23. januar 1945

23. januar 1945

23. januar 1945

Januar 1945

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US 1. hær erobrer St. Vith

Burma

14. hær fanger Tizaung og Myinmu



I dag i Anden Verdenskrigs historie - 23. januar 1940 & 1945

80 år siden - 23. januar 1940: Storbritannien og Frankrig siger, at de ikke vil respektere 200-mils panamerikansk neutralitetszone og vil angribe tyske skibe i den zone.

Dyr i Berlin Zoo placeres på krigsrationer - mindre kød, ingen bananer eller jordnødder.

75 år siden - Jan. 23, 1945: US First Army tager St. Vith tilbage i Belgien fra tyskerne.

Nazisterne henretter tyske modstandsledere grev Helmuth von Moltke (leder af Kreisau Circle -modstandsgruppen) og Erwin Planck (søn af fysikeren Max Planck).

I den lavvandede havn på Nanguan Island, Kina, ubåd USS Barb synker japansk fragtskib Taikyu Maru Cdr. Eugene Fluckey vil modtage Medal of Honor og Barb vil modtage præsidentenhedens citat.



Den yngste af disse drenge var Alfred Czech, en tolvårig fra Ober-Schlesien Oppeln, der var blevet dekoreret for at redde tolv sårede Wehrmacht-soldater og fange en “Sovietisk spion. ” Alle drenge havde jernkorset på. Du ved allerede, hvordan kamp er ud fra din egen erfaring, ” siger den vaklende, senile, bøjede Führer til de små drenge, der stirrer på ham med tilbedende beundring, “og du ved, at denne kamp er for tyskeren mennesker, at være eller ikke være. På trods af alle strabadserne på dette tidspunkt, vil vi komme sejrende ud af denne kamp, ​​især da jeg ser på tysk ungdom og#8211 på jer, mine drenge. ” “Heil, mein Fiihrer! ” råbte drenge, hjernevasket ud af deres forstand og ud af deres barndom, med deres øjne glødende af fanatisme. De blev derefter sendt tilbage ud på gaderne for at kæmpe og dø for den gamle sociopat-bastard, der gjorde dem til hans lydige zombier.


I 1945 kastede en desperat Hitler og hans kammerat drenge i kamp



Der var øjenvidne ’ konti, der selvfølgelig beskrev mere alderssvarende adfærd. En afdeling af firs uniformsklædte drenge bagholdte en søjle af sovjetiske kampvogne og infanteri, men tingene gik galt: Sovjeterne sendte straks ild tilbage og dræbte og sårede flere af HJ. De resterende børn, chokeret over handlingens hurtige vold, løb og kastede deres rifler væk, nogle græd hysterisk og blev for det meste fanget af det sovjetiske motorcykelinfanteri. En ung, der stadig bar sin Panzerfaust, blev spurgt, hvorfor han ikke skød den. Han svarede, at han deltog i handlingen bare for at være sammen med sine kammerater, og at hans mor forbød ham at skyde, nogensinde.

I slutningen af ​​marts blev flere og flere Hitler-unge sat i skyttegrave, bunkers og maskingevær indhegninger på strategiske steder i Berlin ’s forstæder, flyttet hertil fra steder som Brandenburg, Luckenwalde og Oranienburg. I midten af ​​april 1945 var mindst 6.000 af dem i byen, under den nominelle kommando af rigets ungdomsleder Artur Axmann. Mange flere blev hentet i slutningen af ​​april.


Jorden blev lagt tidligt. Goering taler til en gruppe drenge i 1935


Hitler Youth – Hitler ’s hemmelige våben

Ikke alene døde tusinder af Hitler Youth -drenge i Berlin, men mange flere døde i tolvte ’s hærs forsøg på at bryde igennem den sovjetiske omringning mod Berlin. De var elitekernen i tropperne under kommando af general Walter Wenck. Ved daggry den 28. april var ungdomsdivisionerne Clausewitz, Scharnhorst og Theodor Körner i forkant af XII Army ’s offensiv fra sydvest, og forsøgte at bryde igennem den sovjetiske omringning mod Berlin. De bestod af nyere HJ, nu unge mænd fra officerskolerne, hvilket gjorde dem til nogle af de bedste enheder, den tyske hær havde. Efter deres 24 km fremrykning mod Berlin stoppede Den Røde Hær deres angreb sydvest for Potsdam, cirka 32 km fra Berlin. Generel Wenck rapporterede, at intet angreb på Berlin nu var muligt, og at han blev skubbet tilbage. I stedet tog han af sted for at hjælpe IX -hæren, omkranset af den røde hær i Halbe -lommen, med at bryde ud. Wenck ’s mission, selvom den mislykkedes, var ikke helt forgæves, da dele af den tyske omringede niende ’s hær, omkring 25.000 mand, formåede at bryde igennem og forene sig med den tolvte hær. Omkring 30.000 tyske soldater, mange af dem teenagere, blev begravet på kirkegården i Halbe. Omkring 20.000 soldater fra Den Røde Hær døde i forsøget på at stoppe deres angreb og udbrud.

’Hitlers sidste kampplan var tærte på himlen. Marshall Konevs styrker skred frem fra syd og afskærede og omringede Werhmacht 9. armé i skoven syd for Berlin, nær den lille by Halbe. 'Massakren i den skov var rystende,' bemærkede Beevor efter et besøg på Halbe slagmark. 'Der var absolut ingen måde at behandle de sårede, de blev bare efterladt og skreg på vejsiden …' Over 50.000 [tyske] soldater og civile døde. De fleste af de døde var tyske, mange af dem SS. Det var de nazistiske styrkers desperate sidste standpunkt. Et lokalt vidne husker, hvordan de smalle stier, der fører gennem skoven, blev stablet højt med lig. Det tog den lokale befolkning måneder at rydde stedet. Selv i dag findes tusind lig hvert år i og omkring Berlin. Mange af dem opdages i de nu tavse skove i Halbe …

Den 12. var en “elite ” Army. Mange soldater og officerer blandt den 12. hær var krigsforbrydere, og#8220 slagterne i Grækenland ” – dem, der henrettede hele civilbefolkningen og sprængte landsbyer og byer i Grækenland og Jugoslavien.

Hitler var mere end far for disse hjernevaskede kriminelle, han var Gud. De blev opmuntret af statens massive propagandistiske apparat til at gøre oprør mod deres fædre og tilbede Hitler, som erstattede familie og menneskelig kærlighed med en herliggjort, højt tænkt idé om døden for det tyske Faterland. Han uddelte et par jernkors og sendte de 12-årige ihjel, hvilket købte ham et par dage mere elendig tilværelse i en bunker, som en rotte. I modsætning til voksne var Hitler Youth lette ofre for hjernevask, ligesom børn er overalt, inklusive USA med sit mest sofistikerede propagandistiske apparat.


Hitler -ungdommens usagte tragedie

Tragedien med Hitler Ungdoms generation er understreget i tal, selvom tal alene næppe kan fortælle hele historien. Omkring 12 millioner tyske tropper blev interneret af allierede, efter nogle skøn. Mindst 3 millioner blev taget til fange af Den Røde Hær. Af alle POW ’s var mindst halvdelen nuværende og tidligere HJ ’s. Mange tidligere HJ ’'ere var Waffen-SS [der] modtog tatoveringen i blodgruppen [og] blev udpeget til særlig behandling, ligesom frivillige medlemmer af SS (derfor forsøgte de ofte at fjerne stigmaet ved at brænde eller skære det kom ud, men arret gav dem væk som et mærke fra Kain. Alt fortalte dog, at disse strabadser næsten ikke målte op på niveauet af sadistiske overgreb og mord, som SS havde påført deres ofre i koncentrationslejrene, eller som Wehrmacht havde for den sags skyld praktiseret i lejre for sovjetiske krigsfanger. ”

Den tidligere triumferende Waffenn SS, der ofte havde fået ordre til at “ vade i blod, ” undertrykke modstand mod tysk besættelse, efterlod sig et spor af blod og ødelæggelse, Østeuropa i ruiner, befolkninger i hele landsbyer og byer udslettet eller decimeret. De var nu fanger af sovjetiske soldater, hvoraf mange mistede hele deres familier. Selvom de blev instrueret i at demonstrere en disciplin og høje moralske standarder for en rød hærsoldat, var sejrherrerne ikke liberalt sindede, især med hårde, indoktrinerede fjender, der kæmpede indtil den sidste kugle. Hele generationens bitre ironi var, at betinget af at være The Master Race, stod Hitlerungdommen nu over for en usikker fremtid og slavearbejde, der genoprettede deres tidligere slavers økonomi. Mange af dem døde, før de så hjem igen.

Lad os ikke bukke under for den propagandistiske indsats for at fejlagtigt fremstille, at kun tyskere begik grusomheder mod civile og holdt krigsfanger i uudholdelige forhold. Sovjetiske, amerikanske, britiske og franske tropper var lige så skyldige, omend i mindre skala. Fra summarisk henrettelse af tyske krigsfanger til voldtægt af kvinder, til at holde krigsfanger i frygtelige forhold, fortsatte voldscyklussen nu af sejrherrerne, indtil de mest smertefulde minder om krig forsvandt.

Desværre sluttede smerten ikke, da krigen sluttede.


Hitler med en gruppe drenge i slutningen af ​​april 1945


Nøglen til effektiv hjernevask af børn: Fjernelse af forældremyndigheden

Et barn er en moralsk og politisk tabula rasa. Den latinske sætning betyder en tom skifer, hvor hans/hendes voksne lærere og indoktrinatorer kan indskrive enhver giftig ideologi uden at skulle overvinde nogen modstand fra de etiske og moralske barrierer, der gør det muligt for voksne at skelne godt fra ondt. Tabula Rasa er også med i Sigmund Freuds psykoanalyse. Freud skildrede personlighedstræk som dannet af familiedynamik (se f.eks. Oedipus -kompleks, Jocaste -kompleks, Medea -kompleks). Ifølge Freuds teorier mangler mennesker fri vilje på en måde, at de er et produkt af deres opvækst, og også genetiske påvirkninger på menneskelig personlighed er minimale i forhold til opdragelsen. I psykoanalysen er man i høj grad bestemt af sin opvækst, og vi ved alle intuitivt og empirisk, at dette er en universelt anerkendt sandhed.

Nazisterne satte forældre i snor: de advarede forældre om, at indblanding eller manglende samarbejde med det nazistiske regime ville resultere i fængsel eller få deres børn sendt til andre nazistiske hjem for at blive opdrættet.

Alfons Heck, der skred frem gennem Hitlerjugend-rækken for at blive en 17-årig Bannfuehrer, svarende til den amerikanske rang som generalmajor, befalede tusinder af andre drenge. Engang tegnede han sin pistol for at skyde en Hitler Youth deserter, men blev forhindret i at gøre det af en gammel Wehrmacht -sergent. Heck indrømmede bagefter, at han var blevet beruset af den magt, han havde. I sine to anmelderroste bøger, A Child of Hitler: Germany in the Days When God Wore a Swastika [H1], og The Burden of Hitler ’s Legacy [H2], beskrev Heck udskiftningen af ​​sine forældres moral med nazisten ideologi:

Vi fem- og seks-årige fik en daglig dosis nazistisk undervisning, som vi slugte lige så naturligt som vores mors mælk. De helt unge blev forsvarsløse beholdere for det, der var proppet i os, og især#8221 antisemitisme. For os uskyldige i Hitler -ungdommen blev jøderne udråbt som skæve og snedige overpræstere, især i deres mål om at forurene vores rene ariske race, uanset hvad det betød. ”


Lær at bruge et maskingevær


Både børn og voksne blev ført til at tro, at krigen Hitler startede faktisk blev udløst af jøder. Således opfordrer Waffen SS -rekrutteringsplakaten, vist her, beregnet til flamsktalende belgiere til at slutte sig til SS Langemarck Division. Teksten i rødt siger: “Vores svar: Tag dine arme og kæmp! ” Det Forenede Kongerige (korrekt England) personificeres som en jøde med Union Jack på maven og griber fat i Europa. Det gjorde ikke noget, at i England ’s befolkning på 45 millioner mennesker var jøderne omkring 250 tusinde eller 0,5% af befolkningen, og deres politiske og kulturelle indflydelse var lille.

“ … Mit forsvar for Hitler-Jugend er, at selv i seksten havde få af mine kammerater en formodning om, at de var bønder i et ondt imperium. Bombarderet af uophørlig indoktrinering fra børnehaven og omgivet af voksne, der enten var betaget af sig selv eller manglede selvmordsmod til at fortælle sandheden, havde de aldrig den luksus, der var noget valg. At forvente, at et barn var så kræsent, var latterligt! ”

Denne hjernevask var yderst effektiv, fordi en ung dreng eller en pige blev fjernet fra indflydelsen fra forældrehjemmet i en tidlig alder, og hvis faderen eller moderen gjorde indsigelse, ville SS tolke det som et tegn på illoyalitet over for riget, som havde livstruende konsekvenser. Forældrene fik at vide: Din søn er ikke din personlige ejendom, udelukkende til din rådighed. Han er lånt til dig, men han er den tyske Volks ejendom. At protestere mod, at hans navn fremsættes til en eliteskole, er ensbetydende med at fornærme riget og Fuhreren. "



Denne indoktrinering tog år at ryste af, men den blev rystet af i forskellig grad, omend med meget følelsesmæssig smerte. Børnenes identifikation med Fuhreren, uanset hvor intens den engang virkede, var faktisk overfladisk, fordi ersatz-far-figuren aldrig gav den intense give-and-take af et ægte far-barn-forhold. De var en generation af “ ingen børn, ”, der blev opfordret til at gøre oprør mod deres forældre for at tilhøre staten. De var psykologisk i stand til at kassere deres engagement i Hitler ’s mørke og mystiske ideologi om nationalsocialismen, men denne proces blev ledsaget af en betydelig grad af moralsk desorientering. De løb tør for marcherende ordrer, ude af stand til at tænke selv. Lyder det ikke bekendt?

Adolf Hitler, den nazistiske galning, der fascinerede den tyske nation i 12 år, formulerede essensen af ​​propaganda i sin bog Mein Kampf (My Struggle), selv i dag studiøst læst af politikere, herunder amerikanske præsidenter, der fisker efter spor til politisk succes. Ikke i modsætning til Hitler, der appellerede til chauvinisme og antisemitisme, appellerer nutidige amerikanske politikere til mandlige, der beskylder mænd for at være kilden til alt ondt, mens de tilbragte lang tid i valgkampene med at kysse babyer. Moderskab og Apple-pie ” har altid gjort underværker i Amerika.



Her er en af ​​Hitlers perler fra kapitel VI:

Propaganda skal altid henvende sig til de brede masser af mennesker. (.) Al propaganda skal præsenteres i en populær form og skal fastsætte sit intellektuelle niveau for ikke at være over hovedet på den mindst intellektuelle hos dem, den er rettet mod. (.) Propagandakunst består netop i at kunne vække offentlighedens fantasi gennem en appel til deres følelser, i at finde den passende psykologiske form, der vil arrestere opmærksomheden og appellere til de nationale massers hjerter.

De brede masser af mennesker består ikke af diplomater eller professorer i offentlig retspraksis eller blot af personer, der er i stand til at danne begrundet dom i givne sager, men en vaklende skare af mennesker, der konstant vakler mellem en idé og en anden. (.) Størstedelen af ​​en nation er så feminin i sin karakter og opfattelse, at dens tanke og adfærd styres af følelser frem for af ædru ræsonnement. Denne følelse er imidlertid ikke kompleks, men enkel og konsekvent. Det er ikke stærkt differentieret, men har kun de negative og positive forestillinger om kærlighed og had, rigtigt og forkert, sandhed og løgn.

Nazi -guerillaer, Werwolf

Med kapitulation af Nazi -Tyskland var krigen ikke slut for Hitler -ungdommen. På forskellige områder forsøgte radikale at fortsætte kampen, selv måneder efter den sidste tyske overgivelse. Andre sluttede sig i flok til den dømte nationalsocialistiske guerillabevægelse, Werwolf, der terroriserede de besættende allierede styrker. I op til to år efter, at nazisterne overgav sig den 7. maj 1945, truede truslen om et nazistisk oprør over Tyskland. Mod slutningen af ​​1944 blev omkring 5.000 medlemmer af elite -nazistiske SS og Hitlerungdom rekrutteret og svoret i Werwolf, uddannet i terrortaktik og guerillakrig.

Det var et løst netværk af terrorsovne celler bestående af rædselsslagne, sultende teenagere og fanatiske nazister, nogle vildfarne nok til at tro på en nazistisk kontrarevolution og opstandelse, nogle ondsindede nok til at udføre en brændt jord politik, der angriber de allierede militære enheder og tyske civile for at afskrække samarbejde med allierede styrker, der forsøger at genoprette Tysklands demokratiske traditioner. Deres taktik varierede, men forblev typisk terroristisk: attentater, snigskytteangreb og sabotage.

Berlins uddannelsesafdelingers embedsmænd var forbløffet over at høre den sovjetiske general Nikolai Berzarin, Berlins første kommandant, sige “Jeg ønsker, at dine børn skal opdrages i respekt for Gud. ” Han beordrede alle restriktioner pålagt af nazisterne om fejringen af ​​religiøse helligdage, der skal annulleres. Det var selvfølgelig en modforanstaltning: Den agnostiske sovjetiske general blev rådgivet af NKVD-efterretningsofficerer om, at Hitler-ungdom bedst kunne beskrives som en gudløs satanlignende kult, en beskrivelse, der ikke var langt fra målet. Tilsyneladende værdsatte Werwolf ikke den generelle storhed: de overfaldt og myrdet general Berzarin den 16. juni 1945, en måned efter krigen sluttede, selvom NKVD rapporterede, at han døde i en motorcykelulykke, formentlig styrtede i fuld fart i en kolonne af militære lastbiler. Tilsvarende myrdede Werwolf den øverste forbindelsesofficer for feltmarskal Montgomery, en begivenhed som den britiske presse ikke dækkede. Der var en Werwolf -bombning af en politistation, der krævede 44 ofre og mange andre terrorhandlinger.

Mindre end to måneder før Tysklands overgivelse udførte en Werwolf -gruppe bestående af en SS -mand, 2 HJ -drenge og en BDM -pige en ordre underskrevet af Himmler selv i en af ​​få bemærkelsesværdige Werwolf -missioner: de myrdede den nye tyske herremester i Aachen, Franz Oppenhoff, en antifascist installeret på kontoret af de amerikanske tropper. Gruppen faldt i faldskærm fra en nazistisk fanget amerikansk B-17 flyvende fæstning, myrdede en hollandsk grænsevagt, gik ind i Aachen, dræbte sin herredmester i sit hjem og flygtede derefter forfulgt af amerikanske soldater. De omkom alle, formentlig “ trådte på landminerne [3], ” men sandsynligvis – henrettet summarisk af de amerikanske tropper. Deres selvmordsmission gav Goebbels den sidste chance for at glade sig over NSDAP's lange arm, få dage før hans selvmord. Yderligere 2 HJ ’s, en 16- og en 17-årig, der faldt i faldskærm bag amerikanske linjer, blev taget til fange og henrettet den 1. juni 1945, et typisk resultat, uanset om terrorhandlinger blev udført eller mislykkedes. En rapport fra Pentagon anførte 42 amerikanske soldater “ dræbt som følge af fjendtlig handling ” efter krigen, mellem juni og december 1945. Men i år 1946 var der kun tre.

Werwolf -operationerne bag de sovjetiske linjer – massakrer på civile og snigskytteri ved besættelsesstyrker – varede ikke længe, ​​hvor NKVD fangede terroristerne og derefter fangede deres familier og behandlede dem ikke bedre end deres amerikanske kollegaer.

Medlemmerne af Werwolf blev ikke behandlet i børnehandsker af sovjetiske NKVD: Nogle blev henrettet og nogle sendt til fangelejre for at slutte sig til Volksturm og Hitlejugend krigsfanger i ulige aldre, der allerede var der. Nogle børn, til gengæld for at blive sparet for slag eller henrettelse, blev rekrutteret af NKVD og blev, da de blev løsladt, tvunget til at spille sammen med deres Werwolf-kammerater og fungere som provokatører med dobbeltagenter. NKVD søgte at isolere og ødelægge Werwolf -centrene, arrestere og forhøre alle dets medlemmer. Dens bestræbelser på at “ genuddanne ” de unge var fokuseret på indespærring og tvangsarbejde. De sovjetiske og tyske byer og landsbyer var i ruiner og kunne bruge noget tvangsarbejde.

“ … Blandt drengene og pigerne selv var der ofte et lykkeligt genopståen af ​​sund fornuft, der boblede til overfladen, selv gennem den tykkeste skurk af ideologi og tankekontrol … Således en enhed på tre HJ ’s faktisk gled gennem amerikanske linjer med ordrer om at angribe mulighedsmål, men når de var på tværs af linjerne, tog de næsten straks hjemad, på vej og smed deres udstyr i en gødningsgrav. Dette var en handling med en umiskendelig symbolsk resonans. CIC indhentede endelig disse unge mænd og forhørte dem, selvom de ikke anholdt dem - 'Drengene syntes ikke at være grundigt indoktrineret med nazisme, og de virkede heller ikke interesserede i at udføre den mission, tyskerne havde tildelt dem. & #8217 ” Selvom de var grundigt indoktrineret, blev disse unge også desillusionerede.


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Der er allerede skrevet bind om bolsjevikrevolutionen, og der vil blive skrevet mange flere i de kommende år. Her kan vi kun forsøge at notere dens væsentlige karakter.

Mange amerikanere er under den vildfarelse, at den russiske revolution blot var en revolution af industriarbejdere mod en lille, men magtfuld gruppe kapitalister. Denne misforståelse skyldes, at de fleste mennesker tror, ​​at det fandt sted i henhold til den tyske socialistiske forfatter Karl Marx forudsigelser.

I hans mest berømte værker & mdashKapital og Det kommunistiske manifest & mdashMarx havde udtrykt troen på, at den kommunistiske revolution ville finde sted i et højt industrialiseret land som Tyskland eller muligvis Storbritannien.

Rusland passede ikke til Marx & rsquos -profetier

Egentlig kunne intet have tilpasset Karl Marx & rsquos revolutionære formel mindre end Rusland i 1917. På det tidspunkt, som det allerede er blevet påpeget, var Rusland et tilbagestående landbrugsland. Meget af industrien, dengang stadig i sin vorden, var stort set blevet finansieret af udenlandsk, ikke indfødt kapital. I 1917 var langt størstedelen af ​​befolkningen bønder, og industriarbejderne var, selvom de voksede i antal, stadig i et meget lille mindretal.

Selvom der blev gjort en indsats for at indføre lovgivning om lønninger, timer og arbejdsvilkår, levede fabriksarbejdere på det tidspunkt under elendige forhold. Disse økonomiske vanskeligheder fik dem til at spille en langt større rolle i novemberrevolutionen, end man havde forventet af deres antal.

Den virkelig store gruppe af dårligt stillede mennesker i Rusland var imidlertid ikke industriarbejderne, men bønderne. Da de blev befriet for livegenskab i 1861, fik bønderne noget jord og løfte om mere. I 1914 var der få virkelig jordløse bønder. De fleste bondefamilier ejede jord enten individuelt eller som en del af en kollektiv gruppe kaldet mir eller kommune. Men deres besiddelser var så små, at de fleste af dem måtte arbejde som forpagtere eller gårdshænder på ejendomme til store lodsejere eller på gårde med rigere bønder, kendt som kulakker (stramme næver), eller på jord ejet af staten eller kirken.

I 1917 havde Rusland ikke kun fabriksarbejdere, der søgte at vælte en industriel kapitalistisk klasse, men masser af bønder uden nok jord til at leve af. De ville have mere jord og håbede at få det på bekostning af så store grundejere som monarkiet, adelen, kirken og vigtigst af alt staten. Selve kuppet, der bragte Lenin til magten, blev imidlertid udført af en gruppe professionelle revolutionære med støtte fra den stødende Petrograd garnison. Det er vigtigt at bemærke, at dette kup væltede Kerenskij -regeringen, som søgte at etablere et demokratisk regime efter at have styrtet zarisme i marts 1917.

De bolsjevikiske ledere

Novemberrevolutionen blev ledet af en gruppe intellektuelle, hvoraf de fleste aldrig havde set en arbejder & rsquos bænk eller brugt en bonde & rsquos plov. Mange af dem og mdashnotably Lenin og Trotsky & mdashhad boede i eksil i udlandet, fordi deres synspunkter havde bragt dem i konflikt med den zaristiske regering. Revolutionens ledende ånd var Lenin, der kom fra intelligentsia og ikke havde brugt sit liv på manuelt arbejde, men på at skrive og tale.

Fabriksarbejdere arbejdede en vigtig rolle i ødelæggelsen af ​​den gamle regering og i forsvaret af det nye sovjetregime, da det fortsatte med at socialisere produktionen (først og fremmest inden for industri og handel, derefter i landbruget). Men målt på størrelsen af ​​de engagerede kræfter var revolutionen i 1917 hovedsageligt et agraroprør. Sloganet for de bolsjevikiske ledere i 1917 var & ldquoFred, Land og Brød. & Rdquo

Brød var ønsket af alle, da krigen havde forstyrret transporten og skabt mangel på mad i byerne. Også fred var ønsket af mange, især af soldaterne ved fronten, der manglede ammunition. Men jord var frem for alt ønsket af bønderne, der i 50 år havde lidt af akut sult. & Rdquo

I 1917 troede mange bønder, at de ville fjerne alle de store grundejere og selv blive individuelle ejere af jord. Dette skete ikke på sigt, fordi den sovjetiske regering ikke havde til hensigt at omdanne bønder til individuelle ejendomsejere. Den sovjetiske leder frygtede, at bøndernes ejerskab af jord ville genoprette kapitalismen i en anden form. De sovjetiske myndigheder var fast besluttede på at ødelægge alle mulige rødder til kapitalismen i Rusland. Deres plan var at skabe samme status for arbejdere på fabrikker & mdash, der ikke ejer anlægget og blot modtager løn for drift af maskiner og mdashand for arbejdere på gårde, hvor bønderne også ville blive lønmodtagere. Landet, ligesom fabrikkerne, bankerne og naturressourcerne i landet skulle blive ejendommen til de enkelte bønder, men til staten, som skulle belønne bønderne for deres arbejde.

Regering kontra bønder

De sovjetiske lederes planer mødtes med bitter og stædig modstand fra bøndernes side. De bekæmpede regeringen tand og søm i mange år og nogle gange aktivt, oftest passivt. De nægtede nogle gange at så eller ellers indsamle høsten, og nogle gange beskadigede de lagre af korn og andre fødevarer. Regeringen gentog sig med forskellige undertrykkelsesforanstaltninger. At sende lovovertrædere til fjerntliggende områder i landet, hvor de blev tvunget til at arbejde på veje, jernbaner og andre opgaver, var en favoritstraf.

Nu er næsten al jord i Rusland statens ejendom. Der er nogle få statslige gårde, der drives som fabrikker, og arbejderne får almindelig løn. Det meste af jorden dyrkes imidlertid af kollektive gårde, hvis medlemmer modtager en andel af gårdens & rsquos nettooverskud. Sovjetledernes mest afgørende kamp var ikke en kamp, ​​som industriarbejderne førte mod bankfolk, fabriksejere og udlejere. Det var en kamp mellem bolsjevikkerne og bønderne. I det omfang den sovjetiske regering hævdede at repræsentere fabriksarbejdere var det også en kamp mellem arbejdere og bønder, mellem byen og landet.

Indhente omverdenen

Denne kamp blev ført side om side med den anden store kamp i bolsjevikrevolutionen og bestræbelser på at omdanne tilbagestående Rusland til en moderne industristat, der kunne være uafhængig af omverdenen. De sovjetiske ledere ønskede ikke kun at befri Rusland fra en afhængighed af omverdenen, der efter deres mening truede med at gøre Rusland til en koloni af avancerede industrimagter. De ville også gøre landet sikkert mod angreb fra en eller flere & ldquocapitalist & rdquo -stater.

I dag ejer staten alle landets og ressourcernes ressourcer og fabrikker, miner, landbrugs- og mineralprodukter af enhver art. Rusland er således hoppet fra stadiet i det primitive landbrug, med næsten ikke industrialiseringens begyndelse, til en storstilet udvikling af alle ressourcer fra staten, enten direkte eller gennem statslige kooperativer. I det væsentlige er det sprunget over perioden med store individuelle virksomheder, finansieret af privat kapital med privat risiko for privat gevinst, hvilket kendetegnede overgangen mellem Europa og den nye verden fra primært landbrug til primært industriel økonomi.

Inden for 25 år har Rusland teleskoperet mange af de revolutioner, som i andre lande blev spredt over flere århundreder. I den korte periode har den oplevet monarkiets og aristokratiets undergang, opbrud af store landområder, de avancerede stadier af den industrielle revolution og en engrosudvikling af statens ejerskab og drift. Dette betagende tempo i et land, hvis ledere, rigtigt eller forkert, betragtede det som konstant truet af en fjendtlig & ldquocapitalistisk omringning, & rdquo forklarer meget, der har virket kaotisk i Rusland.


BILLEDER FRA HISTORIE: Sjældne billeder af krig, historie, 2. verdenskrig, Nazityskland

Grund til at leve? En ung Berlin -kvinde med sin baby.

En wienerjøde i britisk hæruniform, George Clare fandt en anden jødeinde, der havde overlevet krigen, fordi hendes ariske mand havde nægtet at skille sig fra hende. Han havde været forstander for et Berlin Gymnasium eller en gymnasium. Nazisterne tvang ham ud af sit job, og han måtte arbejde som kommerciel rejsende. Så kom russerne, og han nægtede at aflevere sin cykel, så de skød ham.

Disse gamle tyske kvinder tager godt imod det.

Berlinerne følte sig helt afskåret fra omverdenen. Der var ingen transport (alle cykler og biler kunne rekvireres), og der var ingen telefon. Imens trak russerne et sæt jernbanelinjer op på hvert spor og tog disse med sig. Enhver, der ulovligt havde beholdt deres trådløse sæt, måtte regne med meget uregelmæssig strøm. Virkningen på lang sigt var at ændre Berlins natur, fra at være det industrielle kraftcenter, som det havde været siden det nittende århundrede til at være en by uden industri i slutningen af ​​det tyvende.


Denne kvinde begik selvmord. Fortvivlelse eller var hun blevet chikaneret af de sovjetiske tropper?

Prædiken i Dahlem i juli henledte den anti-nazistiske teolog Otto Dibelius opmærksomheden på dødelighedstal for Berlin. I normale tider var den daglige hastighed omkring 200 i krigen, den var steget til nærmere 250 som følge af bombningen nu var tallet omkring 1.000, og dette i en langt mindre by. Hungersnøden var ved at blive akut. Folk, hovedsageligt mænd, faldt som fluer. Det sidste drab og den høje dødelighed efter fjendtlighedens ophør betød, at der var masser af døde at begrave. Der var ingen steder at lægge dem og ingen kister, og de allierede ville ikke hjælpe. Familier havde begravet deres kære i ruinerne eller lagt dem ud i ligkapeller. Berlinerne tyede til at bruge store træskabe eller blot indpakke kroppen i et hestetæppe bundet med snor.

Død og fortvivlelse lå overalt

Berlin i foråret 1946. Det havde været en fortabende vinter med dårligt husly. Da det gradvist blev koldere, var manglen på faciliteter begyndt at knibe. Berlinerne indsamlede træ fra ruinerne og købte stearinlys på det sorte marked. De søgte efter kul. Spædbørnsdødelighed lå på 80 til 90 procent. Da der ikke var glas i vinduerne, kom den kolde vind hylende gennem de beskadigede bygninger.

Kun gamle mænd og unge kvinder blev tilbage i Berlin

Man kan bare beundre gruset og beslutsomheden hos det tyske folk, der rejste sig fra ruinerne og ydmygelsen for at bygge en magtfuld og velstående nation igen.

Prøver at genopbygge deres liv


23. januar 1945 - Historie

Generalvalg (1945-46)

Valget 1945-46 var langt det mest kritiske på alle niveauer i annalerne i det indiske subkontinent. Den første Simla -konference var brudt sammen den 14. juli 1945 om det kontroversielle spørgsmål om den repræsentative kultur i All India Muslim League (AIML). Også når anden verdenskrig var over, overtog den nye regering i Storbritannien kontrollen. Den nye regering gav nogle nye instruktioner til vicekongen i Indien. Så den 21. august 1945 meddelte vicekongen Lord Wavell, at der ville blive afholdt valg til de centrale og provinsielle lovgivere i den kommende vinter. As for the first phase, it was decided that election to the central legislative assembly would be held to be followed by the election to the provincial assemblies.

The Muslim League announced that it would fight the elections on the two clear-cut issues –

Pakistan is the national demand of the Muslims of India and the Muslim League is their sole representative organization. Soon after the announcement regarding the general election, the Muslim League started preparation to contest them. The League’s position in 1945 was entirely different from what it had been at the time of the previous election held in1937. It was now well established as a mass organization with branches in every province, district, tehsils, and village. To cope with the finance of the election Quaid-i-Azam asked the Muslims in his characteristic style “give us the silver bullets and we will finish the job.”

For Jinnah and the Muslim League election campaign was urgent and also extraordinarily hectic and brisk. He suffered bouts of serious illness at the time. However, Quaid-i-Azam did not slacken his pace and in a mere 24 weeks, between mid-July and the end of December 1945 “addressed thousands and had talks with hundreds,” as he stated. During this short period, he spoke at more than twenty-six gatherings across the provinces of Bombay, Sindh, Baluchistan, and the Frontier, gave out thirty-two press statements and interviews, met several delegations, and received and answered a great deal of political correspondence. In this endeavor, Jinnah was helped by a team of highly committed deputies. He had formed the All India Muslim League Committee of Action in December 1943 and later the Central Parliamentary Board whose proceedings are also printed in this volume. These small bodies of dedicated office-holders selected Muslim League candidates, settled differences and appeals over the award of League tickets, distributed funds, coordinated elections work from their Delhi head office, and travelled and supervised election activity all over India. In this, they were supported admirably by the All India and Provincial Muslim Students Federations whose members, especially at Aligarh, set examples of selflessness, sacrifice and dedication.

Elections for the Central Legislature were held in December 1945. Though the franchise was limited, the turnover was extraordinary. League’s performance was even more impressive as it managed to win all the 30 seats reserved for the Muslims. The results of the provincial election held in early 1946 were not different. Congress won most of the non-Muslim seats while Muslim League captured approximately 95 percent of the Muslim seats. On the other hand, the League celebrated January 11, 1946, as the Day of victory and declared that the election results were enough to prove that the Muslim League under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam was the sole representative of the Muslims of the region.

All said and done, it was the last variable that made Pakistan possible. Indeed, the massive electoral verdict in Pakistan’s favor during 1945-46 was the most important development between 1940 and 1947 between the adoption of the Lahore Resolution and the emergence of Pakistan. By all standards, this verdict represented the most critical step in the establishment of Pakistan. It was clear to the Congress that the Muslim League was the authoritative representative of an overwhelming majority of the Muslims in India, but it neither accepted it openly nor challenged its position.

For both the Congress and the League, the prime issue in the 1945-46 elections was the creation of Pakistan as opposed to the idea of Akhand Hindustan. Hence, the elections represented a referendum of sorts, as suggested by Gandhi, to ascertain the declared and established will of Muslims on the nationhood and separation issues. Once that will was given in Pakistan’s favor, its emergence (in some form or another) could no longer be resisted or delayed.


Adolf Hitler

Born in Braunau am Inn, Austria, on April 20, 1889, Adolf Hitler was the son of a fifty-two-year-old Austrian customs official, Alois Schickelgruber Hitler, and his third wife, a young peasant girl, Klara Poelzl, both from the backwoods of lower Austria. The young Hitler was a resentful, discontented child. Moody, lazy, of unstable temperament, he was deeply hostile towards his strict, authoritarian father and strongly attached to his indulgent, hard-working mother, whose death from cancer in December 1908 was a shattering blow to the adolescent Hitler.

After spending four years in the Realschule in Linz, he left school at the age of sixteen with dreams of becoming a painter. In October 1907, the provincial, middle-class boy left home for Vienna, where he was to remain until 1913 leading a bohemian, vagabond existence. Embittered at his rejection by the Viennese Academy of Fine Arts, he was to spend &ldquofive years of misery and woe&rdquo in Vienna as he later recalled, adopting a view of life which changed very little in the ensuing years, shaped as it was by a pathological hatred of Jews and Marxists, liberalism and the cosmopolitan Habsburg monarchy.

Existing from hand to mouth on occasional odd jobs and the hawking of sketches in low taverns, the young Hitler compensated for the frustrations of a lonely bachelor&rsquos life in miserable male hostels by political harangues in cheap cafes to anyone who would listen and indulging in grandiose dreams of a Greater Germany.

In Vienna he acquired his first education in politics by studying the demagogic techniques of the popular Christian-social Mayor, Karl Lueger, and picked up the stereotyped, obsessive anti-Semitism with its brutal, violent sexual connotations and concern with the &ldquopurity of blood&rdquo that remained with him to the end of his career.

From crackpot racial theorists like the defrocked monk, Lanz von Liebenfels, and the Austrian Pan-German leader, Georg von Schoenerer, the young Hitler learned to discern in the &ldquoEternal Jew&rdquo the symbol and cause of all chaos, corruption and destruction in culture, politics and the economy. The press, prostitution, syphilis, capitalism, Marxism, democracy and pacifism &ndash all were so many means which &ldquothe Jew&rdquo exploited in his conspiracy to undermine the German nation and the purity of the creative Aryan race.

1. verdenskrig

In May 1913, Hitler left Vienna for Munich and, when war broke out in August 1914, he joined the Sixteenth Bavarian Infantry Regiment, serving as a dispatch runner. Hitler proved an able, courageous soldier, receiving the Iron Cross (First Class) for bravery, but did not rise above the rank of Lance Corporal. Twice wounded, he was badly gassed four weeks before the end of the war and spent three months recuperating in a hospital in Pomerania. Temporarily blinded and driven to impotent rage by the abortive November 1918 revolution in Germany as well as the military defeat, Hitler, once restored, was convinced that fate had chosen him to rescue a humiliated nation from the shackles of the Versailles Treaty, from Bolsheviks and Jews.

Assigned by the Reichswehr in the summer of 1919 to &ldquoeducational&rdquo duties which consisted largely of spying on political parties in the overheated atmosphere of post-revolutionary Munich, Hitler was sent to investigate a small nationalistic group of idealists, the German Workers&rsquo Party. On September 16. 1919, he entered the Party (which had approximately forty members), soon changed its name to the National Socialist German Workers&rsquo Party (NSDAP) and had imposed himself as its Chairman by July 1921.

Hitler Was No Superman

Hitler promoted the idea of the Übermensch, a biologically superior Aryan or Germanic master race of strong, tall, blond-haired, blue-eyed Aryan supermen. The Nazis sought to breed such men through the &ldquoLebensborn&rdquo program. Ironically, the only &ldquosuper&rdquo characteristic he shared was blue eyes. Hitler was a 5' 9", skinny 155-pound (no one knows because he refused to undress for medical examinations), brown-haired Austrian.

Hitler was a vegetarian who did not smoke or drink. Dr. Ernst Gunther Schenck, who studied Hitler&rsquos medical record, said, &ldquo'Hitler`s initial complaints were the colitis that had bothered him for years, a mild kidney condition and a problem with a leg injury suffered during World War I. Morell helped him with all three problems. From the date they met in 1937 until April 1945, Hitler had absolute confidence in Morell.&rdquo

Besides resisting a complete physical, Hitler refused to be X-rayed. &ldquoMany of his symptoms were psychosomatic,&rdquo Schenck added. &ldquoAlmost daily, he complained to Morell about numerous pains. He demanded injections of invigorating and tranquilizing drugs, complained of headaches, stomach aches, constipation and diarrhea, constant colds, insomnia and many other discomforts. He described every pain very carefully and he complained bitterly.&rdquo

He was given hundreds of injections he believed would restore his energy and believed he would feel better if he could execute the generals that betrayed him, &ldquoBut in truth, he probably had an irritable bowel syndrome, and the stress aggravated it beyond his endurance.&rdquo

Schenck said Hitler was prescribed 92 different medications, some of which had not been scientifically tested. Morell owned companies that manufactured 20 of the drugs. &ldquoHitler used many drugs, but he never became addicted to any one, including morphine, which was administered to him 25 times during 1943-44, for his stomach cramps. But he was psychologically dependent upon the idea of drugs as magic.&rdquo'

Before he died, Hitler was seen shaking, which may have been a result of Parkinson disease or withdrawal from drugs.

In addition, according to historians Jonathan Mayo and Emma Craigie, &ldquoHitler himself is believed to have had two forms of genital abnormality: an undescended testicle and a rare condition called penile hypospadias in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis.&rdquo

Another historian, Ian Kershaw, said Hitler avoided sexual activity because he feared catching an infection. Others, however, have said he had a healthy sex life and was involved with several women, most notably his mistress Eva Braun and contrary to some reports, he never contracted syphilis.

Schenck also had an answer to the question of whether Hitler was insane. He compared him to other mass murderers in history &ndash Stalin, Franco, Mussolini, Idi Amin, Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Genghis Khan, and Napoleon &ndash whose behavior he said &ldquocannot be explained medically or psychologically.&rdquo He concluded, &ldquo'Hitler was not insane. He had a political obsession that led him to attempt insane things. The German people followed him because, like Hitler, they believed that they were surrounded by dangerous enemies.&rdquo

Hitler Becomes a Leader

Hitler discovered a powerful talent for oratory as well as giving the new Party its symbol &mdash the swastika &mdash and its greeting &ldquoHeil!.&rdquo His hoarse, grating voice, for all the bombastic, humorless, histrionic content of his speeches, dominated audiences by dint of his tone of impassioned conviction and gift for self-dramatization. By November 1921, Hitler was recognized as Fuhrer of a movement which had 3,000 members and boosted his personal power by organizing strong- arm squads to keep order at his meetings and break up those of his opponents. Out of these squads grew the storm troopers (SA) organized by Captain Ernst Röhm and Hitler&rsquos black-shirted personal bodyguard, the Schutzstaffel (SS).

Hitler focused his propaganda against the Versailles Treaty, the &ldquoNovember criminals,&rdquo the Marxists and the visible, internal enemy No. 1, the &ldquoJew,&rdquo who was responsible for all Germany&rsquos domestic problems. In the twenty-five-point program of the NSDAP announced on February 24, 1920, the exclusion of the Jews from the Volk community, the myth of Aryan race supremacy and extreme nationalism were combined with &ldquosocialistic&rdquo ideas of profit-sharing and nationalization inspired by ideologues like Gottfried Feder.

Hitler&rsquos first written utterance on political questions dating from this period emphasized that what he called &ldquothe anti-Semitism of reason&rdquo must lead &ldquoto the systematic combating and elimination of Jewish privileges. Its ultimate goal must implacably be the total removal of the Jews.&rdquo

By November 1923, Hitler was convinced that the Weimar Republic was on the verge of collapse and, together with General Ludendorff and local nationalist groups, sought to overthrow the Bavarian government in Munich. Bursting into a beer-hall in Munich and firing his pistol into the ceiling, he shouted out that he was heading a new provisional government which would carry through a revolution against &ldquoRed Berlin.&rdquo Hitler and Ludendorff then marched through Munich at the head of 3,000 men, only to be met by police fire which left sixteen dead and brought the attempted putsch to an ignominious end.

Hitler was arrested and tried on February 26, 1924, succeeding in turning the tables on his accusers with a confident, propagandist speech which ended with the prophecy: &ldquoPronounce us guilty a thousand times over: the goddess of the eternal court of history will smile and tear to pieces the State Prosecutor&rsquos submission and the court&rsquos verdict for she acquits us.&rdquo

Sentenced to five years&rsquo imprisonment in Landsberg fortress, Hitler was released after only nine months during which he dictated Mein Kampf (My Struggle) to his loyal follower, Rudolf Hess. Subsequently the &ldquobible&rdquo of the Nazi Party, this crude, half-baked hotchpotch of primitive Social Darwinism, racial myth, anti-Semitism and lebensraum fantasy had sold over five million copies by 1939 and been translated into eleven languages.

The failure of the Beer-Hall putsch and his period of imprisonment transformed Hitler from an incompetent adventurer into a shrewd political tactician, who henceforth decided that he would never again confront the gun barrels of army and police until they were under his command. He concluded that the road to power lay not through force alone but through legal subversion of the Weimar Constitution, the building of a mass movement and the combination of parliamentary strength with extra-parliamentary street terror and intimidation. Helped by Goering and Goebbels he began to reassemble his followers and rebuild the movement which had disintegrated in his absence.

Rise of the Nazi Party

In January 1925, the ban on the Nazi Party was removed and Hitler regained permission to speak in public. Outmaneuvering the &ldquosocialist&rdquo North German wing of the Party under Gregor Strasser, Hitler re-established himself in 1926 as the ultimate arbiter to whom all factions appealed in an ideologically and socially heterogeneous movement. Avoiding rigid, programmatic definitions of National Socialism which would have undermined the charismatic nature of his legitimacy and his claim to absolute leadership, Hitler succeeded in extending his appeal beyond Bavaria and attracting both Right and Left to his movement.

Though the Nazi Party won only twelve seats in the 1928 elections, the onset of the Great Depression with its devastating effects on the middle classes helped Hitler to win over all those strata in German society who felt their economic existence was threatened. In addition to peasants, artisans, craftsmen, traders, small businessmen, ex-officers, students and déclassé intellectuals, the Nazis in 1929 began to win over the big industrialists, nationalist conservatives and army circles.

With the backing of the press tycoon, Alfred Hugenberg, Hitler received a tremendous nationwide exposure just as the effects of the world economic crisis hit Germany, producing mass unemployment, social dissolution, fear and indignation. With demagogic virtuosity, Hitler played on national resentments, feelings of revolt and the desire for strong leadership using all the most modern techniques of mass persuasion to present himself as Germany&rsquos redeemer and messianic savior.

In the 1930 elections, the Nazi vote jumped dramatically from 810,000 to 6,409,000 (18.3 percent of the total vote) and they received 107 seats in the Reichstag. Prompted by Hjalmar Schacht and Fritz Thyssen, the great industrial magnates began to contribute liberally to the coffers of the NSDAP, reassured by Hitler&rsquos performance before the Industrial Club in Dusseldorf on January 27, 1932, that they had nothing to fear from the radicals in the Party.

The following month Hitler officially acquired German citizenship and decided to run for the Presidency, receiving 13,418,011 votes in the run-off elections of April 10, 1931, as against 19,359,650 votes for the victorious von Hindenburg, but four times the vote for the communist candidate, Ernst Thaelmann.

In the Reichstag elections of July 1932, the Nazis emerged as the largest political party in Germany, obtaining nearly fourteen million votes (37.3 per cent) and 230 seats. Although the NSDAP fell back in November 1932 to eleven million votes (196 seats), Hitler was helped to power by a camarilla of conservative politicians led by Franz von Papen, who persuaded the reluctant von Hindenburg to nominate &ldquothe Bohemian corporal&rdquo as Reich Chancellor on January 30, 1933.

Once in the saddle, Hitler moved with great speed to outmaneuver his rivals, virtually ousting the conservatives from any real participation in government by July 1933, abolishing the free trade unions, eliminating the communists, Social Democrats and Jews from any role in political life and sweeping opponents into concentration camps. The Reichstag fire of February 27, 1933, had provided him with the perfect pretext to begin consolidating the foundations of a totalitarian one-party State, and special &ldquoenabling laws&rdquo were ramrodded through the Reichstag to legalize the regime&rsquos intimidatory tactics.

With support from the nationalists, Hitler gained a majority at the last &ldquodemocratic&rdquo elections held in Germany on March 5, 1933, and with cynical skill he used the whole gamut of persuasion, propaganda, terror and intimidation to secure his hold on power. The seductive notions of &ldquoNational Awakening&rdquo and a &ldquoLegal Revolution&rdquo helped paralyze potential opposition and disguise the reality of autocratic power behind a facade of traditional institutions.

Hitler As Fuhrer


Hitler after an SS rally in Berlin

The destruction of the radical SA leadership under Ernst Rohm in the Blood Purge of June 1934 confirmed Hitler as undisputed dictator of the Third Reich and by the beginning of August, when he united the positions of Fuhrer and Chancellor on the death of von Hindenburg, he had all the powers of State in his hands. Avoiding any institutionalization of authority and status which could challenge his own undisputed position as supreme arbiter, Hitler allowed subordinates like Himmler, Goering and Goebbels to mark out their own domains of arbitrary power while multiplying and duplicating offices to a bewildering degree.

During the next four years Hitler enjoyed a dazzling string of domestic and international successes, outwitting rival political leaders abroad just as he had defeated his opposition at home. In 1935, he abandoned the Versailles Treaty and began to build up the army by conscripting five times its permitted number. He persuaded Great Britain to allow an increase in the naval building program and in March 1936 he occupied the demilitarized Rhineland without meeting opposition. He began building up the Luftwaffe and supplied military aid to Francoist forces in Spain, which brought about the Spanish fascist victory in 1939.

The German rearmament program led to full employment and an unrestrained expansion of production, which reinforced by his foreign policy successes &ndash the Rome-Berlin pact of 1936, the Anschluss with Austria and the &ldquoliberation&rdquo of the Sudeten Germans in 1938 &ndash brought Hitler to the zenith of his popularity. In February 1938, he dismissed sixteen senior generals and took personal command of the armed forces, thus ensuring that he would be able to implement his aggressive designs.

Hitler&rsquos saber-rattling tactics bludgeoned the British and French into the humiliating Munich agreement of 1938 and the eventual dismantlement of the Czechoslovakian State in March 1939. The concentration camps, the Nuremberg racial laws against the Jews, the persecution of the churches and political dissidents were forgotten by many Germans in the euphoria of Hitler&rsquos territorial expansion and bloodless victories. The next designated target for Hitler&rsquos ambitions was Poland (her independence guaranteed by Britain and France) and, to avoid a two-front war, the Nazi dictator signed a pact of friendship and non-aggression with Soviet Russia.

Anden Verdenskrig

On September 1, 1939, German armed forces invaded Poland and henceforth Hitler&rsquos main energies were devoted to the conduct of a war he had unleashed to dominate Europe and secure Germany&rsquos &ldquoliving space.&rdquo

The first phase of World War II was dominated by German Blitzkrieg tactics: sudden shock attacks against airfields, communications, military installations, using fast mobile armor and infantry to follow up on the first wave of bomber and fighter aircraft. Poland was overrun in less than one month, Denmark and Norway in two months, Holland, Belgium, Luxemburg and France in six weeks. After the fall of France in June 1940 only Great Britain stood firm.

The Battle of Britain, in which the Royal Air Force prevented the Luftwaffe from securing aerial control over the English Channel, was Hitler&rsquos first setback, causing the planned invasion of the British Isles to be postponed. Hitler turned to the Balkans and North Africa where his Italian allies had suffered defeats, his armies rapidly overrunning Greece, Yugoslavia, the island of Crete and driving the British from Cyrenaica.

The crucial decision of his career, the invasion of Soviet Russia on June 22, 1941, was rationalized by the idea that its destruction would prevent Great Britain from continuing the war with any prospect of success. He was convinced that once he kicked the door in, as he told Alfred Jodl (q.v.), &ldquothe whole rotten edifice [of communist rule] will come tumbling down&rdquo and the campaign would be over in six weeks. The war against Russia was to be an anti-Bolshevik crusade, a war of annihilation in which the fate of European Jewry would finally be sealed. At the end of January 1939, Hitler had prophesied that &ldquoif the international financial Jewry within and outside Europe should succeed once more in dragging the nations into a war, the result will be, not the Bolshevization of the world and thereby the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe.&rdquo

As the war widened &ndash the United States by the end of 1941 had entered the struggle against the Axis powers &ndash Hitler identified the totality of Germany&rsquos enemies with &ldquointernational Jewry,&rdquo who supposedly stood behind the British-American-Soviet alliance. The policy of forced emigration had manifestly failed to remove the Jews from Germany&rsquos expanded lebensraum, increasing their numbers under German rule as the Wehrmacht moved East.

The widening of the conflict into a world war by the end of 1941, the refusal of the British to accept Germany&rsquos right to continental European hegemony (which Hitler attributed to &ldquoJewish&rdquo influence) and to agree to his &ldquopeace&rdquo terms, the racial-ideological nature of the assault on Soviet Russia, finally drove Hitler to implement the &ldquoFinal Solution of the Jewish Question&rdquo which had been under consideration since 1939. The measures already taken in those regions of Poland annexed to the Reich against Jews (and Poles) indicated the genocidal implications of Nazi-style &ldquoGermanization&rdquo policies. The invasion of Soviet Russia was to set the seal on Hitler&rsquos notion of territorial conquest in the East, which was inextricably linked with annihilating the &lsquobiological roots of Bolshevism&rsquo and hence with the liquidation of all Jews under German rule.

At first the German armies carried all before them, overrunning vast territories, overwhelming the Red Army, encircling Leningrad and reaching within striking distance of Moscow. Within a few months of the invasion Hitler&rsquos armies had extended the Third Reich from the Atlantic to the Caucasus, from the Baltic to the Black Sea. But the Soviet Union did not collapse as expected and Hitler, instead of concentrating his attack on Moscow, ordered a pincer movement around Kiev to seize the Ukraine, increasingly procrastinating and changing his mind about objectives. Underestimating the depth of military reserves on which the Russians could call, the caliber of their generals and the resilient, fighting spirit of the Russian people (whom he dismissed as inferior peasants), Hitler prematurely proclaimed in October 1941 that the Soviet Union had been &ldquostruck down and would never rise again.&rdquo He had overlooked the pitiless Russian winter to which his own troops were now condemned, and which forced the Wehrmacht to abandon the highly mobile warfare which had previously brought such spectacular successes.

The disaster before Moscow in December 1941 led him to dismiss his Commander-in-Chief von Brauchitsch, and many other key commanders who sought permission for tactical withdrawals, including Guderian, Bock, Hoepner, von Rundstedt and Leeb, found themselves cashiered. Hitler now assumed personal control of all military operations, refusing to listen to advice, disregarding unpalatable facts and rejecting everything that did not fit into his preconceived picture of reality. His neglect of the Mediterranean theatre and the Middle East, the failure of the Italians, the entry of the United States into the war, and above all the stubborn determination of the Russians, pushed Hitler on to the defensive. From the winter of 1941, the writing was on the wall, but Hitler refused to countenance military defeat, believing that implacable will and the rigid refusal to abandon positions could make up for inferior resources and the lack of a sound overall strategy.

Convinced that his own General Staff was weak and indecisive, if not openly treacherous, Hitler became more prone to outbursts of blind, hysterical fury towards his generals, when he did not retreat into bouts of misanthropic brooding. His health, too, deteriorated under the impact of the drugs prescribed by his quack physician, Dr. Theodor Morell. Hitler&rsquos personal decline, symbolized by his increasingly rare public appearances and his self-enforced isolation in the &ldquoWolf&rsquos Lair,&rdquo his headquarters buried deep in the East Prussian forests, coincided with the visible signs of the coming German defeat which became apparent in mid-1942.

Allied Victory

Rommel&rsquos defeat at El Alamein and the subsequent loss of North Africa to the Anglo-American forces were overshadowed by the disaster at Stalingrad where General von Paulus&rsquos Sixth Army was cut off and surrendered to the Russians in January 1943. In July 1943, the Allies captured Sicily and Mussolini&rsquos regime collapsed in Italy.

In September the Italians signed an armistice and the Allies landed at Salerno, reaching Naples on October 1, and taking Rome on June 4, 1944. The Allied invasion of Normandy followed on June 6, 1944, and soon a million Allied troops were driving the German armies eastwards, while Soviet forces advanced relentlessly on the Reich from the opposite direction. The total mobilization of the German war economy under Albert Speer and the energetic propaganda efforts of Joseph Goebbels to rouse the fighting spirit of the German people were impotent to change the fact that the Third Reich lacked the resources equal to a struggle against the world alliance which Hitler himself had provoked.

Allied bombing began to have a telling effect on German industrial production and to undermine the morale of the population. The generals, frustrated by Hitler&rsquos total refusal to trust them in the field and recognizing the inevitability of defeat, planned, together with the small anti-Nazi resistance inside the Reich, to assassinate the Fuhrer on July 20, 1944, hoping to pave the way for a negotiated peace with the Allies that would save Germany from destruction. The plot failed and Hitler took implacable vengeance on the conspirators, watching with satisfaction a film of the grisly executions carried out on his orders.

To ensure loyalty from that point on, Hitler instituted a new policy called Sippenhaft in which family members could be held responsible, and subject to arrest and execution, for the actions of soldiers.

As the Allies moved inland from Normandy, Hitler ordered the military commander of the Paris region, Dietrich von Choltitz, to all but destroy the city &ndash raze the Eiffel Tower, Notre Dame and the city&rsquos museums and blow up all the bridges &ndash before the Allies reached the city. Von Choltitz was considered one of Hitler&rsquos most loyal generals, one of the few who was not implicated in the assassination plot but had met with Hitler before taking the position in Paris and came away from the meeting convinced the Führer was deranged and the war was over.

Summoned to the Wolf&rsquos Lair, on August 6, 1944, Choltitz found &ldquoan old, bent-over, flabby man with thinning grey hair &ndash a trembling, physically demolished human being.&rdquo Von Choltitz recalled listening to Hitler rant about the plotters: &ldquoI witnessed the terrible eruption of a hateful mind&hellip. He spoke in bloodthirsty language with froth literally coming out of his mouth&hellip. Sweat was running down his face while he spoke excitedly about the hanging of the generals. I saw in front of me someone who had lost his mind&hellip. The fact that the life of our nation was in the hands of an insane being who could no longer judge the situation or was unwilling to see it realistically depressed me immensely.&rdquo He subsequently ignored Hitler&rsquos orders to devastate Paris, allowing the city to survive the war largely intact.

As disaster came closer, Hitler buried himself in the unreal world of the Fuhrerbunker in Berlin, clutching at fantastic hopes that his &ldquosecret weapons,&rdquo the V-1 and V-2 rockets, would yet turn the tide of war. He gestured wildly over maps, planned and directed attacks with non-existent armies and indulged in endless, night-long monologues which reflected his growing senility, misanthropy and contempt for the &ldquocowardly failure&rdquo of the German people.

As the Red Army approached Berlin and the Anglo-Americans reached the Elbe, on March 19, 1945, Hitler ordered the destruction of what remained of German industry, communications and transport systems. He was resolved that, if he did not survive, Germany too should be destroyed. The same ruthless nihilism and passion for destruction which had led to the extermination of six million Jews in death camps, to the biological &ldquocleansing&rdquo of the sub-human Slavs and other subject peoples in the New Order, was finally turned on his own people.

Hitler&rsquos Death

As Soviet forces approached Berlin in late April 1945, Hitler began to contemplate suicide. On April 28, Mussolini had been shot by a firing squad and then hung by his feet in a public square in Milan, Italy. Fearing the same fate, Hitler tested cyanide pills he received from the SS on his Alsatian dog Blondi.

On April 29, 1945, he married his mistress Eva Braun and dictated his final political testament, concluding with the same monotonous, obsessive fixation that had guided his career from the beginning: &ldquoAbove all I charge the leaders of the nation and those under them to scrupulous observance of the laws of race and to merciless opposition to the universal poisoner of all peoples, international Jewry.&rdquo

The following day Hitler committed suicide. His body was carried into the garden of the Reich Chancellery by aides, covered with petrol and burned along with that of Eva Braun. This final, macabre act of self-destruction appropriately symbolized the career of a political leader whose main legacy to Europe was the ruin of its civilization and the senseless sacrifice of human life for the sake of power and his own commitment to the bestial nonsense of National Socialist race mythology. With his death nothing was left of the &ldquoGreater Germanic Reich,&rdquo of the tyrannical power structure and ideological system which had devastated Europe during the twelve years of his totalitarian rule.

Exterior of the Führerbunker shortly before its destruction. Hitler and Eva Braun's remains were burnt in a shell crater outside the emergency exit at the left.

Few Nazis witnessed the removal of the bodies and their cremation. Two of the men who were there, Joseph Goebbels and Martin Bormann, later killed themselves. The absence of witnesses prompted the emergence of a variety of conspiracy theories over the years regarding Hitler&rsquos fate, including the idea that he was still alive after the war.

General Hans Krebs (who later also committed suicide inside the Führerbunker) met Soviet General Vasily Chuikov on May 1 to inform him of Hitler&rsquos death. Stalin wanted proof and ordered Smersh, the counterintelligence organization of the Red Army, to dig up the cremated remains on May 5, 1945. They found a jawbone that was later identified as Hitler&rsquos by Käthe Heusermann, the assistant of the dictator&rsquos dentist.

The Soviets did not tell the other Allies Hitler was dead, preferring to promote the idea that Hitler survived. On May 2, 1945, for example, the state news agency Tass said that the announcement on German radio of the reports of Hitler&rsquos death were a &ldquofascist trick to cover [his] disappearance from the scene.&rdquo Stalin later told U.S. Ambassador W. Averell Harriman and President Harry Truman&rsquos envoy, Harry Hopkins, that Hitler had escaped with Bormann, Goebbels, and Krebs. According to Jean-Marie Pottier, Stalin&rsquos reason for suggesting Hitler might have fled to the Western Hemisphere was to trick the Allies into pursuing the false lead.

Hitler&rsquos jawbone was taken to Moscow and the rest of the remains were reburied in June 1945 in a location outside Berlin. Smersh exhumed the corpses of Hitler, Braun, Goebbels, his wife, their six children, and Krebs, and buried them in the Soviet occupation zone in Magdeburg, East Germany. When the Magdeburg base was returned to East German control in 1970, KGB director Yuri Andropov ordered the remains be destroyed.

The Soviets initially believed Hitler had killed himself with cyanide. Otto Günsche, Hitler&rsquos bodyguard, was captured by the NKVD (the Soviet law enforcement agency) and told them Hitler had shot himself in the head. This was confirmed during interrogations of Heinz Linge, Hitler&rsquos valet and his personal pilot Haus Baur. The Soviets did further excavations near the Führerbunker in May 1946 and discovered a skull fragment with a bullet hole.

The witnesses were secretly held by the Soviets for the next ten years while they continued to perpetuate the lie that Hitler was alive. The Allies had already confirmed his death, however, and did not accept the Soviets&rsquo subsequent claim that Hitler died by cyanide poisoning.

Meanwhile, the skull fragment and jawbone were kept in the Soviet state and FSB archives. In 2018, after months of negotiations, Russia&rsquos FSB secret service and the Russian state archives gave French scientists permission to examine a skull fragment with a hole on the left side and bits of teeth from the jawbone. They ultimately concluded that they could not prove the skull belonged to Hitler but confirmed he had died in 1945.

Based on their examination of the teeth, they were convinced Hitler had not shot himself in the mouth as some accounts had previously speculated. They also found evidence on the teeth of a &ldquochemical reaction between the cyanide and the metal of the dentures.&rdquo One of the investigators, Professor Philippe Charlier, said, &ldquoWe didn&rsquot know if he had used an ampule of cyanide to kill himself or whether it was a bullet in the head. It&rsquos in all probability both.&rdquo

Kilder: Wistrich, Robert S. Who's Who in Nazi Germany, Routledge, 1997
Dennis L. Breo, &ldquoHitler&rsquos Medical File,&rdquo Chicago Tribune, (October 14, 1985).
Hitler, Adolf Medical Assessment, CIA, (November 29, 1945)
James Rothwell, &ldquoHitler &lsquohad tiny deformed penis&rsquo as well as just one testicle, historians claim,&rdquo Telegraf, (February 22, 2016).
Jean-Marie Pottier, &ldquoThey Saved Hitler&rsquos Skull. Or Did They?&rdquo Skifer, (April 30, 2018)
Natasha Frost, &ldquoHitler&rsquos Teeth Reveal Nazi Dictator&rsquos Cause Of Death,&rdquo History, (May 19, 2018)
&ldquo9 Things You Might Not Know About Adolf Hitler,&rdquo Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Charles Trueheart, &ldquoThe Allies who liberated Paris, and the Nazi who saved it,&rdquo Washington Post, (August 22, 2019).

Photos courtesy of the USHMM and German Bundesarchiv
Portrait of Hitler from Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-S62600 / CC-BY-SA 3.0
Bunker photos from Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-V04744 / CC-BY-SA 3.0.


1925: The press support our cause

Under the chairmanship of critic and journalist John Bailey, we receive more sympathetic coverage from the press than at any time in our history, before or since. On 25 October a letter in The Times, appealing for funds for Ashridge in Hertfordshire, is signed by Stanley Baldwin, Ramsay MacDonald and Herbert Asquith.

Stonehenge National Trust Chris Lacey

Se videoen: DIE DEUTSCHE WOCHENSCHAU, NO. 2, 1945