’s square, given that an ancient story has Thomas building a palace for King Gudaphara in India. Since the “doubting” Thomas didn’t initially believe in the first reports of the Savior’s Resurrection until he touched the wounds of crucifixion, the square symbolizes his belief in things “measured and weighed.”

Thomas, one of the Twelve Apostles statues, by Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen, at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Thomas, one of the Twelve Apostles statues, by Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen, holds a measuring tool at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Bartholomew (Batholomeaus)

The knife being held conveys the legend of his death at the command of the king of Armenia.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of Bartholomew, one of the Twelve Apostles, holds a knife at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Andrew, brother of Peter (Andreas Frater Petri)

Portrayals often show Andrew with a book or scroll and accompanied by an X-shaped cross suggesting or representing the legend of his death in Patras, Greece.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of Andrew, one of the Twelve Apostles, holds a scroll and a large X-shaped cross at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of Andrew, one of the Twelve Apostles, holds a scroll at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Judas Thaddeus (Judas Thaddaeus)

This statue holds a halberd, which is a long-handled medieval weapon combining a spear and a battle-ax. Stories have Judas Thaddeus suffering a martyr’s death in Persia.

Judas Thaddeus, one of the Twelve Apostles statues by Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen, holds a halberd as a symbol of his martyrdom, at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Judas Thaddeus, one of the Twelve Apostles statues by Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen, holds a halberd as a symbol of his martyrdom, at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Simon Zelotes (Simon Zelotes)

The saw held in front represents the tradition of Simon Zelotes’s death in Persia.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of Simon, one of the Twelve Apostles, holds a saw at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.

Bertel Thorvaldsen’s statue of Simon, one of the Twelve Apostles, holds a saw at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, November 13, 2018. The Twelve Apostles statues were carved out of Carrara marble between 1829 and 1848. Replicas of the statues are now on display in the Rome Temple Visitors’ Center in Italy. Photo by Kristin Murphy, Deseret News.


THE SOUL OF VENICE

Mark the Evangelist is indelibly associated with pride in place: No historical figure is more clearly linked with Venice than her patron saint. His square is the heart of Venice, his basilica the center of its ancient faith. Mark's symbol—the winged lion, its paw upon the open Gospel—is as ubiquitous in Venice as the gondola. For the Venetians of the ninth century and after, "Viva San Marco!" was the battle cry, and legends of St. Mark are entwined with the earliest roots of the Venetian Republic. And yet, tradition tells us, Mark died a martyr in Alexandria, Egypt. How did he gain such importance in a Western city-state?

In the delicate balance of political one-upmanship in ninth-century Italy, a young power bound for greatness required theistic no less than military legitimacy. As its patron, the city needed not the third-string dragon slayer it had, St. Theodore, but a titan among saints. And so was born a masterstroke of shadow politics unrivaled in medieval history: In 828, presumably on the orders of the doge, two Venetian merchants named Bono da Malamocco and Rustico da Torcello stole the remains of St. Mark from his tomb in Alexandria or, some say, conned it from the possession of local priests. Returning to their ship, the conspirators put the saint's remains in a basket, covering them with pork to discourage official entanglements. When Muslim port authorities stopped the thieves and peered into the basket, they recoiled in disgust, crying "Kanzir! Kanzir!"—"pig" in Arabic—and commanded the Venetians to hurry along. On the voyage home, legend tells us, a tempest blew up off the Greek coast. St. Mark, his remains lashed to the mast, quieted the storm, saving the vessel. However embroidered by legend, this brazen theft of the Evangelist's relics gave the fledgling republic a spiritual cachet matched in all of Latin Christendom only by that of St. Peter's Rome. This extraordinary coup set in motion brilliant successes that brought forth a Venetian superpower.

From the earliest days of the Republic, "St. Mark was the flag of Venice," Gherardo Ortalli, a medievalist at the University of Venice and a leading expert on St. Mark, told me. "I don't think there are other examples of saints who were so important politically. Wherever Venice left her imprint, you find Mark's lion—in Greece, Crete, Cyprus, Alexandria. On the old Venetian gold coin, the ducato, St. Mark offers the flag of Venice to the doge."

And what of the saint's relics? Are the remains entombed in the sarcophagus in St. Mark's Basilica in Venice really his? What of the skull in Alexandria that the Coptic Church claims belongs to the saint? What of the relic, possibly a bone fragment, said to be Mark's, given to Egypt by the Vatican in 1968, in effect as an apology for the ninth-century theft? Are any of these relics, including that tiny piece of bone in the church in Kerala attributed to Thomas, genuine?

"It's not important if they have the real bones or not," Ortalli said, "because in the Middle Ages they had a very different mentality. You could have 50 fingers of a saint. It wasn't a problem."

For scientists, nonbelievers, many believers, and perhaps for the forensic Thomas, 50 fingers of the same saint er a problem. Even the Catholic Church calls in pathologists to examine, date, and preserve relics in the church's possession. Based in Genoa, Ezio Fulcheri is a devout Catholic and trained pathologist who has worked on church relics for decades. He has studied and preserved the remains of many saints, including John of the Cross and Clare of Assisi, a friend of St. Francis's. "Whenever we can find a relic that is clearly not authentic," Fulcheri said, "we acknowledge that. The church does not want false relics to be venerated." But what of those relics, like St. Mark's, that have yet to be tested? Scholars, scientists, and even clerics within the Catholic Church have called, without success, for scientific testing of the remains in Mark's sarcophagus. Clearly the church has little to gain, and quite a bit to lose, by testing bones of such critical importance. In the case of St. Mark, perhaps it's safer not to know—at least for now.

Not all scientists are eager to press too hard on holy relics. Giorgio Filippi, an archaeologist employed by the Vatican, told me he had opposed the recent analysis and dating of Paul's relics in Rome, announced by the pope in 2009. "Curiosity does not justify the research. If the sarcophagus was empty or if you found two men or a woman, what would you hypothesize? Why do you want to open St. Paul's tomb? I didn't want to be present in this operation." The subsequent investigation, through a finger-size hole drilled in the sarcophagus, produced a bone fragment the size of a lentil, grains of red incense, a piece of purple linen with gold sequins, and threads of blue fabric. Independent laboratory analysis, the church claimed, revealed that they dated to the first or second century. Not conclusive, but better news for the faithful than if they had hailed from the fourth century. The first-century date would mean the bones could be those of St. Paul. Until science advances to the point that testing can reveal fine details such as that the person was short, bald, and from Tarsus—Paul's presumed birthplace on the Turkish coast—we're not likely to get much closer to the truth.

Mark's bones aside, I asked Ortalli if the pious of Venice pray to their patron saint.

"It's better to pray to the Virgin or to Christ," he said. "St. Mark is more complicated. Apart from the basilica, it is difficult to find a place to light a candle to St. Mark. He is many things, but you don't go to St. Mark with a candle." In Catholic and Orthodox churches believers often light candles to accompany prayers to the saints, mounting them before favored icons or statues. "St. Mark is part of [a Venetian's] identity," Ortalli continued. "It's something in your bones—you have two feet, and you have St. Mark. When older people are drunk on the street late at night, they often sing, 'Viva Venezia, viva San Marco, viva le glorie del nostro leon.' Venice was constructed with a soul in which St. Mark is the center."

When the Venetian Republic was finally dissolved under Napoleon, the cry of mourning and defiance on the streets was not "Viva la libertà" eller "Viva la repubblica" men "Viva San Marco."


WASHINGTON, DC — For millennia, King Mob has targeted societies’ icons with varied goals and to varied ends, and few things are more foreboding than his desecration of civic art. Just as the targets have ranged from rulers to clergy, from tyrants to helpless, and from the guilty to the innocent, the outcomes have ranged from victory to defeat depending on the society’s strength and will. The promise of bloodshed coming alongside or following shortly after, however, is an historic certainty. The symbols of a people never satisfy: People themselves must always come next.

In 1790, mobs looted and pillaged Paris’s treasured Notre Dame. To the revolutionaries, the cathedral symbolized everything that was wrong with France’s history and society — a history of kings, tradition and religion, and a society beset by royal injustice and systemic inequality.

Over the next three years, the 12th-century church’s riches and artifacts were stripped, stolen, and destroyed, their remnants hidden by the faithful and sold off by the faithless. Statues of the Virgin Mary were removed and statues to the Goddess of Liberty took their place on desecrated altars.

At nearby Sainte-Chapelle, the revolution pulled the apostles from the pedestals where they had stood watch over Christ’s Crown of Thorns. The 12 statues were vandalized and buried — half so badly they are still undergoing attempts at restoration. As the destruction of religious art unfurled, priests who did not swear allegiance to the new order and those who aided them were sentenced to death.

Back at the cathedral, the revolutionary government mistook the 28 statues of the kings of ancient Judah for French kings (rich old men and all), dragging them into the public square for decapitation. Their buried heads were not rediscovered for nearly 200 years.

In the Place de Louis XV, the large statue of the square’s namesake was torn down and the plaza renamed Place de la Revolution. A guillotine was raised, and the “liberated” space would see the execution of more than 1,200 prisoners, from King Louis XVI and his wife to the executions’ ringleader himself, Maximilien Robespierre.

Seventeen hundred years before, Pliny the Younger described Emperor Domitian’s golden statues “rudely battered down, and made a sacrifice to public joy” amidst his toppling and assassination.

It was a sport and pastime to humble those [statues’] exalted heads, to make them prostrate and kiss the ground, to maul them with hammers, to hew them with hatchets, as if at every stroke blood and pain had been to follow. None was so moderate in the venting of his raptures, none so sober in his overflowing joys, but that he thought it a luscious piece of revenge to see their mangled limbs, their dissevered joints, and finally their grim and ghastly images divested of all their borrowed majesty, and thrown into the flames to be melted down into better use and service.

I USA, mob vandalism began in 2017 with a statue of an unnamed Confederate soldier, escalating to Confederate officers and Gen. Robert E. Lee, who died a nationally recognized champion of peaceful American reconciliation. When critics, including President Donald Trump, worried the iconoclasm would continue to Thomas Jefferson and George Washington, they were mocked by left-wing reporters, columnists and hosts, from the once-respected New York Times to the poncy and excitable John Oliver.

“I’ll tell you where it stops,” the Comedy Central talker yipped: “Somewhere! Any time someone asks ‘Where does it stop,’ the answers’ always f—ing somewhere. You might let your kid have Twizzlers, but not inject black tar heroin. You don’t just go, ‘Well, after the Twizzlers, where does it stop?'”

But rioters are not children with candy, and less than three years later statues of Washington and Jefferson were defaced and torn from their pedestals. The World War II Memorial to America’s actual anti-fascists was spray-painted, along with the Lincoln Memorial. A northern abolitionist boycotted in the South was splashed with blood-red paint and had a noose hung around his neck.

A relief of heroic black Union soldiers was vandalized, the hero of the Union Army was torn from his slab, and a monument to three black victims of racial violence was defiled. A statue of Saint Junípero Serra was pulled down days later, with one supporter calling for his bones to be dug up and desecrated.

Sacred religious statues depicting Christ as light-skinned “are a form of white supremacy… Tear them down,” race-baiting activist Shaun King wrote Monday afternoon. “All murals and stained glass windows of white Jesus, and his European mother, and their white friends should also come down.”

On Friday, a statue of a Confederate soldier was strung up and hanged from a lamppost in a ghastly warning of things to come.

The protests are now dancing at the intersection of Hargett and Salisbury Streets as the downed confederate soldier statue hangs from a street sign nearby #raleigh pic.twitter.com/tY2LnasEIA

&mdash Leigh Tauss (@LeighTauss) June 20, 2020

Policemen and reporters have been attacked, while mayors and journalists have defended the riots as “mostly peaceful.” When an historic church across from the White House was set ablaze, its leader welcomed the mob and decried the president. She was joined in her outreach by Washington’s Catholic archbishop, and the mayor named the street after the mob. Monday night as I write, her church has been freshly defaced and the mob has declared the mayor’s street their “autonomous zone.”

The same evening across the country, the second shooting in just days led the mayor of Seattle to announce the mob’s armed and walled “autonomous zone” would be dismantled. For the previous two weeks, the mayor had withdrawn police from the precinct station and surrounding area, ceding downtown to King Mob to victimize and terrorize small business owners and each other at will.

“Does anybody here know what happened to the people who did not get on board with the French Revolution?” a member of the mob shouted into a megaphone a week prior.

“Chopped!” the mob chanted its violent response.

A society that believes in itself builds monuments, a sick society does not, and a dying society watches as they are torn down. While Roman kings, French monks, American Tories, and Russian tsarists were unable to defeat the revolutions that first tore down their symbols, today in the United States we are simply unwilling.

Blood is already spilling, with civilian defenders, bystanders, workers, and rioters killed and seriously injured in cities all across the country. Without a committed and targeted crackdown on this disorder and its leaders, the committed and targeted killings of their opponents and critics will come next.

The increasingly violent mobs in our streets are chanting for it, and the revolts of human history have come to it every time. You can be sure the ghost of King Mob will see it done. He always does.


The man and his position among the disciples

The sources of information concerning the life of Peter are limited to the New Testament: the four Gospels, Acts, the letters of Paul, and the two letters that bear the name of Peter. He probably was known originally by the Hebrew name Simeon or the Greek form of that name, Simon. The former appears only twice in the New Testament, the latter 49 times. At solemn moments ( Gospel According to John 21:15), he was called “Simon, son of John.” The Gospel According to John prefers Simon (17 times) or the compound, rarely found elsewhere, of Simon Peter. Though Paul has a distinct preference (8 times out of 10) for the Greek transliteration Kēphas (Latinized as Cephas) of the Aramaic name or title Kepa, meaning “Rock,” the Gospels and Acts use the Greek translation Petros approximately 150 times. From the Synoptic Gospels (Gospel According to Matthew 8:14) and Paul (First Letter of Paul to the Corinthians 9:5), there is indirect evidence that Peter was the son of John and was married. His family originally came from Bethsaida in Galilee (John 1:44), but during the period of Jesus’ ministry Peter lived in Capernaum, at the northwest end of the Sea of Galilee, where he and his brother St. Andrew were in partnership as fishermen with St. James and St. John, the sons of Zebedee ( Gospel According to Luke 5:10).

Much can be learned about Peter from the New Testament—either explicitly from the statements made by and about Peter or indirectly from his actions and reactions as revealed in a number of episodes in which he figures prominently. He was at times vacillating and unsure, as in his relations with the church of Antioch when he at first ate with the Gentiles and later refused to do so (Letter of Paul to the Galatians 2:11–14). He could also be resolute (Acts of the Apostles 4:10 5:1–10). Occasionally he is depicted as rash and hasty (Luke 22:33, etc.) or irritable and capable of great anger (John 18:10). Often he is pictured as gentle but firm and, as in his professions of love to Jesus, capable of great loyalty and love (John 21:15–17).

The New Testament reports that Peter was unlearned in the sense that he was untrained in the Mosaic Law (Acts 4:13), and it is doubtful that he knew Greek. He apparently learned slowly and erred time and time again, but later, when entrusted with responsibility, he demonstrated that he was mature and capable.

The Gospels agree that Peter was called to be a disciple of Jesus at the beginning of his ministry, but when and where the event took place is recorded differently in the several Gospels. Luke (5:1–11) scarcely mentions James and John and omits Andrew while emphasizing the call of Peter. Matthew (4:18–22) and Mark (Gospel According to Mark 1:16–20) note the call of the four men and—with Luke—agree that the event took place at the Sea of Galilee. The Gospel According to John places the call in Judaea (1:28) and states that Andrew—who had been a follower of St. John the Baptist (1:35) and had heard John indicate that Jesus was the Lamb of God—left John and introduced Peter to “the Messiah,” who at that time gave him the name (or title) Cephas (i.e., Peter, or Rock).

The Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) are probably correct in recording that the call to Peter was extended in Galilee when Jesus first began his work in that area. The Gospel According to John is here, as elsewhere, perhaps more theologically than historically motivated the author of John wishes to stress that Peter recognized Jesus’ messiahship from the beginning and that Jesus had seen Simon as the “rock” from their first meeting.

The Synoptic Gospels largely agree in the amount of emphasis each gives to the leadership of Peter among the Twelve Apostles, but there are differences also. For example, in one case Matthew and Luke note that Peter was the speaker in questioning Jesus about a parable, but Mark attributes these words to the group of disciples (Matthew 15:15 Luke 8:45 and Mark 7:17). With differing degrees of emphasis, the Synoptic Gospels agree that Peter served as spokesman, the outstanding member of the group, and enjoyed a certain precedence over the other disciples. Whenever the disciples are listed, Peter is invariably mentioned first (Matthew 10:2–4 Mark 3:16–19 Luke 6:14–16 Acts 1:13 compare only Galatians 2:9). Although it is not certain whether or not this priority is primarily due to reading back into the Gospel narrative Peter’s importance in the apostolic church, his forceful personality was surely a factor.

Those not belonging to the immediate followers of Jesus also recognized the authority of Peter, such as when the collectors of the temple tax approached him for information (Matthew 17:24). Again, with characteristic quickness he sought a clarification from Jesus on behalf of the disciples concerning the meaning of a parable (Matthew 15:15) or of a saying (Matthew 18:21). As both an individual and a representative of the Twelve Apostles, he made a plea for personal preference in the kingdom of heaven as a reward for faithful service (Matthew 19:27, 28).

On several occasions, Peter alone is mentioned by name and others are indicated as merely accompanying him (Mark 1:36 Luke 8:45). Even when the three disciples closest to Jesus (the “pillars”—Peter, James, and John) figure in a particular incident, it is frequently Peter alone who is named. When the three are named, Peter’s name invariably appears first (as in Matthew 17:1, 26:37). It was his home in Capernaum that Jesus visited when he cured Peter’s mother-in-law (Matthew 8:14), and it was Peter’s boat that Jesus used when he instructed the crowd (Luke 5:3). It was Peter who possessed remarkable insight and displayed his depth of faith in the confession of Christ as the Son of God (Matthew 16:15–18 Mark 8:29 Luke 9:20), and it was Peter who rebuked, and in turn was rebuked by, Jesus when the Master prophesied that he would suffer and die (Mark 8:32, 33). It was also Peter who manifested the momentary weakness of even the strongest when he denied his Lord (Matthew 26:69–75 Mark 14:66–72 Luke 22:54–61). Later, however, with greater maturity, Peter discovered strength and, as he was charged by Jesus (Luke 22:31, 32), effected the strengthening of others. Finally, Peter, who survived his denial, is permitted to be the first of the Apostles to see Jesus after the Resurrection (Luke 24:34).

In John’s Gospel the prominence of Peter is challenged in the person of St. John the Apostle, the “Beloved Disciple.” Though Peter receives mention in John 37 times (out of a total of 109 times in the four Gospels), one-third of the references are found in the appendix (chapter 21), and he appears in only nine incidents. The Gospel According to John attempts to show the close relationship between John and Jesus while still reserving to Peter the role of representative and spokesman. The fact that Peter is emphasized in John and charged by Jesus to “tend my sheep” and “feed my lambs” (John 21:15, 16) at the same time that the role of the disciples as a whole is being deemphasized attests to the prestige of Peter in the apostolic church. But throughout John’s Gospel, Peter shares his prominence with John (13:24 18:15 19:26, 27, etc.). Among the purposes of chapter 21 in emphasizing Peter may well be an attempt to restore the disciple who denied his Lord to the position he enjoyed in the Synoptic Gospels.


The Notre-Dame Rooster and Other Statues That Escaped the Fire

PARIS — For years, restoration experts worried that the fragile copper figures risked plunging to earth from Notre-Dame cathedral’s 19th-century spire.

Instead, in a miracle of timing, the sculptures of the Twelve Apostles and four New Testament evangelists escaped a fiery end when they were plucked by cranes and removed just days before the blaze in Paris on Monday. It was a small cause for celebration after the destruction of two-thirds of Notre-Dame’s roof and spire. People were also cheered to learn that crosses, a crown of thorns and the famous rose window also survived the flames.

It was a relief not to contemplate the likely fate of the spire’s sculptures if they had stayed where they had been for the last 160 years. A cock — the Gallic rooster that topped the spire, and the unofficial national symbol of France — was found in the debris with significant damage.

Billede

The badly tarnished copper statues, with their heads detached for transportation, were in a warehouse in the Dordogne region in southwestern France on Tuesday. Restoration experts were preparing to clean and restore them to their natural brown color before returning them to Paris in 2022.

But now those plans were delayed, said Patrick Palem, a veteran restoration expert with SOCRA, the company overseeing the makeover. In an interview, he said the project was halted temporarily while workers helped in Paris with more pressing needs, such as protecting Notre-Dame’s famous gargoyles, some of which had been damaged in the fire.

The new focus, he said, was on the “reconstruction and renovation of Notre-Dame, which could take between 10 and 20 years, probably for a cost of several hundred million euros.”

The 16 sculptures, each weighing about 500 pounds, were removed on Thursday, delicately hoisted into the sky and then transported by truck to SOCRA’s workshop. They were installed during major reconstruction of the cathedral in 1859 and 1860 by the architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, whose face was a model for one of the figures, the apostle Saint Thomas.

“So he will have survived the fire, but imagine how his heart would break learning about this,” Stephen Murray, an expert in French medieval architecture at Columbia University, said in a telephone interview.

Viollet-le-Duc was a Gothic Revival architect who was famous for his own creative restorations, introducing the gargoyles, which served as rain spouts from the roof and appeared to have survived the fire. He was also fiercely attacked for his vision and accused of vandalizing history. Viollet-le-Duc restored the facade of Notre-Dame, inside and out, including replacing 60 statues.

When his sculptures were removed last week, it was the first time since the 1860s that experts could get a close-up glimpse. In the SOCRA workshop, Mr. Palem and other experts examined the head of Saint Thomas and the interior of the sculpture to look for weaknesses and cracks. They had extensive experience working on other restoration projects at the Palace of Versailles and the basilica of Mont-Saint-Michel.

The original plan was to restore the sculptures two by two since time and pollution had dramatically changed the original surfaces. The strategy was to weld cracks and clean the works to expose the original copper color that had been covered by a layer of chalky green tarnish.

Instead, the restorers woke up to a nightmare, with damages that mounted by Tuesday morning. For Mr. Palem, it was an incalculable loss.

“For me, it’s like losing a dear friend, like your grandparents have died,” he said. “I think it’s terrible. It’s not just because of religion, but because it is such a grand part of our patrimony.”


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