Biografi af Ian Smith - Historie

Biografi af Ian Smith - Historie

Ian Smith

1919-2007

Zimbabwisk politiker

Ian Smith var en jagerpilot i slaget ved Storbritannien. Han vendte tilbage efter krigen til sit hjemland Rhodesia, som på det tidspunkt var medlem af det britiske rigsfællesskab. I 1948 blev Smith medlem af parlamentet. Han trak sig i 1961 for at stå i spidsen for Rhodesian Front, et parti dedikeret til Rhodesias uafhængighed uden sort deltagelse. Smith havde forskellige stillinger, herunder premierminister fra 1964.

I 1965 erklærede han ensidigt uafhængighed af Storbritannien. Briterne førte en verdensomspændende sanktionskampagne mod Rhodesianerne, og disse sanktioner kombineret med voksende guerillaangreb tvang Smith til at affinde sig med den sorte opposition.

I 1979 blev Rhodesia kendt som Zimbabwe, og Smith blev et parlamentsmedlem i oppositionen. Han blev suspenderet fra parlamentet i 1987.

Bøger

Bitter høst: Zimbabwe og efterfølgende uafhængighed


Biografi af Ian Smith

Ian var Executive Vice President og Chief Operating Officer hos Vertex Pharmaceuticals og Partner, Life Science and Technology Practice hos Ernst & Young.

  • Direktør hos Foghorn Therapeutics - View - Foghorn Therapeutics org chart
  • Bestyrelsesformand i Solid BioSciences - Se - Solid BioSciences org chart

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Ian Smith har en bachelor i regnskab og finansiering fra Manchester Metropolitan University.

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Kollegaerne til Ian Smith

Virksomhedskollegaer
  • Hos Foghorn Therapeutics har Ian Smith 21 kolleger, herunder Adrian Gottschalk (CEO og direktør), Scott Biller (direktør) ...
  • Hos Solid BioSciences har Ian Smith 17 kolleger, herunder Ilan Ganot (CEO og direktør), Adam Koppel (direktør) ...
Homonymer
  • Ian Smith - General Manager - Invu
  • Ian Smith - administrerende direktør - Clearwater Seafoods
  • Ian Smith - Software Service and Support Manager - Marel UK & Ireland
  • Ian Smith - Ikke -administrerende direktør - Cambridge & Counties Bank
  • Ian Smith - Operations Director - Clays
  • Ian Smith - direktør - CarGurus
  • Ian Smith - Vice President, Sales and Corporate Development - Waveguide
  • Ian Smith - administrerende direktør - Bedfordia Farms
  • Ian Smith - administrerende direktør, Farms - Bedfordia Group
  • Ian Smith - Uafhængig direktør - Euro Ressources
  • Ian Smith - Information Technology Manager - CWC Energy Services
  • Ian Smith - Chief Executive Officer, USA og Americas Region - BMW Financial Services
  • Ian Smith - Managing Director, Portfolio Manager for Equity and Fixed Income - Silvercrest Policy and Strategy
  • Ian Smith - bestyrelsesformand og uafhængig direktør - Sanatana Resources
  • Ian Smith - administrerende direktør (indtil 1. september 2021) - BMW Financial Services Nordamerika
  • Ian Smith - administrerende direktør, aktie- og renteporteføljer - Silvercrest outsourcede investeringer
  • Ian Smith - Overlæge - Artios Pharma
  • Ian Smith - administrerende direktør - IDE Group
  • Ian Smith - Ikke -udøvende bestyrelsesformand - Rex Minerals
  • Ian Smith - Salgs- og marketingdirektør, Valsede produkter - Hulamin
  • Ian Smith - bestyrelsesformand - ViaCyte
  • Ian Smith - Group Chief Financial Officer - Nordea Bank
  • Ian Smith - Teknologechef - Hyperion X
  • Ian Smith - administrerende direktør og porteføljeforvalter for aktier og renteindtægter - Silvercrest Asset Management Group
  • Ian Smith - direktør for drift, energigenvindingsfaciliteter - Viridor
  • Ian Smith - Global Head of Information Technology - Pro Global
  • Ian Smith - Instruktør - Aurora
  • Se alle de 27 organisationsdiagrammer> Luk
Branchekollegaer
  • I bioteknologi har Ian Smith 20.929 kolleger i 1.724 virksomheder i 41 lande. 12.308 ledelsesbevægelser er blevet registreret i de sidste 12 måneder. Lær mere om bioteknologi.

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Den modstridende verden af ​​Iain Duncan Smith

Hans egne biografiske notater siger, at Iain Duncan Smith gik til Perugia University i Italien. Fakta: han tog et sprogkursus, ikke en grad. En konservativ partis biografi siger, at han var direktør for GEC-Marconi. Fakta: det var han ikke. Hans tilhængere kender ham som "IDS". Fakta: monikeren er en nylig erhvervelse. I skolen blev han kendt som "Wally", hvilket ikke kræver nogen forklaring, og i hæren som "Beruset", ironisk nok, fordi han var så desperat alvorlig. Velkommen til den nye Tory -leders modstridende verden.

Hvad mange konservative angår, har de fået den leder, de ønsker. Han er en af ​​dem: en sandblå, gammeldags, farvet i uld-Tory. På papiret er han i det mindste en mere naturlig efterfølger for Margaret Thatcher, end den kvælende, uldne John Major eller den ungdommelige, uverdenlige William Hague nogensinde var. Dette tror de er en mand, der gik på en serviceskole, har set handling i Ulster, steget til toppen af ​​forretningen og nu ønsker at drive sit parti tilbage til storhed.

Når han holder sin første hovedtale som leder, til en dyster festkonference i Blackpool sent i morgen formiddag, vil han modtage en varm modtagelse. Selvfølgelig ville han have foretrukket at have talt under forskellige omstændigheder. Men for krigsudbruddet ville partiet være blevet behandlet med et samlingsopråb om genhævelse af traditionelle Tory -værdier, om kriminalitet, om race, om Europa. Nu vil det være statsmandsagtigt i ton, mindre point-scoring i indhold.

Duncan Smith vil dog tale fra hjertet - han var jo engang selv soldat. Bifaldet vil ikke være så højt, som han ellers kunne have forventet, men det vil være langt og vedvarende og ægte. Det vil være et lykkeligt tilfælde af en person, der blev beskrevet af en tidligere kollega i Skygge -kabinettet for at have "noget fra fortiden om ham" og modtog hilsen fra et medlemskab, hvor langt de fleste selv har set bedre dage.

Image er alt i moderne politik, og for Tories passer Duncan Smith perfekt til deres ønskeliste. (Om han gør det for vælgerne som helhed, der ved to løbende konkurrencer har valgt en helt anden type som premierminister, skal ses.)

Det kommer derfor som et chok at begynde at udforske Duncan Smith -livet og finde ud af, at den accepterede version, den, der blev trukket ud af hans legion af tilhængere, og gentaget ordret af nogle dele af medierne, begynder at falde fra hinanden. Kort sagt, det gengivne billede tåler ikke alvorlig granskning. Det kan føles som om, at vi selvfølgelig har været her før, selvfølgelig med en anden Tory, der nu bor i fængsel. Også hos ham var hans CV meget sparsomt med fakta. Men Duncan Smith er ingen Jeffrey Archer. I tilfælde af IDS er det ikke så meget, hvad han har sagt, men hvad han har tilladt at sige og ikke korrigere. Du kan se, hvorfor det ville ske: i ønsket om at gøre en usædvanlig karakter interessant, er myte og virkelighed blevet uløseligt sammenflettet.

Da hans tidligere kollega sagde, at Duncan Smith havde "noget fra fortiden om ham", var han alvorlig. Den nye lederes baggrund synes at være afbrudt fra det moderne liv. Tag hans far. Sjælden er introduktionen til Duncan Smith eller formandens valgkredsformand, der ikke nævner, at han er søn af gruppekaptajn WG G Duncan "Smithy" Smith, DSO, DFC, et fighteras fra anden verdenskrig. "En enestående skytte, han ødelagde 19 fjendtlige fly og blev tildelt DSO og bar og DFC og to barer, hvilket gjorde ham til en af ​​RAFs mest dekorerede jagerhelte", var hyldesten i The Daily Telegraph fem år siden, og det er lagt i sin helhed på Duncan Smiths websted.

Afdøde "Smithy" var også forfatter til Spitfire i kamp, en bog om hans bedrifter, der skal genudgives næste år. På internettet, på et militært hobbysite, er der noget uoverensstemmende et krigsspil baseret på en hændelse i bogen, da han blev tvunget til at balde ud over den italienske kyst og blev udsat for fjendtlig flyskydning, mens han ventede på at blive hentet . Spillet vurderer piloterne: måske ikke overraskende beskrives RAF -drengene som "fremragende" og aksen som "gennemsnitlige".

"Smithy" ville have godkendt en sådan vurdering. For ham var mænd "chaps", kvinder var "piger", homoseksuelle var "queers" (en beskrivelse, som Iain Duncan Smith angiveligt har brugt privat), og politikere var under foragt: "Vi forventede at dø som mange andre vildledte chaps fordi vi aldrig skulle have tålt ufattelighed hos ufattelige politikere så længe. "

Den voldsomme krigslegende giftede sig med sin "pige", Pamela Summers, en smuk irsk ballerina. Deres kombination af robust fysik og fintbenet nåde afspejles i Duncan Smiths fysiske make-up. Kraftfuldt bygget og fit, kan han virke overraskende svelte. Når du først ved, at en oldemor var japansk, fra gammel samurai-slægt, kan du også se det orientalske i ham, især hans øjne.

Han blev født i 1954 i Edinburgh. Duncan Smith kan lide at forkynde, at han er skotsk og støtter Skotland i rugby, selvom han ikke nyder at blive forbundet med andre skotter, der blev bemærkelsesværdige politikere i Westminster, nemlig Tony Blair, Gordon Brown og Robin Cook. Han var den sidste af fem børn.

Duncan Smith tilbad sin far, der ville have ham til at have en militær karriere. Mærkeligt nok gik han dog ikke på en militærskole. Det kan kaldes HMS Conway, men Duncan Smiths skole var ikke et Royal Navy-akademi, men et gebyrbetalt kollegium, der primært betjente handelsflåden. Omkostninger kan have været en faktor, siden Conway, baseret på Anglesey, blev subsidieret af handelsflåden.

Skolen var bedre kendt for sin sportslige dygtighed end sin akademiske succes. Normale lektioner blev spækket med læring af søfarerskab, sejlads og udadgående klasser. Skolen har siden lukket. "Det havde et folkeskole-etos med en nautisk smag tilføjet til det," siger Philip van Bergen, en Conway-samtid af Duncan Smith.

Under lederskabskampagnen blev elever fra Duncan Smith vant til at læse hans websted og bemærke, at poster havde for vane at forsvinde. Dette var bestemt sandt for nogle af hans medarbejdere, da de blev afsløret i pressen for deres højreekstreme fortid. Mærkeligt nok, i en periode var hans skole også fraværende - til vrede hos Conway gamle drenge.

En forklaring kan være, at nogen i Duncan Smiths lejr tog den af ​​for at forhindre, at journalister snokede rundt, at der skete noget på hans skole, som den fremtidige leder af partiet skammer sig over. Tro de gamle drenge, der var en Duncan Smith, der blev fanget i rygning i Forecastle House (skolens områder blev opkaldt efter dele af et skib). I så fald siger de, at han må have været slået med "teaseren", Conway -drengenes øgenavn for et knyttet klokkentov brugt i stedet for en stok.

Bortset fra det skiller intet ud. Hans skolekælenavn, ifølge Nick Taylor, en gammel Conway, var "Wally". Eller måske er det pointen: han var totalt umærkelig, og hans rådgivere ville ikke have, at hans skolekammerater sagde det.

Han var dog god til rugby-godt nok, fastholder Duncan Smith-legenden for at holde Clive Woodward, det fremtidige England stort, ude af skoleholdet i en periode (selvom Woodward var yngre, og selv med sin gudgavne evne ville har kæmpet for at fjerne nogen fra senior XV).

Han spillede i skolebandet, og det var det. "Han var ikke den slags fyr, hvis gamle Conways, når de kommer sammen, siger:" Kan du huske hvornår. "Siger Van Bergen. "Han var ikke en af ​​karaktererne."

Duncan Smith forlod Conway i 1973 efter at have opnået otte O-niveauer og tre A-niveauer. De fleste drenge, der forlod Conway, gik enten direkte ind i handelsflåden eller Royal Navy eller på et universitet for at læse et emne relateret til skibsfart eller skibsbygning. Duncan Smith gjorde ingen af ​​disse. Hans egne biografiske noter siger ganske enkelt, at han gik til Universita di Perugia. Dette er sandt - men han tog ikke en universitetsgrad. Han gik på en sprogskole tilknyttet universitetet. Han betalte et gebyr og tog et kort kursus i italiensk.

Fra Perugia sluttede Duncan Smith sig til hæren. Dette var et mærkeligt valg af to grunde: han sluttede sig ikke til sin fars gamle tjeneste, RAF, og han brugte heller ikke erfaringerne fra Conway og gik i flåden. Blandt Conway gamle drenge er afvisning af havet for landet ensbetydende med forræderi, og Duncan Smith er blevet omtalt som en "turncoat" på deres websted.

Kommentatorer har omtalt hans hærrekord som "fornem", men det er svært at se hvorfor. Han var ikke en stjerne i Sandhurst og skulle arbejde hårdt på at få en provision. Han sluttede sig til skotske vagter og tjente to ture i Ulster. Republikanske kilder siger, at alt, hvad de har kunnet opdage om Duncan Smith, var, at han næsten mistede sit våben i en gadekamp med nogle civile. Han var ikke på en foreløbig liste som officer, der skulle frygtes eller som en, der havde scoret mange hits mod dem.

Duncan Smith var i Ulster i en af ​​de værste perioder, hvor mange soldater blev skudt af IRA. Blandt dem var Alan Swift, en anden skotsk vagt, der blev skudt ihjel i Londonderry, hvor Duncan Smith var stationeret, i 1978.

Irske republikanere hilste Duncan Smiths forhøjelse til leder med foragt. Han er fortsat en dybt upopulær skikkelse blandt nationalister og ikke kun fordi han engang patruljerede deres gader. Han var en vokal opbakker til Lee Clegg, faldskærmssoldaten, der derefter blev dømt for at have dræbt to teenage joyriders i West Belfast i 1990. Og han var en fremtrædende forsvarer for James Fisher og Mark Wright, to soldater i hans eget regiment, Scots Guards, der blev fængslet for at skyde den 18-årige Peter McBride i ryggen, i Belfast i 1992, men beholdt deres hærjob.

Hans støtte til de to gardister elskede ham til hans gamle regiment. Indtil hans politiske opstandelse og hans støtte til Fisher og Wright blev Duncan Smith ikke holdt stor respekt i officerernes rod, hvor han blev husket som overhovedet som værende solid og pålidelig end som en fremtidig leder af mænd. Han er dog gået af vejen siden han kom ind i politik for at cementere sine forbindelser. Han talte for lejesoldater under Sierra Leone -affæren, hvor manden i centrum af kontroversen var Tim Spicer, en tidligere kommandør i Duncan Smiths gamle regiment, og stadig blev respekteret i Skotsk garde.

Fra Ulster blev Duncan Smith sendt til Rhodesia, hvor han tjente som medhjælper for general Sir John Acland og derefter styrede kolonien mod uafhængighed. Regnskaberne for Duncan Smiths tid der varierer. Der er ét indtryk af en ung, lys, modig hærofficer, der træder en delikat vej mellem det hvide Ian Smith -regime og de sorte guerillakrigere. Og der er en anden, af en ung medhjælper til Acland, der fulgte et skridt bag sin herre. Det er overflødigt at sige, at førstnævnte formidles af Duncan Smiths tilhængere, ivrige efter at fremstille ham som en handlingens mand og afgørende lederskab. Sidstnævnte blev udtrykt af Acland selv, der påpegede, at mens han var effektiv, var Duncan Smith stadig kun en medhjælper, og den ægte tapperhed blev udstillet af tropper i bushen.

Det var i Rhodesia, blandt det hjertelige udstationerede samfund, at den altid så seriøse Duncan Smith fik det ironiske kaldenavn, "Drunken" Smith. Han forlod hæren, 27 år gammel, i 1981. Han var steget til kaptajn, hvilket lyder godt, men var det mindste forventede for nogen fra Duncan Smiths baggrund og tjenestetid. Inden for hæren er det næste niveau af major meget hårdere at nå. Han tog aldrig springet.

Året efter, at han stoppede, var skotsk vagter i aktion på Mount Tumbledown i Falklandsøerne. Duncan Smith var selvfølgelig ikke der, men det er tvivlsomt, hvor mange aldrende Tories i publikum indser lige så meget, når de hører deres nye leder angiveligt beskrive, hvordan soldaterne på Tumbledown blev fastgjort og løb tør for ammunition og "var bange skidt ", da en betjent" stod op og sagde, "jeg går". De rejste sig og fulgte ham. Otte eller ni mænd blev dræbt, men han overlevede og fik militærkorset. Det er min idé om ledelse. Nogle gange du skal gå ud foran og sige, 'Sådan skal vi gøre det, og jeg tager kuglerne, når vi går'. " Dette er hæsblæsende, bemærkelsesværdige ting, desto mere bemærkelsesværdigt, når du husker, at Duncan Smith ikke var der.

Fra hæren trådte han en slidt eksofficerens vej til forsvarssalg hos GEC-Marconi. "Jeg var involveret i fremstillingsindustrien," er Duncan Smiths holdning til hans position og præsenterer sig selv for alt for godt at kende til industrielernes problemer. Teknisk har han ret: han var involveret i fremstillingsindustrien. Men han blev ikke beskidt af sine hænder. Han var en glat, tidligere militær marketing- og salgsmand, en af ​​mange hos GEC-Marconi.

Den officielle Tory-biografi om Duncan Smith siger, at han var "direktør for GEC-Marconi fra 1981-88". Dette er forbløffende: han forlader hæren uden forretningserfaring og bliver straks direktør for det, der dengang var en af ​​Storbritanniens mest succesrige virksomheder. Bestyrelsen indeholdt Tories i den periode, især Lords Carrington og Prior, men Duncan Smith var ikke blandt dem. Virksomhedens helt praktiske leder gennem disse år var Lord Weinstock. Han husker ikke Duncan Smith. ”Jeg har aldrig mødt ham, det er pjat at sige, at han var instruktør,” siger Weinstock. "Jeg har været i virksomheden i 41 år, og han var ikke direktør. Jeg har aldrig set ham i mit liv."

For at være fair over for Duncan Smith har han ikke fremsat påstanden. I svar på spørgeskemaer om sit liv har han svaret "udøvende, GEC-Marconi". Beskrivelsen af ​​ham som instruktør fremgår af Tory -propaganda om ham. Formentlig er dette et forsøg fra en i Central Office på at give ham en status og forretningsmæssig succes, han aldrig har erhvervet.

I 1982 blev den unge kaptajn, der blev forretningsfører, gift med sekretær Betsy Fremantle. Under lederskabskonkurrencen deltog Duncan Smith i et møde mellem walisiske landmænd. Da han blev spurgt om, hvad han syntes om opfordringen fra Labour-kollegaen, Lord Haskins, om hårdt pressede landmænd til at påtage sig et andet job, svarede han efter sigende: "Jeg har en svigerfar, der gård, og jeg kan fortælle dig, at han tog Lord Haskins bemærkninger ret dårligt. "

Hvis de walisiske bønder tænkte på "svigerfar, der gård" som en liderlig søn af jorden, ligesom dem, tog de fejl. Svigerfar er John Fremantle, ellers kendt som Lord Cottesloe. Han er en gammel etnisk og tidligere flådekommandør, han ejer Swanbourne-ejendommen i Buckinghamshire, som omfatter landsbyen Swanbourne med postkort, komplet med posthus, landsbybutik, te-værelser, prep-skole og huse plus rullende hektar med primært landbrugsjord. Lord og Lady Cottesloe bor i det gamle hus, en herregård beliggende på fem hektar. Da Betsy er Cottesloes ældste barn, kan den næste landsbymand være Iain Duncan Smith. På trods af Tory Central Office's forsøg på at præsentere ham på anden måde er Duncan Smith resolut overklasse.

Han har fire børn: Edward St Alban Harry Alasdair St John Alicia Cecilia og Rosanna Tatiana. Af de tre ældste børn går et til Eton, og de to andre går på private gymnasier. Den yngste, Rosanna, vil også gå til en uafhængig sekundær. Fru Duncan Smith har ikke et job. De har et hjem i hans valgkreds i Chingford, øst for London i Essex, men foretrækker at bruge tid blandt deres eget sæt i deres hus i Fulham i London. Når det blegner, bliver de på herregården Cottesloe, hvor landsbyboere kan høre støj fra børnene, der plasker i swimmingpoolen. Duncan Smith nyder et godt spil kroket og spiller klaverduetter.

Fra GEC-Marconi sluttede han sig til et ejendomsfirma ved navn Bellwinch (den officielle Tory-historie siger, at det var Bellwing). Dette var en katastrofe for Duncan Smith. Bellwinch byggede huse i sydøst. Duncan Smith sluttede sig til i 1988 i begyndelsen af ​​ejendomsnedgangen. I løbet af måneder blev han afskediget.

Efter kort tid på dole (hans spindoktorer elsker at påpege dette som bevis på, hvor "forbundet" han er med almindelige mennesker), blev han salgs- og marketingdirektør for Jane's Information Group, forsvarsforlagene. Hos Jane huskes han for at være kedelig og for at holde sig for sig selv. Han var ikke socialiserende og undgik en drink i pubben for at tage hjem til familien. Dette var ikke usædvanligt. Folk, der er stødt på Duncan Smith gennem hele sit liv, fra skole til hæren til erhvervslivet til politik, bemærker alle, hvor kontrolleret han er.

Der var dog en anden grund til hans fritliggende luft: han ammede Chingford, Essex, sæde for den snart pensionerede Norman Tebbit. Ifølge hans egen beretning, der blev lagt ud under lederkampagnen, fangede Duncan Smith den politiske fejl, mens han var i hæren i Rhodesia. "Det var i løbet af sin hærskarriere, at han besluttede, at han ville ind i politik, men inden han gjorde det, ville han udvide sin erfaring yderligere. Efter at have forladt hæren tilbragte han de næste 11 år i erhvervslivet."

Mærkeligt, at Duncan Smith tidligere har givet et andet indtryk af en, der meget før vidste, at han ville være politiker, og strukturerede sin karriere i overensstemmelse hermed og sagde: "Jeg kunne have valgt den veltramte vej til Westminster , Jeg kunne have gået til Oxford og byen som så mange andre, men jeg ville ikke have det mærke, jeg kom fra en familie med en tjenestehistorie, min far var en jagerpilot i Anden Verdenskrig, jeg sluttede mig til Skotske vagter og så aktiv tjeneste i Nordirland, inden han blev assistent for general Sir John Acland under forhandlingerne i Rhodesia. "

Hvis vi sætter det vigtige punkt til side om han kunne være kommet ind til Oxford, får denne erklæring det til at ligne, at han altid vidste, hvor han var på vej hen, at hæren var et springbræt til Westminster. Men hans egen leder-kampagneuddeling er også vildledende. Det får det til at se ud, som om han efter at have forladt hæren bevidst besluttede at bruge 11 år på at udvide sin erhvervserfaring, inden han gik ind i politik for Chingford. I så fald, hvorfor, mindre end fem år efter at have forladt hæren, ansøgte han om at blive kandidat til Bradford West? Hans adoptionsmøde var i januar 1986, og han mistede sædet med 7.500 stemmer i juni 1987.

I Chingford kunne han ikke tabe. Han trådte ind i Commons i 1992 med et reduceret flertal, og etablerede sig øjeblikkeligt som en principiel mand, som ikke var bange for at trodse partipiskerne. Han var den eneste "nye dreng", der ikke stemte med Major -regeringen i Maastricht.

Han var heller ikke i disse dage en centrist. Han var for-privatisering, nedskæringer i socialsikringsbudgettet, dødsstraf. På race, i 1992, sagde han: "Den etniske befolkning i Waltham Forest, som er den femte højeste i London, har lagt pres på boligefterspørgslen. 15 procent af bydelens befolkning, omkring 33.000 mennesker, kommer fra etniske minoritetsgrupper. " Men i år sagde han på et besøg i Bradford: "Vi vil nå ud til alle de mennesker, der befinder sig i en knibe med at have intet håb, som er fanget i indre byområder uden job."

Om Europa sagde han i 1997: "Afstemning efter meningsmåling viser, at et stigende antal mennesker. Har fastslået, at direkte afgang er den eneste løsning." Men i år erklærede han: "Jeg har ingen planer om at trække mig ud af EU."

I Commons har han modsat sig en europæisk dom, der sætter kvinder på deltid på lige fod med mandlige fuldtidsansatte. Han har sagt, at Storbritannien bør tydeliggøre sin hensigt om at bruge atomvåben, "ellers kan vi lige så godt ikke besidde dem". Han har støttet en opfordring til genindførelse af dåse. På grund af sin kones familie rigdom, hans to hjem og hans børn, der gik på offentlige skoler, har Duncan Smith på bekostelig vis klaget over, at livet som parlamentsmedlem havde været "en økonomisk katastrofe".

Sådan var hans holdning til en række spørgsmål og hans principielle ry, hans tilhængere insisterer på, at han nægtede et job i Major -administrationen. "Jobbet var som parlamentarisk privat sekretær for Jonathan Aitken," sagde en talsmand for Duncan Smith. Dette er mærkeligt, da Major sagde, at det aldrig blev tilbudt: "Jeg kan kategorisk fortælle dig, at jeg på intet tidspunkt tilbød Iain et job i regeringen".

Men det ville ikke være første gang, med Duncan Smith -industrien, at fakta har stået i vejen for historien.


Om Dr. Ian Smith

Dr. Ian Smith er forfatter til #1 New York Times bedst sælgende bøger, SHRED: DEN REVOLUTIONÆRE KOST, og SUPER SHRED: The Big Results Diet, og SPÆND SUKKERET UD.Dr. Smiths forventede nyeste bog, The Clean 20, blev et øjeblik New York Times bestseller, der hjælper hundredtusinder af mennesker med at reducere dårlige sukkerarter fra deres kost, tabe sig, sænke blodsukkerniveauet og reducere trangen.

Dr. Smith blev udnævnt af præsident Obama til en anden periode i det prestigefyldte præsidentråd om fitness, sport og ernæring. Han er i øjeblikket den medicinske bidragyder og medvært for det nationalt syndikerede tv-show Rachael Ray Show.

Han er tidligere medvært for det Emmy-prisvindende syndikerede talkshow om dagen, Lægerne. Han fungerede også som medicinsk/kostekspert i seks sæsoner på VH1's højt vurderede Celebrity Fit Club, og er skaberen og grundlæggeren af ​​de nationale sundhedsinitiativer Udfordringen på 50 millioner pund og Makeover -milen. Dr. Smith er den tidligere lægekorrespondent for NBC News -netværket og for NewsChannel 4 i New York, hvor han indgav rapporter for NBC Nightly News og The Today Show samt WNBC ’s forskellige nyhedsudsendelser. Han har optrådt meget i forskellige udsendelser, herunder Oprah Winfrey Show, The View, Dr. Oz, Steve Harvey Show, The Talk, Larry King Live, Anderson Cooper 360, CNN, MSNBC og mange flere. Han har skrevet til forskellige publikationer, herunder Tid, Newsweek, Mænds Fitness, og New York Daily News, og har været omtalt i flere andre publikationer, herunder, Mennesker, Redbook, Details Magazine, Essens, Ibenholt, University of Chicago Medicine on the Midway, Cosmopolitan, og Sort virksomhed.

Smith ’s arbejde er en meget efterspurgt foredragsholder og er blevet hædret af flere organisationer, herunder National Academy of Television Arts & amp Sciences for hans omtale af de vigtige begivenheder, der begyndte den 11. september 2001. Han er også meget aktiv i velgørende formål. Dr. Smith har også siddet i bestyrelserne for American Council on Exercise, New York Mission Society, Prevent Cancer Foundation, The New York Council for Humanities og The Maya Angelou Center for Health Equity.

Dr. Smith dimitterede fra Harvard College med en AB og modtog en master i naturvidenskabelig uddannelse fra Teachers College ved Columbia University. Han gik på Dartmouth Medical School og afsluttede de sidste to år af sin medicinske uddannelse og tog eksamen fra University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine.

Dr. Smith er forfatter til 15 bøger, 8 af dem New York Times Bestsellers herunder Ren 20, Sprøjt sukkeret ud, SUPER SHRED: The Big Results Diet, SHRED: The Revolutionary Diet, The Fat Smash Diet og Extreme Fat Smash. Han er også forfatter til den anmelderroste Blackbird -papirerne (Vinder af BCALA -fiktion Honor Book Award 2005).

Dr. Smith er skaberen af ​​SHRED -mærket, som omfatter SHRED Pop Popcorn og SHRED Bars med andre produkter under udvikling.


Biografi

Kingsford-Smith ser sig selv som en visuel historiefortæller. "I min kunstpraksis," siger han, "historie, personlig historie, hukommelse, familieoptegnelser, ambitioner, fantasi, drømme, mytologi og spiritualitet" kombineres alle til at skabe gådefulde fortællinger. De er detaljerede, men fortæller ikke en eksplicit historie, de bruger snarere seerens fantasi og fremkalder et væld af mulige historier. Hver af Kingsford-Smiths billeder fremkalder en større historie og mening gennem hans evne til at lege subtilt med farve, linje og skala. Ved at arbejde i forskellige medier, fra ætsninger, til akryl og olier på træ, til linocuts og trægraveringer, siger Kingsford-Smith, at ved at anvende en sådan række materialer får han mulighed for at realisere sin vision og levendegøre den levende for seer.

Ian Kingsford-Smith er en fuldtids kunstner, der arbejder i Sydney. Han har studeret maleri med en række førende New Zealand -malere, herunder Colin McCahon, Michael Smither og Toss Woollaston.

Ian har haft soloudstillinger på ARO Gallery, Sydney, Artefakter/Ubegravet skat 2019, Studio One Toi Tu, Auckland, New Zealand, Scener fra dagligdagen, 2018 ARO Gallery, Sydney Votives, 2018 Spazio Tadini Museum, Milano, Italien, Fortællende Fragmenter af Liv, 2018 ARO Gallery, Sydney 2017 Efterlivet m2 Galleri, Sydney 2016 Afstamning Studio One Toi Tu, Auckland, New Zealand 2015, Pilgrimsrejser Sheffer Gallery, Sydney 2015 Mappa Vitae, se reklame Klik her GAFFA, Sydney i 2014 Pilgrimsrejse Global Gallery i 2013 Drømme i fangenskab, 2012 Australske historier, 2011 Dingoer, 2010 Træer på papir og gruppeudstillinger i maleri og grafik i Firenze, New York, Melbourne, Auckland og Cairns. Tidligere har han haft solo- og gruppeudstillinger i Auckland, Dunedin og Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Hans arbejde blev accepteret i den permanente samling af Spazio Tadini -museet, Milano, Italien i august 2018 (Afstamning mand og tre babyer 2016) og i private og virksomheders samlinger i USA, Italien, Sverige, Frankrig, Tyskland, Wales, England, Sydkorea, New Zealand og Australien.


Ian blev opvokset som enebarn i Elmhurst af sin far Steve, der var taxachauffør, og hans mor, der var husmor. Kort efter at han blev født, blev det opdaget, at Ian lider af Morquio syndrom, hvilket resulterer i dværgvækst.

I en alder af ni fandt en spejder ham og foreslog Harvey Weinstein, at han kastede ham som Kevin i komediefilmen "The Mighty", men Harvey besluttede ikke at lade Ian optræde i filmen, da han var for ung, men foreslog senere Ian til en anden film, og han endte derefter med at optræde i "Simon Birch".

Ian gik på York Community High School, og i løbet af den tid gennemgik han flere kirurgiske procedurer, herunder to bilaterale osteotomier og en spinal fusion, Uanset hvad var han en af ​​de bedste elever, og ved studentereksamen i 2005 tilmeldte Ian sig ved det prestigefyldte Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), hvorfra han blev uddannet med en Bachelor of Science grad i datalogi, teknik. Ian Michael Smith

Ian fortsatte sin uddannelse ved Gallaudet University i Washington DC, hvorfra han opnåede sin Master of Arts -grad i lingvistik i 2012.


Biografi af Ian Smith - Historie

Hvor godt kender du historien om kristendommen fra dens fødsel og barndom blandt en håndfuld tilhængere af Jesus Kristus, gennem dens år med udvikling til en global religiøs bevægelse, der spænder over kontinenter og kulturer og overskrider uddannelsesmæssige og sociale baggrunde?

Hvorfor er titlen på din bog "Biografien" og ikke "Historien"?

Ian J. Shaw: Titlen er designet til at vise dynamikken i kristendommens udvikling og vækst, fra den tidlige kirkeperiode til i dag. Ordet 'Biografi' understreger livet og forandring, udfordring og fremgang i kristendommen over 20 århundreder.

Hvorfor er det vigtigt for kristne at huske kirkehistorie?

Ian J. Shaw: Kommandoen om at 'huske' er en bibelsk. In Joshua 4 the Israelites were told to build a monument from stones that had been in the middle of the River Jordan to provoke the question from passers-by, ‘What do these stones mean?’ Then the history of the miraculous crossing of the Jordan would be re-told.

The words ‘Do this in remembrance of me’ are spoken every occasion Christians partake of the Lord’s Supper together.

Remembrance is designed to feed faith—‘We have heard with our ears, O God, our fathers have told us, the deeds you did in their days, in days of old’ (Psalm 44:1).

Those suffering from loss of memory are terribly debilitated. They cannot remember where they are, where they’ve come from, or even who they are. Their sense of ‘lost-ness’ is frightening. It’s very important that Christians do not lose the faculty of memory, but understand the story of which they are a part the historical journey in which they participate. For the Christian, the biography of Christianity is the history of their family, and an exploration of their heritage. It should be an exciting adventure of self-discovery.

Understanding—and planning for—the future of the church requires opening up its past. This book affirms the old axiom that ‘those who do not learn from the mistakes of the past are destined to repeat them.’

What time period do you identify as the beginning of Christianity and why?

Ian J. Shaw: This is discussed in the first chapter of Christianity, The Biography. Every biography begins with a birth, but the exact date when Christianity was ‘born’ has been much debated. For some it’s the birth of its founder, Jesus Christ. Another point could be the time when the first disciples were called and became followers of Jesus Christ. A case could be made for Pentecost when the Holy Spirit came, transforming the disciples of Jesus from a fearful, uncertain group, into an empowered body of witnessing messengers to the good news of Jesus Christ, prepared to turn the world upside down. A key moment was when the followers of Jesus were first referred to as ‘Christians’ in Acts 11:26.

Most historians of Christianity consider the end of the Roman War in Palestine in AD 70, toward the close of the lives of most of the apostles, as a vital moment.

I know this is asking a lot, but who do you see as the six most important people in Christian history and why?

Ian J. Shaw: This is an almost impossible task! But let’s start after the time of the Apostles—and Jesus had 12 choices! My six are chosen for importance in the overall progression of Christianity, not necessarily because I agree with all they said and did:

  • Constantine: the Roman Emperor who embraced Christianity and transformed it from a persecuted minority into a favored religion, no longer fighting for its survival. He did some good things and some not so good things.
  • Athanasius: he held the church strong in the face of the teaching of Arius that Christ was not truly God.
  • Augustine of Hippo: theologian and pastor, shaped much of the theological tradition of the Western church.
  • Martin Luther: reformer, preacher, Bible translator. He stood firmly on the basis of Scripture and his conscience for the right to challenge false and unhelpful teaching and church structures.
  • John Calvin: the great summarizer of key Reformation doctrine
  • Samuel Ajayi Crowther: the first African Anglican bishop a morning-star heralding the huge growth in Christianity in the Global South.

How did the Bible materialize in Christian history?

Ian J. Shaw: Although Jesus Christ could write, from what we know he did not choose to write his teachings down. Instead his disciples carefully learned and treasured his words and actions, and recorded them in writing. Some collections of the sayings of Jesus may have been written down in his lifetime. The Old Testament was already accepted and used as Scripture by Christ and his apostles.

Within several decades of the death of Jesus the written documents which make up the New Testament had been produced. This helped to guard the church against error and false teaching. These documents were then copied with a high degree of accuracy by scribes. The canon (meaning ‘straight rule’ or ‘standard’) of Scripture was established in the early church, setting out what writings were regarded as authoritative.

The attempts by some false teachers to reject or undermine some of the New Testament books led to official statements from church councils in the 4th century confirming which writings were to be viewed as Scripture and which were non-canonical. These councils affirmed what had been in use as Scripture for the previous centuries.

Reading, preaching, and teaching the Bible was central to the life of the early Christian community and the global transmission of its message. There was a determination to ensure when the church spoke, it did so based on what God had revealed in Scripture.

How widespread has persecution been in the annals of Christianity?

Ian J. Shaw: Some argue that persecution has been the ‘normal’ state for Christians throughout its 20 centuries of existence, and that freedom from persecution is more unusual.

Up to the early 4th century, persecution was regularly experienced by Christians. After then it ceased in the Roman Empire, but remained an issue for Christians further East.

Persecution has not been faced by Christians all the time. But there have been very intense periods such as in the late 3rd century, during the French Revolution, and under a number of totalitarian regimes and some other religious rulers, when attempts have been made to totally eradicate Christianity. None have succeeded.

What does the future of Christianity look like?

Ian J. Shaw: Revelation 7:9 and 20:12 present the culmination of the biography of Christianity, of people from every tribe and tongue gathered round the throne of God.

By the start of the 21st century the make-up of Christianity looked closer to those images than it had ever done before. Christianity had returned to what it originally was: a global faith. The axis of Christianity has shifted to the Global South, with over one billion Christians in the non-Western World, compared to 750 million in the West. The next stages of the Christian biography will be significantly determined by what happens in Africa, Latin America, parts of Asia and the Pacific. Yet, although during the 20th century Christianity grew from around 558 million to over 2 billion believers, because this took place when world population was also growing, the percentage of Christians actually fell slightly, from just over around 35% to 32%.

What are your thoughts about Bible Gateway and the Bible Gateway App?

Ian J. Shaw: Great resources and books and some great price deals.

Is there anything else you’d like to say?

Ian J. Shaw: Keep on reading so you can keep on growing!

Bio:
Ian J. Shaw is Associate International Director of the Langham Scholars Program and Honorary Fellow, School of Divinity, New College, University of Edinburgh. He’s the author of Churches, Revolutions and Empires: 1789-1914 High Calvinists in Action: Calvinism and the City William Gadsby og The Greatest Is Charity.

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The Great Betrayal: The Memoirs of Africa's Most Controversial Leader

Although the writing style is typical British and statesman like. It is intresting if you are intresting in that sort of thing.

Whites screwing whites and blacks killing blacks. Even South Africa turned against Rhodesia.

I get Smith`s idea of gradualism but it turned out that the people wanted everything immediatly. Although the writing style is typical British and statesman like. It is intresting if you are intresting in that sort of thing.

Whites screwing whites and blacks killing blacks. Even South Africa turned against Rhodesia.

I get Smith`s idea of gradualism but it turned out that the people wanted everything immediatly. . mere

Remarkable memoirs. His memoirs show him to be a competent and determined man with a fatal narrowness of vision.

"If Smith was a black man, I would say that he was the best Prime Minister that Zimbabwe ever had." Remarkable memoirs. His memoirs show him to be a competent and determined man with a fatal narrowness of vision.

"If Smith was a black man, I would say that he was the best Prime Minister that Zimbabwe ever had." . mere

I Bitter Harvest, Smith meticulously tells the other side of Zimbabwe/Rhodesia&aposs struggle for independence. He seeks to explain the reasons why his government declared its Unilateral Declaration of Independence, and how Rhodesia coped in the face of sanctions and terrorism until the pressures forced him and his government to accede to the wishes of his adversaries.

By no means unbiased, Smith&aposs memoirs are however important in understanding the modern history of Zimbabwe and does shed some posi In Bitter Harvest, Smith meticulously tells the other side of Zimbabwe/Rhodesia's struggle for independence. He seeks to explain the reasons why his government declared its Unilateral Declaration of Independence, and how Rhodesia coped in the face of sanctions and terrorism until the pressures forced him and his government to accede to the wishes of his adversaries.

By no means unbiased, Smith's memoirs are however important in understanding the modern history of Zimbabwe and does shed some positive light on the pre-Mugabe times, counteracting some of the biases in Western media.

No matter in history is purely black and white: Bitter Harvest demonstrates this perfectly and in reading this, one appreciates historical matters are always more complex. . mere

I have wanted to read this book for many years. Seeing the collapse of Zimbabwe as a young man got me reading. Imagine my shock when i discovered that in the not to distant past the now failed state of Zimbabwe had been the prosperous first world nation of Rhodesia. Our so called leaders all feigned total surprise at Mugabe stealing elections and repressing his people. Killing white farmers and reducing his nation to a starving Cholera ridden hell hole. Despite his terrorist atrocities they repe I have wanted to read this book for many years. Seeing the collapse of Zimbabwe as a young man got me reading. Imagine my shock when i discovered that in the not to distant past the now failed state of Zimbabwe had been the prosperous first world nation of Rhodesia. Our so called leaders all feigned total surprise at Mugabe stealing elections and repressing his people. Killing white farmers and reducing his nation to a starving Cholera ridden hell hole. Despite his terrorist atrocities they repeatedly schemed to put him in power over the more reasonable leadership of Bishop Muzorewa and the government of national unity.

The book covers a brief synopsis of Rhodesia's brief history from its founding by the pioneers and responsible government in 1923. Smith tells of his family, growing up and his love of Sport and time at university. Most illuminating is his recount of his war time exploits as a fighter pilot and being shot down and spending many months behind enemy lines. His return to Rhodesia after the war. Buying his farm and entering parliament. The political difficulties of the brief confederation and then the endless duplicity and broken promises of the British government. You can understand it coming from the Wilson government but the worst transgressions committed against Rhodesia were by the conservative party. The first 10 years of UDI (Unilateral Declaration of Independence) seemed to go quite well. He recalls the failed conferences with Wilson.

The civil service briefed the government that Smith was merely a simple minded bigot and did everything possible to keep him from the TV cameras. When in fact its clear to me they had no idea who they were dealing with. Once it dawned on them it seems that Smith put a degree of terror into the British establishment because not only was he not corruptible he was prepared to make a stand against Marxism and the dedication with which his countrymen followed his leadership.

We then see how Rhodesia's position became untenable in the late 1970's with the fall of Mozambique and Rhodesia's total dependence on South Africa who sacrificed their only true ally in order to prolong their apartheid system. One detects the malign influence of Henry Kissinger in this betrayal. Which ultimately only hastened the downfall of South Africa. If our politicians had truly desired justice and progress for Africans then Rhodesia really was a model for other African countries to move towards majority rule through gradualism instead of revolutions by terrorists.

The final chapters detail the deterioration of Zimbabwe through corrupt 1 party rule and Marxist economic policies, nepotism and corruption throughout the 1980's and 1990's. Like me many of you will remember the collapse of Zimbabwe in 2008. The stolen election and the 100 trillion dollar notes the bank of Zimbabwe was printing. Equal to about 40 cents US. When in 1970 despite total blockade and being a pariah nation 1 Rhodesian dollar was equal to 1 US dollar.

Ian Smith is a man vilified as the most evil man in the world despite the fact his so called "racist" government did more for its black population than most black governments have. The lesson i took away from this memoir was that Smiths main flaw was being a gentleman. Had he been more ruthless in dealing with the terrorists and been prepared to call out Rhodesia's supposed "friends" for their treason and duplicity. To expand the war against the terrorists then the nation of Zimbabwe or Rhodesia would be much better off today. . mere

&aposPoliticians worry about the next election, statesmen worry about the next generation&apos-Ian Smith.

A very interesting book about a much maligned political leader of the 70s and 80s. I thoroughly enjoyed this book as it showcased repeatedly Ian Smith&aposs integrity, courage, and firmness. From a WWII pilot to the president who eventually lead Rhodesia to Independence from Great Britain.

Much of Rhodesia&aposs history has been scarred by its close proximity and friendship with South Africa, however, Rhodesi 'Politicians worry about the next election, statesmen worry about the next generation'-Ian Smith.

A very interesting book about a much maligned political leader of the 70s and 80s. I thoroughly enjoyed this book as it showcased repeatedly Ian Smith's integrity, courage, and firmness. From a WWII pilot to the president who eventually lead Rhodesia to Independence from Great Britain.

Much of Rhodesia's history has been scarred by its close proximity and friendship with South Africa, however, Rhodesia never had an apartheid system of government.

Smith and Rhodesia were eventually forced to acquiesce to external demands (by the U.K. OAU and U.S.) to allow the Communist terrorist to vote in the last free and fair election. The results were a worst-case scenario that elected Robert Mugabe, who successfully destroy the country over the next 30 years.

While most white Zimbabweans emigrated, Smith decided to remain in the land of his birth until his death.

Smiths story is inspiring, and the chronicling of the decline of Zimbabwe tragic. Truly a black mark on history, and a shame to those politicians who helped it come to pass.

For a more critical view of the Smith PF government I recommend 'Rhodesians Never Die' by Peter Godwin. And a great documentary is Mugabe and the White African.

(The book is long though and some points are repeated up over and over again, like your old grandpa telling you a story again and again). . mere


Ian Smith life and biography

Date of birth : 1919-04-08
Date of death : -
Birthplace : Selukwe, Midlands, Southern Rhodesia
Nationality : Rhodesian
Category : Politics
Last modified : 2011-06-29
Credited as : Politician, former Prime Minister of Rhodesia, Elizabeth II

Ian Smith was born on April 8, 1919, in Selukwe, Southern Rhodesia. He attended Selukwe High School an average student, he was outstanding in sports. His studies at Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa, were interrupted by World War II. He joined the Royal Air Force in 1941, and when his plane crashed in North Africa, Smith received severe injuries in his leg and face. Plastic surgeons literally remade the right side of his face, leaving him with a dour expression which observers later said was an asset in political negotiations. He soon flew again with the 237th (Rhodesia) Squadron. His plane was hit by flak in northern Italy in June 1944. He bailed out and fought for some months with a partisan force against the Germans. Smith crossed the Alps to the Allied lines and joined the 130th Royal Air Force Squadron for the remainder of the war.

Smith returned to Rhodes University, where he earned the bachelor of commerce degree. He returned to his Selukwe farm and married Janet Watt (they had two sons and a daughter). Deciding to enter politics, he served in the Legislative Assembly as a Rhodesian party member (1948-1953). When the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was formed in 1953, Smith was elected to the federal Parliament as a member of the ruling United Federal party. After Sir Roy Welensky succeeded to the federal prime ministership, Smith was named chief government whip in 1958.

Observers recall Smith as not particularly notable as a parliamentarian or a popular speaker. He first gained public attention in 1961, when at a party meeting he opposed a constitutional change accepted by the party to give Africans representation in the Southern Rhodesia Legislative Assembly. Smith resigned from the United Federal party that year and was a founding member and vice president of the rightist Rhodesian Front party, which became the ruling party in Southern Rhodesia. Under Prime Minister Winston Field, Smith served as deputy prime minister and minister of the Treasury (1962-1964). When Field was ousted by rightists in his party on April 13, 1964, Smith became prime minister. He also served as minister of defense (1964-1965) and as minister of external affairs (1964).

Smith's rise to leadership fitted Southern Rhodesia's political history. White settler occupancy of the territory had begun in 1890. The settlers received self-governing status in 1923 Britain retained only veto power over legislation discriminatory to Africans. Continuation of minority white rule, critics believed, lay behind the formation of the ill-fated Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953-1963). Smith rose to power because of his firm white supremacist stand at a time when African countries to the north were gaining independence under black rule and when Britain was pressing for constitutional changes enabling unimpeded progress toward African majority rule. Smith represented 240,000 whites determined to control a country in which 4.5 million Africans also lived.

On black-white relations, Smith quoted his father as saying, "We are entitled to our half of the country and they are entitled to theirs." Friendly Rhodesians referred to Smith as "Iron Man Ian" or "Good Old Smithy." Critics called him the world's foremost white supremacist. His wife said of him, "No one can influence my husband once he has made up his mind."

Smith's goal was to negotiate independence for Rhodesia under the 1961 Constitution (the name was shortened after Northern Rhodesia became independent as Zambia on Nov. 24, 1964). British prime minister Harold Wilson would not agree without guarantees of unimpeded African progress toward majority rule. Frequent talks in London and Salisbury did not resolve the impasse. Smith was under pressure from whites who were even more extreme than his own government.

On Nov. 11, 1965, Smith issued a declaration of independence reminiscent of the American colonial revolt in 1776. Britain retaliated by cutting off Rhodesia from the sterling trade area, dismissing the Smith government, invalidating Rhodesian passports, and banning purchases of Rhodesia's cash crop of tobacco. Wilson declared that he would not use force to bring Rhodesia to heel. On Dec. 16, 1967, the United Nations Security Council joined Britain's earlier move in imposing economic sanctions against Rhodesia. Despite discomfort from the shortages of some luxuries, Rhodesia received petroleum products and other vital items from the Republic of South Africa, Portuguese Mozambique, and other sources.

Fruitless talks took place between Smith and Wilson on British ships off Gibraltar in 1966 and 1968. In a constitutional referendum on June 20, 1969, Smith's government received a 72 percent vote approval for a new constitution aimed at legislative parity between whites and Africans when income tax parity was reached (that is, very slowly). He also received an 82 percent vote approval for republican status. On March 1, 1970, Smith declared Rhodesia a republic, severing all ties with Britain.

Urged by Britain, the UN voted to impose economic sanctions against Rhodesia, and African nationalist factions began mobilizing increasingly powerful guerrilla forces in nearby Zambia against the illegal government. In 1973, Smith closed the border with Zambia, causing significant damage to the Rhodesian Railways, which depended on Zambian copper ore.

The civil and guerrilla war escalated in 1975 after the independence of Mozambique opened another base for guerrilla operations. Whites began to flee the border regions as the war continued, adding to the economic hardships imposed by sanctions and the worldwide oil crisis. In the face of diminishing support and supplies from South Africa and increasing international pressure, Smith announced in 1977 that he would enact majority rule in Rhodesia within two years. Later that year he publicly accepted the principle of universal suffrage.

In March, 1978, Smith reached an agreement with African nationalist leaders to set up an executive council while retaining his power in a first step toward majority rule. In 1979 he accepted a shared government with Abel Muzorewa, whose party won the first universal suffrage election in Rhodesian history. Rhodesia was renamed "Zimbabwe Rhodesia," and Muzorewa replaced Smith as prime minister in June 1979. In 1980, Zimbabwe achieved independence from Great Britain under a consitution that guaranteed Europeans 20 out of 100 seats in the national assembly. Robert Mugabe, who had waged a guerrilla campaign, easily won the 1980 elections and established the first free African government in Zimbabwe.

Smith continued to serve in the Parliament as leader of the Republican Front until 1987, when he was suspended. His influence diminished as other RF party members sought to support the Mugabe regime, but he continued to criticize the government and rallied opposition to Mugabe in the 1995 elections.

In his memoirs, The Great Betrayal, Smith continued to assert that the black majority should be "gradually" raised to the "standards of Western civilization" and discussed black "terrorists" while downplaying the cruelties of Rhodesia's armed forces during the civil war. He asserted that Britain hypocritically imposed sanctions on Rhodesia even though many of its other states had one-party governments. His own account also emphasized the dictatorial nature of the Mugabe regime and its resistance to democratic reforms. Since leaving politics, Smith has lived on his farm in Zimbabwe


The “Full Custom Garage” reality TV series differs from other shows such as “Overhaulin” and “Kinding It Design”, which have huge garages and shops, expensive tools, and an entire team of people – Ian’s show is focused only on him (and a little on his wife), his small garage, and classic but great techniques which he uses to create his cars.

The show turned out to be a bigger success than Ian hoped for, and the IMDb rating website has gave it 8.7/10 score – its first season began airing on 28 March 2014 and concluded on 23 May 2014 after 10 episodes. The second season was aired in 2015, 12 episodes, while the third season ended on 7 August 2017 after eight episodes – the shows fourth season counts 15 episodes while the fifth counts only nine.

The “Full Custom Garage” season six began airing on 1 November 2019, and its most recent episode (four) aired on 22 November 2019.

People like Ian because he takes whatever car parts he can find from whoever can provide them–family, friends or from a scrapyard, and creates an entire custom built car.

Benjy is currently a reporter for BiographyPedia based in Adelaide, Australia. Prior to joining BiographyPedia in July 2019, he was a Bizarre TV reporter and theatre critic at TheSun. Benjy has also written for DailyMail and TMZ. Benjy studied journalism at Goldsmiths University of London, graduating in 2009. You can contact him at [email protected]