Jumbo jets kolliderer i De Kanariske Øers lufthavn

Jumbo jets kolliderer i De Kanariske Øers lufthavn

Den 27. marts 1977 styrter to 747 jumbo jetfly ind i hinanden på landingsbanen i en lufthavn på De Kanariske Øer og dræber 583 passagerer og besætningsmedlemmer.

Begge Boeing 747'er var charterfly, der ikke skulle være i Los Rodeos -lufthavnen på Santa Cruz de Tenerife den dag. Begge havde været planlagt til at være i Las Palmas Lufthavn, hvor en gruppe militante havde affyret en lille bombe i lufthavnens blomsterbutik tidligere på dagen. Således blev et Pan Am -charter med passagerer fra Los Angeles og New York til et krydstogt i Middelhavet og et KLM -charter med hollandske turister begge omdirigeret til Santa Cruz den 27. marts.

Los Rodeos -lufthavnen er kendt for sine pludselige tågeproblemer og var ikke et yndet sted for piloter. 16:40 på en typisk tåget eftermiddag blev KLM -jet ryddet til taxa til enden af ​​den enkelte hovedbane. Pan Am -jet fulgte bag det og skulle vente i sideplads, mens KLM -jet vendte om for at begynde start. I tågen var Pan Am -piloten imidlertid ikke i stand til at holde KLM -jet i syne og bevægede sig ikke i den korrekte position. Det hollandske mandskab på KLM -jetflyet, der tilsyneladende ikke var i stand til at forstå det accentuerede engelsk, som flyvekontrollørerne talte, begyndte at tage ned af landingsbanen, før Pan Am -jet kunne bevæge sig til sidepladsen.

I sidste øjeblik så Pan Am -piloten den anden 747 komme direkte på sit eget jetfly og skreg: "Hvad laver han? Han dræber os alle!" mens man forsøger at svinge ind på en græsklædte mark. Det var for sent. KLM 747 smækkede ind i siden af ​​Pan Am -jet, og begge fly brød ud i en kæmpe ildkugle. De eneste overlevende på begge fly var dem i fronten af ​​Pan Am 747.


27. marts 1977 To Jumbos kolliderer på De Kanariske Øer

Den 27. marts 1977, på landingsbanen i en lufthavn på De Kanariske Øer, styrtede to 747 jumbofly ind i hinanden og dræbte 583 passagerer og besætningsmedlemmer. Nedbruddet står stadig som det værste i luftfartens historie.

Lufthavnen var Los Rodeos lufthavn på Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Boeing 747'erne var begge charterfly, der ikke var planlagt til at være på deres den dag. Begge var blevet omdirigeret fra Las Palmas lufthavn, efter at en gruppe militante havde affyret en lille bombe i lufthavnens blomsterbutik tidligere på dagen. Det første fly var et Pan Am -charter, der transporterede passagerer fra Los Angeles og New York til et krydstogt i Middelhavet. Den anden var et KLM -charter med hollandske turister. Begge blev omdirigeret til Santa Cruz den skæbnesvangre dag.

Los Rodeos -lufthavnen er berygtet for sine pludselige tågeproblemer og var ikke et yndet sted for piloter. 16:40 på en typisk tåget eftermiddag blev KLM -jet ryddet til taxa til enden af ​​den enkelte hovedbane. Pan Am -jet fulgte bag det og skulle vente i sideplads, mens KLM -jet vendte om for at begynde start. I tågen var Pan Am -piloten imidlertid ikke i stand til at holde KLM -jet i syne og bevægede sig ikke i den korrekte position. Det hollandske besætning på KLM -jetflyet, der muligvis ikke var i stand til at forstå det accentuerede engelsk, som flyvekontrollørerne talte, begyndte at tage ned af landingsbanen, før Pan Am -jet kunne bevæge sig til sidepladsen.

I sidste øjeblik så Pan Am -piloten den anden 747 komme direkte på sit eget jetfly og skreg “ Hvad gør han? Han vil dræbe os alle! ” Han forsøgte at svinge ind på en græsklædte mark, men det var for sent. KLM 747 smækkede ind i siden af ​​Pan Am -jet, og begge fly brød ud i en kæmpe ildkugle. De eneste overlevende på begge fly var dem i fronten af ​​Pan Am 747. Overlevende Lynda Daniel sagde senere om katastrofen, Den eksploderede bagfra. De fleste mennesker i de første seks rækker klarede det.

Undersøgelsen konkluderede, at den grundlæggende årsag til ulykken var, at kaptajn Van Zanten (KLM) startede uden startklarering. Efterforskerne foreslog, at årsagen til hans fejl kunne have været et ønske om at forlade så hurtigt som muligt for at overholde KLM ’s toldtidslovgivning, og før vejret forværredes yderligere.


Hvordan en lille ø -landingsbane blev stedet for det dødeligste flystyrt nogensinde

På denne dag i 1977 kolliderede et par fuldt lastede Boeing 747'er på landingsbanen i Los Rodeos lufthavn på øen Tenerife. Kollisionen resulterede i, at 583 af de 644 passagerer ombord på de to jumbofly døde.

Næsten 40 år senere er Tenerife Air Disaster stadig et vandskeløjeblik, der ændrede, hvordan luftfartsindustrien ikke kun betragter sikkerheden i luften, men også på jorden.

Bogen er tilgængelig på Amazon, og mere information kan findes på webstedet "Cockpit Confidential".

De fleste mennesker har aldrig hørt om Tenerife, en gryde i Atlanterhavet. Det er en af ​​De Kanariske Øer, en vulkanskæde styret af spanierne, der er samlet et par hundrede miles ud for Marokkos kyst. Den store by på Tenerife er Santa Cruz, og dens lufthavn, under et sæt vandfaldende bakker, kaldes Los Rodeos. Der, den 27. marts 1977, kolliderede to Boeing 747'er - den ene tilhørende KLM, den anden til Pan Am - på en tåget landingsbane. Fem hundrede treogfirs blev dræbt i det, der stadig er den største luftkatastrofe i historien.

Ulykkens størrelse taler for sig selv, men det, der gør den særligt uforglemmelig, er det opsigtsvækkende sæt ironier og tilfældigheder, der gik forud for den. Faktisk skyldes de fleste flystyrt ikke en enkelt fejl eller fejl, men fra en kæde af usandsynlige fejl og fejl sammen med et slag eller to af virkelig uheld. Aldrig blev dette illustreret mere katastrofalt - næsten til det absurde - end den søndag eftermiddag for næsten fyrre år siden.

I 1977, kun i sit ottende tjenesteår, var Boeing 747 allerede den største, den mest indflydelsesrige og muligvis den mest glamourøse kommercielle jetfly, der nogensinde er bygget. Af netop disse grunde var det svært ikke at forestille sig, hvilken historie det ville være - og hvor meget blodbad der kan resultere - hvis to af disse adfærd nogensinde skulle ramme hinanden. Virkelig, men hvad var chancerne for at - et Hollywood -manuskript, hvis der nogensinde var et.

Begge 747'erne på Tenerife er chartre. Pan Am er kommet fra Los Angeles, efter et mellemlanding i New York, KLM fra sin hjemmebase i Amsterdam. Som det sker, skal ingen af ​​flyene være på Tenerife. De skulle efter planen lande i Las Palmas, på den nærliggende ø Grand Canary, hvor mange af passagererne var på vej til at møde krydstogtskibe. Efter at en bombe plantet af separatister fra Kanariske Øer eksploderede i blomsterbutikken i Las Palmas lufthavn, omdirigerede de til Los Rodeos sammen med flere andre flyvninger og ankom omkring kl.

Pan Am -flyet, registreret N736PA, er ikke fremmed for berygtet. I januar 1970 gennemførte det samme fly den første kommercielle rejse på en 747 mellem New Yorks Kennedy-lufthavn og London-Heathrow. Et eller andet sted på næsen er bulen fra en champagneflaske. Hvid med en blå vinduesstribe, den bærer navnet Clipper Victor langs den forreste skrog. KLM 747, også blå og hvid, hedder Rhinen .

Lad os ikke glemme flyselskaberne selv: Pan Am, den mest etagerede franchise i luftfartens historie, kræver lidt introduktion. KLM er på sin side det ældste kontinuerligt opererende flyselskab i verden, grundlagt i 1919 og højt anset for sin sikkerhed og punktlighed.

KLM -kaptajnen, Jacob Van Zanten, hvis fejltagende startrulle snart vil dræbe næsten seks hundrede mennesker, inklusive ham selv, er flyselskabets bedste 747 instruktørpilot og en KLM -berømthed. Hvis passagererne genkender ham, skyldes det, at hans selvsikre, firkantede udsyn stirrer ud fra KLMs magasinannoncer. Senere, når KLM's ledere først får besked om styrtet, vil de forsøge at kontakte Van Zanten i håb om at sende ham til Tenerife for at hjælpe efterforskningsteamet.

Den normalt dovne Los Rodeos er spækket med afledte flyvninger. Det Rhinen og Clipper Victor sidder ved siden af ​​hinanden i forklædningens sydøstlige hjørne, og deres vingespidser rører næsten. Endelig omkring klokken fire begynder Las Palmas at acceptere trafik igen. Pan Am er hurtigt klar til afgang, men manglen på plads og den vinkel, jetflyene vender mod hinanden, kræver, at KLM begynder at taxa først.

Vejret er fint indtil lige før ulykken, og hvis ikke KLM anmoder om ekstra brændstof i sidste øjeblik, ville begge være hurtigere på vej. Under forsinkelsen siver et tungt tågetæppe ned fra bakkerne og omslutter lufthavnen. Dette brændstof betyder også ekstra vægt, hvilket påvirker, hvor hurtigt 747 er i stand til at blive luftbåren. Af grunde, du ser om et øjeblik, vil det være kritisk.

På grund af asfaltbelastningen er den normale vej til bane 30 blokeret. Afgangsfly bliver nødt til at køre taxa ned på selve landingsbanen. Når de når enden, foretager de en 180-graders drejning, inden de tager af sted i den modsatte retning. Denne procedure, sjælden i kommercielle lufthavne, kaldes en "bag-taxi". På Tenerife i ’77 vil det sætte to 747’ere på den samme landingsbane på samme tid, ikke kun usynlige for hinanden, men også for kontroltårnet. Lufthavnen har ingen jordsporingsradar.

KLM -taxier foran og ind på landingsbanen, med Pan Am Clipper, der går flere hundrede meter bagud. Kaptajn Van Zanten vil styre til enden, vende om og derefter holde sig i position, indtil det er tilladt til start. Pan Ams instruktioner er at dreje fri langs en taxa til venstre for at tillade det andet flys afgang. Når panelet er sikkert væk fra landingsbanen, rapporterer Pan Am det til tårnet.

Pan Am -piloterne er ude af stand til at skelne mellem taxibanerne og den lave sigtbarhed. At fortsætte til den næste er ikke noget stort problem, men nu er de på landingsbanen i flere sekunder.

På samme tid, efter at have hjulet i position til sidst, stopper Van Zanten. Hans første betjent, Klaas Meurs, tager radioen og modtager ATC -rutesklaringen. Dette er ikke en Afgang clearance, men snarere en procedure, der beskriver sving, højder og frekvenser til brug, når de først er luftbåret. Normalt modtages det godt før et fly tager landingsbanen, men piloterne har indtil nu haft for travlt med tjeklister og taxainstruktioner. De er trætte, irriterede og ivrige efter at komme i gang. Irritationen i piloternes stemmer, især Van Zantens, er behørigt blevet bemærket af kontroltårnet og andre piloter.

Der mangler stadig et par dominoer, men nu er den sidste handling i gang - bogstaveligt talt. Fordi ruterydningen kommer hvor og hvornår den gør det, forveksles det også med en startklarering. Først betjent Meurs, der sidder til Van Zantens højre side, anerkender højderne, overskrifterne og rettelserne og afslutter derefter med en usædvanlig, lidt tøvende sætning, der er bakket op af lyden af ​​accelererende motorer. "Vi er nu ved start."

Van Zanten frigiver bremserne. “ Vi , ”Høres han sige på cockpittens stemmeoptager. "Lad os gå." Og med det begynder hans mammutmaskine at tønde ned ad den tågeomhulte landingsbane, helt uden tilladelse.

"Ved start" er ikke standardfraseologi blandt piloter. Men det er eksplicit nok til at fange Pan Am -besætningens opmærksomhed og kontroltårnet. Det er svært for nogen af ​​parterne at tro, at KLM faktisk bevæger sig, men begge rækker efter deres mikrofoner for at sikre sig.

"Og vi taxer stadig ned ad landingsbanen," videresender Bob Bragg, Pan Ams første betjent.

I samme øjeblik sender tårnet en besked til KLM. "Okay," siger controlleren. “Stand by for start. Jeg vil ringe til dig."

Der er ikke noget svar. Denne stilhed tages som en stiltiende, hvis ikke ligefrem korrekt, anerkendelse.

Hver af disse transmissioner ville være, burde være nok til at stoppe Van Zanten kold i sine spor. Han har stadig tid til at afbryde rullen. Problemet er, at fordi de forekommer samtidigt, overlapper de hinanden.

Piloter og controllere kommunikerer via tovejs VHF-radioer. Processen ligner at tale over en walkie-talkie: en person aktiverer en mikrofon, taler, slipper derefter knappen og venter på en bekræftelse. Det adskiller sig fra at bruge en telefon, for eksempel, da kun en part kan tale ad gangen, og har ingen idé om, hvordan hans budskab rent faktisk lyder over luften. Hvis der klikkes på to eller flere mikrofoner på samme øjeblik, annullerer transmissionerne hinanden og giver en støjende okklusion af statisk eller en højlydt hvin kaldet en heterodyne. Sjældent er heterodyner farlige. Men på Tenerife er dette det sidste strå.

Van Zanten hører kun ordet "okay" efterfulgt af et fem sekunders hvin. Han bliver ved.

Ti sekunder senere er der en sidste udveksling, klart og vanvittigt hørbar på båndene efter nedbrud. "Rapporter, når landingsbanen er klar," siger tårnet til Pan Am.

"Vi rapporterer, når vi er klare," erkender Bob Bragg.

Med fokus på start savner Van Zanten og hans første officer tilsyneladende dette. Men den anden betjent, der sidder bag dem, gør det ikke. Forfærdet, hvor deres fly nu kører frem i hundrede knob, læner han sig fremad. "Er han ikke klar?" han spørger. "Den panamerikanske?"

"Åh, ja," svarer Van Zanten eftertrykkeligt.

I Pan Am-cockpittet, fra næse til næse med den stadig usynlige interloper, der hurtigt nærmer sig, er der en voksende følelse af, at noget ikke er rigtigt. "Lad os fanden væk herfra," siger kaptajn Victor Grubbs nervøst.

Få øjeblikke senere kommer lysene på KLM 747 ud af gråheden, døde foran, 2.000 fod væk og lukker hurtigt.

"Der er han!" råber Grubbs og skubber håndtagene til fuld kraft. "Se på ham! For helvede, den fjols kommer! ” Han rykker flyets styrestang og drejer til venstre så hårdt han kan, mod græsset ved kanten af ​​landingsbanen.

"Stå af! Stå af! Stå af!" råber Bob Bragg.

Van Zanten ser dem, men det er for sent. I forsøget på at springe, trækker han tilbage på elevatorer og trækker halen langs fortovet i 70 fod i et gnistregn. Han klarer det næsten, men ligesom hans fly bryder jorden, skæres dets undervogn og motorer ind i loftet på Victor , nedbryder øjeblikkeligt dens midtsektion og sætter gang i en række eksplosioner.

Dårligt beskadiget, den Rhinen slår sig tilbage til landingsbanen, glider hårdt på maven i yderligere tusinde fod og bliver fortæret af ild, før en enkelt af dens 248 beboere kan slippe. Bemærkelsesværdigt nok overlevede 61 af dem på 396 passagerer og besætning ombord på Pan Am-jumboen, inklusive alle fem personer i cockpittet-det tre-mands besætning og to off-duty-medarbejdere, der kørte i jumpseats.

I løbet af de sidste par år har jeg været så heldig at møde to af de Pan Am -overlevende og høre deres historier på egen hånd. Jeg siger det nonchalant, men det er nok det tætteste, jeg nogensinde er kommet på mødet, i mangel af et bedre udtryk, en helt. At romantisere 583 menneskers brændende dødsfald er beslægtet med at romantisere krig, men der er en vis mystik ved Tenerife -katastrofen, en tyngdekraft så stærk, at hvis man rystede disse overlevendes hænder, fik man en følelse, der lignede den af ​​et lille barn, der mødte sin yndlings baseballspiller. Disse mænd var der , der kommer ud af vraget af det, der for nogle af os står som en begivenhed af mytiske proportioner.

En af disse overlevende var Bob Bragg, Pan Ams første officer. Jeg mødte ham i Los Angeles, på sættet med en dokumentarfilm, der blev lavet til trediveårsdagen for ulykken.

Det var Bragg, der havde udtalt: "Og vi kører stadig ned ad landingsbanen" - syv lette ord, der skulle have reddet dagen, men i stedet gik tabt for evigt i skrig og knitren fra en blokeret transmission. Bare ved at tænke over det giver mig kuldegysninger.

Men der er ikke noget mørkt ved Bob Bragg - intet, der på overfladen føles fortøjet til mareridtet ’77. Han er en af ​​de letteste mennesker, du nogensinde vil møde. Gråhåret, bebrillet og artikuleret ligner og lyder han som det han er: en pensioneret flyselskabspilot.

Gud ved, hvor mange gange han har fortalt sammenstødet for andre. Han taler om ulykken med øvet lethed med en stemme af beskeden løsrivelse, som om han havde været en tilskuer, der så på afstand. Du kan læse alle transskriberinger, undersøge fundene og se dokumentarfilmerne hundrede gange. Først når du sidder sammen med Bob Bragg og hører den uredigerede beretning med alle de mærkelige og forbløffende detaljer, der normalt mangler, får du en fuld fornemmelse af, hvad der skete. Grundhistorien er velkendt, det er hjælpestoffer, der får den til at bevæge sig - og surrealistisk:

Bragg beskriver den indledende virkning som lidt mere end "et bump og noget ryster." Alle fem mænd i cockpittet, der var placeret i den forreste ende af 747's karakteristiske pukkel på øverste dæk, så KLM-jetflyet komme og var dukket. Da de vidste, at de var blevet ramt, nåede Bragg instinktivt opad i et forsøg på at trække "brandhåndtagene"-et sæt med fire overmonterede håndtag, der afbryder forsyningen af ​​brændstof, luft, elektricitet og hydraulik, der kører til og fra motorerne . Hans arm famlede hjælpeløst. Da han kiggede op, var taget væk.

Da han vendte sig om, indså han, at hele det øverste dæk var blevet skåret af på et tidspunkt lige agter for hans stol. Han kunne se helt bagud til halen, 200 fod bag ham. Flykroppen var knust og brændte. Han og kaptajn Grubbs var alene på deres sæder på en lille, fuldt udsat aborre 35 fod over jorden. Alt omkring dem var blevet løftet væk som en hat. Den anden betjent og jumpseat-stationer, deres beboere stadig spændt fast, hang på hovedet gennem de sekunder, der tidligere var loftet i førsteklasses kabine.

Der var ingen anden mulighed end at hoppe. Bragg rejste sig og kastede sig over siden. Han landede i græsset tre etager nedenunder, først med fødderne og led mirakuløst lidt mere end en skadet ankel. Grubbs fulgte efter, og også han var for det meste uskadt. De andre fra cockpittet ville løsne deres seler og skubbe ned ad sidevæggene til hovedkabinen, inden de på samme måde springer i sikkerhed.

Flykroppen blev opslugt af ild. Et antal passagerer, de fleste sad i forreste dele af kabinen, havde nået det på fartøjets venstre fløj og stod ved forkanten, cirka 20 fod fra jorden. Bragg løb over og opfordrede dem til at hoppe. Et par minutter senere eksploderede flyets midterste brændstoftank og drev en flamme af flammer og røg tusinde meter op i himlen.

Lufthavnens dårligt udstyrede redningsteam var i mellemtiden forbi på KLM-stedet, det første vrag, de var kommet til efter at have opdaget, at der havde været en ulykke. Det havde de endnu ikke indset to fly var involveret, et af dem med overlevende. Til sidst åbnede myndighederne lufthavnen, og opfordrede alle med et køretøj til at køre mod ulykkesstedet for at hjælpe. Bob Bragg fortæller den krakkede historie om at stå der i tåge, omgivet af bedøvede og blødende overlevende, og se sit fly brænde, da pludselig en taxa trækker op af ingenting.

Under dokumentarfotograferingen rejste jeg sammen med Bob Bragg og producenterne til flyopbevaringsværftene i Mojave, Californien, hvor han blev interviewet sammen med en mølballet 747, der beskrev det utrolige spring fra øverste dæk.

En dag tidligere filmede instruktør Phil Desjardins ved hjælp af en mock-up på flydækket en genopførelse af sammenstødet på Tenerife, hvor en trio skuespillere sad som KLM-besætningen. For at give skuespillerne en nyttig demo blev det foreslået, at Bob Bragg og jeg kom ind i mock-up’en og løb igennem en øvelsesstart.

Bragg tog kaptajnens sæde, og jeg tog den første officers plads. Vi læste en provisorisk tjekliste igennem og gennemgik bevægelserne for en simuleret start. Det var da jeg kiggede på tværs, og pludselig ramte det mig: Her er Bob Bragg, den ene overlevende pilot på Tenerife, der sidder i et cockpit og foregiver at være Jacob Van Zanten, hvis fejl fik det hele til at ske.

Sikkert ville Bragg ikke have nogen del af denne kedelige karma, og jeg havde ikke mod på at notere det højt - forudsat at det ikke allerede var gået op for ham. Men jeg kunne næsten ikke holde undringen for mig selv. Endnu en uhyggelig ironi i en historie, der er så fuld af dem.


Tenerife -katastrofe: Fakta om katastrofen i Tenerife -lufthavnen Dødeligste luftulykke i historien

Tenerife -katastrofe: Fakta om katastrofen i Tenerife -lufthavnen Dødeligste luftulykke i historien. En klm boeing 747 svarende til den, der var involveret i tenerife -lufthavnen katastrofe. I dag markeres 40 -året for den dødeligste luftfartskatastrofe i historien. Tenerife lufthavn katastrofe | dødbringende nedbrud i luftfartshistorien. Tenerife -katastrofen, det dødeligste styrt i luftfartshistorien, fandt sted den 27. marts 1977, da to jumbo -jetfly (begge boeing 747'er) kolliderede i tågen på jorden i los rodeos lufthavn, tenerife, på De Kanariske Øer. Den 27. marts 1977 kolliderede to boeing 747 passagerfly, der opererede klm fly 4805 og pan am flight 1736, på landingsbanen i los rodeos lufthavn (nu tenerife nord lufthavn).

Omfattende historie om tenerife -katastrofen, verdens værste flykatastrofe i luftfartshistorien. Tenerife lufthavn katastrofe | dødeligste styrt i luftfartshistorien. Tenerife lufthavnskatastrofe var en landingsbane -kollision mellem to boeing 747'er søndag den 27. marts 1977 i los rodeos lufthavn (nu tenerife nord, da gran canaria genåbnede, parkerede flyet, der blokerede taxawayen på tenerife, krævede, at begge 747'erne taxede på kun landingsbane for at komme ind. I piloter ved, hvad de er. På trods af det frygtelige tab af menneskeliv som følge af terrorangrebene på tvillingetårnene i 2001 bevarer den tragiske ulykke ved los rodeos stadig den tvivlsomme titel om at have den højeste antal omkomne (eksklusive dem på.

Datei Tenerife Airport Disaster Crash Animation Gif Wikipedia fra upload.wikimedia.org Omstændighederne ved katastrofen tyder på menneskelig fiasko, og ikke teknisk svigt, som årsag til katastrofen. Hvad skete der i tenerife lufthavnskatastrofen. På en onsdag for 42 år siden rystede verden af ​​chok, da to fyldte passagerfly strømmede i lufthavnen på tenerife i Spanien og De Kanariske Øer. Tenerife lufthavn katastrofe | dødbringende nedbrud i luftfartshistorien. Omfattende historie om tenerife -katastrofen, verdens værste flykatastrofe i luftfartshistorien. Men i sidste ende blev årsagen til denne katastrofe lagt firkantet på van zanten, hvor den hørte hjemme. Med i alt 583 dødsfald er ulykken den. 40 år efter katastrofen i lufthavnen i tenerife ser en tidligere flykaptajn nyt på ulykken, og hvad fremtiden bringer.

Tenerife -lufthavnen katastrofe betragtes nu som den dødeligste flyulykke nogensinde efter at have dræbt 583 mennesker om bord.

Tenerife lufthavnskatastrofe opstod den 27. marts 1977, da to boeing 747 passagerfly kolliderede på landingsbanen i los rodeos lufthavn (nu kendt som tenerife nord lufthavn) på den spanske ø tenerife, en af ​​De Kanariske Øer. Begge fly, der var involveret i styrtet, havde planlagt at afgå fra las palmas på øen gran canaria. Men i sidste ende blev årsagen til denne katastrofe lagt firkantet på van zanten, hvor den hørte hjemme. Tenerife lufthavnskatastrofe var kollisionen mellem to boeing 747 passagerfly på landingsbanen i los rodeos lufthavn (nu kendt som. Tenerife lufthavnskatastrofen var kollisionen mellem to boeing 747 passagerfly på landingsbanen i los rodeos lufthavn (nu kendt som. Hvad skete der i Tenerife -lufthavnen katastrofe. Tenerife -luftfartskatastrofe, landingsbanekollision af to boeing 747 passagerfly på De Kanariske Øer den 27. marts 1977, der dræbte mere end 580 mennesker. Credits går til Mayday (luftulykkeundersøgelse, luftnødsituation, luftkatastrofer i andre steder) til videoklip af efterspillet! Omfattende historie om tenerife -katastrofen, verdens værste flykatastrofe i luftfartshistorien. Katastrofal fiasko refererer til pludselig og fuldstændig ødelæggelse af et objekt eller en struktur, fra massive broer og kraner, alt. Med i alt 583 dødsfald er ulykken det. Men hvordan skete hændelsen? Tenerife lufthavnskatastrofen betragtes nu som den dødeligste flyulykke på rekord a efter at have dræbt 583 mennesker om bord.

Videoer, gifs, artikler eller efterfølgende billeder af maskiner, strukturer eller enheder, der har fejlet katastrofalt under drift, destruktiv testning og andre katastrofer. På en onsdag for 42 år siden rystede verden af ​​chok, da to fyldte passagerfly strømmede i lufthavnen på tenerife i Spanien og De Kanariske Øer. Tenerife lufthavnskatastrofe er fortsat det dødeligste flyulykke, verden nogensinde har set. Han havde gjort, hvad hver pilot, der læser dette ved, er utænkeligt: ​​Tenerife -lufthavnen katastrofe var en dødelig bane kollision mellem to boeing 747'er søndag den 27. marts 1977 i los rodeos lufthavn (nu tenerife nord lufthavn) på den spanske ø tenerife, en af ​​De Kanariske Øer.

Tenerife Airport Disaster Pan Am And Klm Accident X Plane 11 Youtube fra i.ytimg.com Tenerife -lufthavnskatastrofen var en dødelig kollision mellem to boeing 747'er søndag den 27. marts 1977 i los rodeos lufthavn (nu tenerife nord lufthavn) den den spanske ø tenerife, en af ​​De Kanariske Øer. Omstændighederne ved katastrofen tyder på menneskelig fiasko, og ikke teknisk svigt, som årsagen til katastrofen. Tilbage i 1977 nød boeing 747 sit 8. serviceår og var den største og mest glamourøse kommercielle jetfly i luften. I piloter ved, hvad de er. Klm flyvning 4805 med 248 passagerer og besætning forsøgte at tage af sted fra den samme landingsbane, hvor pan am flight 1736, der havde 396 mennesker om bord, taxede. 747 var det første fly til at tjene monikeren 'jumbo jet ', som nu er blevet synonym med alle store passagerfly. Den 27. marts 1977 kolliderede to boeing 747 passagerfly, der opererede klm fly 4805 og pan am flight 1736, på landingsbanen i los rodeos lufthavn (nu tenerife nord lufthavn). På trods af det frygtelige tab af liv som følge af terrorangrebene på tvillingetårnene i 2001, bevarer den tragiske ulykke ved los rodeos stadig den tvivlsomme titel om at have det største antal dødsfald (undtagen dem på.

Se flere ideer om tenerife lufthavnskatastrofe, katastrofer, tenerife.

Det skete på den lille spanske ø tenerife Tenerife -lufthavnen katastrofe var en landingsbanekollision mellem to boeing 747'er søndag den 27. marts 1977 i los rodeos lufthavn (nu tenerife nord, da gran canaria genåbnede, det parkerede fly blokerede taxaen ved tenerife krævede, at begge 747'erne taxede på den eneste landingsbane for at komme ind. Omfattende historie om tenerife -katastrofen, verdens værste flykatastrofe i luftfartshistorien. En dramatisering af begivenhederne op til tenerife -katastrofen, et sammenstød mellem to 747 passagerfly. Begge fly, der var involveret i styrtet, havde planlagt at afgå fra las palmas på øen gran canaria. Min anbefaling er at diskutere tenerife -lufthavnskatastrofen på dit næste sikkerhedsmøde. På trods af det frygtelige tab af liv som følge heraf af terrorangrebene på tvillingetårnene i 2001 bevarer den tragiske ulykke ved los rodeos stadig den tvivlsomme titel om at have det største antal dødsfald (undtagen dem på den. Omstændighederne ved katastrofen tyder på menneskelig fiasko, og ikke teknisk svigt, som årsagen til katastrofen. Ulykken dræbte 583 mennesker, hvilket gjorde det til den dødeligste ulykke i luftfartshistorien. Mange ændringer blev foretaget i kommunikationspraksis efter tenerife. Tenerife -katastrofen var den mest dødelige luftulykke i historien. Tenerife lufthavnskatastrofe fandt sted søndag den 27. marts 1977, da to boeing 747 passagerfly kolliderede på landingsbanen i los rodeos lufthavn (nu kendt som tenerife nord lufthavn) på den spanske ø Tenerife, en af ​​De Kanariske Øer. I dag markeres 40 -året for den dødeligste luftfartskatastrofe i historien.

Omstændighederne ved katastrofen tyder på menneskelig fiasko, og ikke teknisk svigt, som årsagen til katastrofen. Tenerife lufthavnskatastrofe var kollisionen mellem to boeing 747 passagerfly på landingsbanen i los rodeos lufthavn (nu kendt som. På grund af størrelsen på tenerife 's lufthavn blev flyvelederne tvunget til at parkere mange af flyene på taxibanen og dermed spærrer det. Credits går til mayday (luftulykkeundersøgelse, luftberedskab, luftkatastrofer andre steder) for videoklip af efterspillet! Omfattende historie om tenerife -katastrofen, verdens værste flykatastrofe i luftfartshistorien.

Air Crash Investigations Tenerife Airport Disaster Verdens dødeligste flystyrt nogensinde Amazon De Fitzgerald Allistair Fremdsprachige Bucher fra images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com 747 var det første fly til at tjene monikeren 'jumbo jet ', som har nu blevet synonymt med alle store passagerfly. Klm -kaptajnen besluttede at tanke tanken op, mens han var i tenerife. Katastrofen tjente som et lærebogseksempel på, hvordan en kæde af begivenheder, herunder miljøforhold, organisatoriske påvirkninger og usikre handlinger kan føre til. Klm fly 4805 afgik fra schipol lufthavn i amsterdam kl. 09:00 den 27. marts 1977. Hvad der er ironisk ved katastrofen i tenerife norte lufthavn (tfn), formelt kendt som los rodeos lufthavn, er, at så mange ting bidrog til, hvad der skete på det søndag eftermiddag for 43 år siden. Tenerife -katastrofen, det dødeligste styrt i luftfartshistorien, fandt sted den 27. marts 1977, da to jumbo -jetfly (begge boeing 747'er) kolliderede i tågen på jorden i los rodeos lufthavn, tenerife, på De Kanariske Øer. En klm boeing 747 svarende til den, der var involveret i tenerife -lufthavnen katastrofe. Begge fly, der var involveret i styrtet, havde planlagt at afgå fra las palmas på øen gran canaria.

I piloter ved, hvad de er.

747 var det første fly til at tjene moniker 'jumbo jet ', som nu er blevet synonym med alle store passagerfly. En klm boeing 747 ligner den, der var involveret i tenerife -lufthavnen katastrofe. Mange ændringer blev foretaget i kommunikationspraksis efter tenerife. Tenerife lufthavnskatastrofe er fortsat det dødeligste flystyrt, verden nogensinde har set. Hvad skete der i tenerife lufthavnskatastrofen. Tenerife er ø -øens mellemø og er 81 km lang og 45 km bred. Klm flyvning 4805 afgik fra schipol lufthavn i amsterdam kl. 09:00 den 27. marts 1977. Tenerife lufthavnskatastrofe var kollision mellem to boeing 747 fly på landingsbanen i los rodeos lufthavn (nu kendt som. Se flere ideer om katastrofer i lufthavnen i tenerife, katastrofer, tenerife. På grund af størrelsen på tenerife 's lufthavn blev flyvelederne tvunget til at parkere mange af flyene på taxibanen og dermed blokere den. Med i alt 583 dødsfald er ulykken den dødeligste. Tenerife -katastrofen er stadig et vendepunkt for luftfartsindustrien, et, der ændrede sikkerheden, ikke kun i luften, men på jorden.Han havde gjort, hvad hver pilot, der læser dette ved, er utænkeligt:

The tenerife airport disaster occurred on sunday, march 27, 1977, when two boeing 747 passenger aircraft collided on the runway of los rodeos airport (now known as tenerife north airport) on the spanish island of tenerife, one of the canary islands. Many changes were made in communication practices after tenerife. Hey guys scaring crab here and welcome back to another video and today im showing you facts about the tenerife disaster! What is ironic about the disaster at tenerife norte airport (tfn), formally known as los rodeos airport, is that so many things contributed to what happened on that sunday afternoon 43 years ago. Tenerife is the archipelago's middle island and is 81 km long and 45 km wide.

The tenerife airport disaster occurred on march 27, 1977, when two boeing 747 passenger aircraft collided on the runway of los rodeos airport (now known as tenerife north airport) on the spanish island of tenerife, one of the canary islands. The tenerife airport disaster remains the deadliest air crash the world has ever seen. The tenerife airport disaster was the collision of two boeing 747 airliners on the runway of los rodeos airport (now known as tenerife north airport) on the spanish island of tenerife, one of the canary islands. The crash killed 583 people, making it the deadliest accident in aviation history. The tenerife airport disaster was a fatal runway collision between two boeing 747s on sunday, march 27, 1977, at los rodeos airport (now tenerife north airport) on the spanish island of tenerife, one of the canary islands.

Klm flight 4805 departed from schipol airport in amsterdam at 09:00 on 27 march 1977. With 583 fatalities, the crash remains. The tenerife airport disaster was the collision of two boeing 747 airliners on the runway of los rodeos airport (now known as. The tenerife airport disaster was the collision of two boeing 747 airliners on the runway of los rodeos airport (now known as. The tenerife airport disaster was a fatal runway collision between two boeing 747s on sunday, march 27, 1977, at los rodeos airport (now tenerife north airport) on the spanish island of tenerife, one of the canary islands.

Disastro aereo di tenerife (it) The boeing 747 was first introduced in 1970 by panam airlines. What happened in the tenerife airport disaster. Klm flight 4805, carrying 248 passengers and crew, was attempting to take off from the same runway where pan am flight 1736, which had 396 people on board, was taxiing. Tenerife airport disaster | deadliest crash in aviation history.

Source: cdn-live.warthunder.com

See more ideas about tenerife airport disaster, disasters, tenerife. The tenerife airport disaster is now considered the deadliest plane accident on record after killing 583 people onboard. Videos, gifs, articles, or aftermath photos of machinery, structures, or devices that have failed catastrophically during operation, destructive testing, and other disasters. With 583 fatalities, the crash remains. This story features photos and samples of the cockpit voice recorder (cvr) recorded seconds before the crash.

Source: editorial01.shutterstock.com

The tenerife disaster, the deadliest crash in aviation history, occurred on march 27, 1977, when two jumbo jets (both boeing 747s) collided in the fog on the ground at los rodeos airport, tenerife, in the canary islands. With a total of 583 fatalities, the crash is the. But how did the incident happen? Back in 1977, the boeing 747 was enjoying its 8th year of service and was the biggest and most glamourous commercial jetliner in the air. The disaster served as a textbook example of how a chain of events including environmental conditions, organisational influences and unsafe acts can lead to.

With a total of 583 fatalities, the crash is the. Hey guys scaring crab here and welcome back to another video and today im showing you facts about the tenerife disaster! On a wednesday 42 years ago, the world reeled with shock when two packed passenger jets collided at the airport on tenerife in spain's canary islands. Many changes were made in communication practices after tenerife. What caused the tenerife airport disaster crash?

Klm flight 4805 departed from schipol airport in amsterdam at 09:00 on 27 march 1977. The tenerife airport disaster occurred on sunday, march 27, 1977, when two boeing 747 passenger aircraft collided on the runway of los rodeos airport (now known as tenerife north airport) on the spanish island of tenerife, one of the canary islands. Tenerife airport disaster | deadliest crash in aviation history. The tenerife airport disaster was a fatal runway collision between two boeing 747s on sunday, march 27, 1977, at los rodeos airport (now tenerife north airport) on the spanish island of tenerife, one of the canary islands. The 747 was the first aircraft to earn the moniker 'jumbo jet', which has now become synonymous with all large passenger aircraft.

On march 27, 1977, two boeing 747 passenger jets, operating klm flight 4805 and pan am flight 1736, collided on the runway at los rodeos airport (now tenerife north airport). The tenerife disaster was the most deadly aviation accident in history. You pilots know what they are. Both planes involved in the crash had been scheduled to depart from las palmas on the island of gran canaria. Disastro aereo di tenerife (it)

Source: images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com

40 years after the tenerife airport disaster, a former airline captain takes a fresh look at the accident and what the future holds.

Source: canaryislandscrash.com

Disastro aereo di tenerife (it)

Source: images-wixmp-ed30a86b8c4ca887773594c2.wixmp.com

Tenerife is the archipelago's middle island and is 81 km long and 45 km wide.

The tenerife airport disaster was the collision of two boeing 747 airliners on the runway of los rodeos airport (now known as tenerife north airport) on the spanish island of tenerife, one of the canary islands.

Source: confessionsofatrolleydolly.files.wordpress.com

Neštěstí na tenerife 1977 (cs)

A dramatization of the events leading up to the tenerife disaster, a collision between two 747 passenger airliners.

The circumstances of the disaster suggest human failure, and not technical failure, as the cause of the disaster.

A dramatization of the events leading up to the tenerife disaster, a collision between two 747 passenger airliners.

Source: upload.wikimedia.org

The tenerife airport disaster was the collision of two boeing 747 airliners on the runway of los rodeos airport (now known as.

The tenerife airport disaster was a runway collision between two boeing 747s on sunday, march 27, 1977, at los rodeos airport (now tenerife north when gran canaria reopened, the parked aircraft blocking the taxiway at tenerife required both of the 747s to taxi on the only runway in order to get in.

Source: www.tenerife-information-centre.com

Both planes involved in the crash had been scheduled to depart from las palmas on the island of gran canaria.

Source: images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com

The tenerife airport disaster occurred at just before 5:07pm on 27 march 1977.

Source: cdn.slidesharecdn.com

But ultimately the cause of this disaster was laid squarely upon van zanten where it belonged.

Source: secure-images.rarenewspapers.com

Due to the size of tenerife's airport the air traffic controllers were forced to park many of the airplanes on the taxiway, thereby blocking it.

On march 27, 1977, two boeing 747 passenger jets, operating klm flight 4805 and pan am flight 1736, collided on the runway at los rodeos airport (now tenerife north airport).

My recommendation is to discuss the tenerife airport disaster at your next safety meeting.

Source: images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com

Tenerife airport disaster | deadliest crash in aviation history.

/> Source: 263i3m2dw9nnf6zqv39ktpr1-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com

But how did the incident happen?

Klm flight 4805, carrying 248 passengers and crew, was attempting to take off from the same runway where pan am flight 1736, which had 396 people on board, was taxiing.

Source: cbsnews3.cbsistatic.com

The tenerife airport disaster occurred on march 27, 1977, when two boeing 747 passenger aircraft collided on the runway of los rodeos airport (now known as tenerife north airport) on the spanish island of tenerife, one of the canary islands.

He had taken off without clearance.

The circumstances of the disaster suggest human failure, and not technical failure, as the cause of the disaster.

The tenerife airport disaster was a fatal runway collision between two boeing 747s on sunday, march 27, 1977, at los rodeos airport (now tenerife north airport) on the spanish island of tenerife, one of the canary islands.

Klm flight 4805, carrying 248 passengers and crew, was attempting to take off from the same runway where pan am flight 1736, which had 396 people on board, was taxiing.

The tenerife airport disaster was a fatal runway collision between two boeing 747s on sunday, march 27, 1977, at los rodeos airport (now tenerife north airport) on the spanish island of tenerife, one of the canary islands.


LESSONS FROM TENERIFE, THE WORST AIR DISASTER

As they taxied down a runway at the Tenerife airport in the Canary Islands, the pilots of Pan Am Flight 1736 saw lights looming through a dense fog.

Suddenly, they realized another plane was approaching fast -- head-on.

"Get off! Get off!" the Pan Am first officer screamed to the captain, who then struggled to turn his Boeing 747 onto the grass.

The pilot of the other plane, KLM Flight 4805, also sensed doom. In hopes of pulling his 747 into the air short of collision, he yanked back on the control yoke so hard the jumbo's tail gouged a 3-foot deep gash in the runway.

Just as it lifted off, the KLM airliner, carrying 248 passengers and crew, slammed into the right side of the Pan Am plane, holding 396 occupants.

Both jetliners burst into flames and broke into pieces. Amazingly, 61 on board the Pan Am 747 ultimately survived.

But 583 were killed, the worst aviation disaster in history.

That was a quarter century ago this week, on March 27, 1977.

Today, the aviation industry says it has made strides in preventing a similar type of accident, technically called a "runway incursion," where a plane inadvertently finds itself on an active runway -- either because of pilot or controller error.

Yet, even though they have been reduced in number, incursions remain a great threat, occurring on average more than once a day in this country alone.

Incursions aside, the disaster in the Canary Islands, a chain about 290 miles off the North African coast, was typical of most airline crashes in that it was the culmination of a series of events.

Earlier that day, 25 years ago, a bomb exploded at Los Palmas Airport in the capital city of the Spanish-held Canary Islands. That forced air traffic, including the Pan Am and KLM jets, to divert to Los Rodeos Airport on Tenerife Island, a half hour away by air.

The KLM 747 planned to return to Amsterdam. The Pan Am plane, which had arrived from Los Angeles by way of New York, was scheduled to hop over to Las Palmas once it reopened.

When both planes were ready to depart from Tenerife shortly before 5 p.m., the KLM jet taxied out first. It rolled to the end of Runway 12 then turned into position for takeoff. It was instructed to halt there.

Meanwhile, the Pan Am jumbo, not far behind, was instructed to "back taxi" on the same runway and turn off onto a taxiway before reaching the end.

The result: two jumbo jets were facing each other on the same piece of concrete. That set the stage for Capt. Jacob Van Zanten, KLM's chief training captain on 747s, to make an enormous mistake.

Without receiving takeoff clearance, he advanced the throttles, saying, "Let's go."

Why he did this is a mystery, considering his 12,000 hours of experience. But investigators would later learn he was running short of his allotted duty time hours, which were strictly regulated in the Netherlands.

In addition, dense fog was drifting in and he might have wanted to take off before poor visibility closed down the airport.

In any case, his 747 started to accelerate. The first officer of the KLM jet advised the tower, "We are now at takeoff." He intended to say the airliner already was moving.

But the tower controller, who couldn't see either plane, thought he meant the flight was ready for takeoff but still stopped. So, the controller said: "OK. Standby for takeoff. I will call you."

Hearing the KLM transmission, the anxious Pan Am crew radioed the tower, "We are still taxiing down the runway."

Unfortunately, the Pan Am and tower calls were made at about the same time, blocking each other out and sending a garbled squeal to the KLM cockpit.

All the Dutch pilots heard was, "OK "

As the KLM jet gathered speed, its flight engineer questioned the captain, saying, "Did [the Pan Am jet] not clear the runway?"

Van Zanten, concentrating on the takeoff, replied, "What did you say?"

In the Pan Am cockpit, Capt. Victor Grubbs, sensed trouble. He commented to his co-pilot, "Let's get the hell out of here."

But at that moment, the Pan Am pilots saw KLM's lights. The co-pilot yelled out. The captain jammed the throttles forward to turn the big plane out of the way.

The KLM jet's nose gear cleared the top of the Pan Am 747. But its engines sliced into the Pan Am fuselage, creating a thunderous explosion.

The final accident report mainly blamed Van Zanten for taking off without clearance, even though he knew another airliner might be on the same runway.


History Hour: Two B747s collide on the runway in Tenerife

On the 27 th of March 1977, the deadliest accident in the history of aviation occurred when two Boeing 747 airliners collided on the runway on the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands. 583 people died.

A terrorist incident at Gran Canaria International Airport (LPA) on the island of Gran Canaria resulted in the airport being closed for flight operations. This forced many trans-Atlantic airliners to divert to the smaller Los Rodeos Airport (TFN) on Tenerife. The ramp and taxiways at Los Rodeos were congested and refuelers were overwhelmed by the increased traffic, which led to many delays.

Los Rodeos Airport has only one runway, Runway 12/30, with a parallel taxiway and four short taxiways joining the two.

Pan American World Airways’ Flight 1736, a Boeing 747-121, FAA registration number N736PA, named Clipper Victor was ready for takeoff with 380 passengers and crew, but had to “back taxi” on Runway 12 (“One-Two”) because the parallel taxiway was jammed with airplanes. The airliner proceeded east-southeast, intending to exit the runway to the parallel taxiway after passing by the congestion around the terminal.

Also on the runway was Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij (KLM) Flight 4805, a Boeing 747-206B, PH-BUF, named Rijn (“Rhine”). The KLM jumbo jet had 248 passengers and crew members on board. Flight 4805 had back-taxied for the entire length of Runway 12, then made a 180° turn to align itself with Runway 30, the “active” runway.

KLM Royal Dutch Airways’ Boeing 747-206B PH-BUF, Rijn. (Photo by Clipperarctic via Wikipedia)

Weather at the time of the accident was IFR, with low clouds and fog. Visibility on the runway was restricted to about 1,000 feet (305 meters). Takeoff rules required a minimum of 2,300 feet (701 meters). What happened next was a misunderstanding between the air traffic controllers and the crew of both airliners.

The control tower instructed KLM 4805 to taxi into position on Runway 30 (“Three-Zero”) for takeoff, and to hold there for release. The Pan Am airliner was told to taxi off the runway and to report when clear. The tower controllers could not see either airliner because of the fog, and their flight crews could not see each other.

The aircraft commander of the Dutch airliner, that company’s Chief Pilot and Chief Flight Instructor, misunderstood what was occurring and radioed to the tower that he was taking off. He then accelerated.

The crew in the Pan Am airliner heard the KLM pilot report that he was taking off, immediately turned left and ran the engines up to full throttle in order to try to get off the runway. With the KLM 747 accelerating through the fog, its flight crew belatedly realized that the other airliner was still ahead of them. Too late to stop, they applied full power and pulled the nose up trying to takeoff. The tail of their airplane actually dragged over sixty feet (18 meters) on the runway because its extreme nose up angle.

Computer-generated illustration of the moment of impact as KLM Flight 4805 hits Pan Am Flight 1736 on the runway at Tenerife. (Photo by PBS Nova)

KLM 4805 lifted off about 300 feet (91 meters) from Pan Am 1736, and because of the high angle of attack, its nose wheel actually passed over American airliner’s fuselage, but the rest of the Dutch airplane hit at 140 knots (259 kilometers per hour). Clipper Victor was ripped in half, caught fire and exploded. Rijn crashed about 250 yards (229 meters) down the runway, and it also caught fire and exploded.

All 248 people aboard the Royal Dutch Airlines airplane were killed. Miraculously, there were 61 survivors from the Pan Am Clipper, including the co-pilot, but the remaining 335 died.

Two Boeing 747 airliners collided on the runway at Tenerife, 27 March 1977. (Unattributed)

The 747-100 series was the first version of the Boeing 747 to be built. It was operated by a flight crew of three and was designed to carry 366 to 452 passengers. It is 231 feet, 10.2 inches (70.668 meters) long with a wingspan of 195 feet, 8 inches (59.639 meters) and overall height of 63 feet, 5 inches (19.329 meters). The interior cabin width is 20 feet (6.096 meters), giving it the name “wide body.” Its empty weight is 370,816 pounds (168,199 kilograms) and the Maximum Takeoff Weight (MTOW) is 735,000 pounds (333,390 kilograms).

The 747-100 is powered by four Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7A high-bypass ratio turbofan engines. The JT9D is a two-spool, axial-flow turbofan engine with a single-stage fan section, 14-stage compressor (11 high- and 3 low-pressure stages) and 6-stage turbine (2 high- and 4 low-pressure stages). The engine is rated at 46,950 pounds of thrust (208.844 kilonewtons), or 48,570 pounds (216.050 kilonewtons) with water injection (2½-minute limit). This engine has a maximum diameter of 7 feet, 11.6 inches (2.428 meters), is 12 feet, 10.2 inches (3.917 meters) long and weighs 8,850 pounds (4,014 kilograms).


Tenerife: Remembering the world&rsquos deadliest aviation disaster

Monday marks the 40th anniversary of the deadliest aviation disaster in history, when two jumbo jets collided on March 27, 1977. It happened on the small Spanish island of Tenerife, off the coast of West Africa.

The events, coincidences and errors that led to the accident are almost too incredible to believe. An act of terror at a different airport, miscommunication, weather and pilot error all played important roles. And amazingly, it all happened on the ground.

The remains of the KLM jumbo jet that collided with a Pan Am Jumbo at Los Rodeos airport, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Mar. 27, 1977. Five hundred and eighty-three people died in the world&rsquos worst air disaster when both planes exploded. AP

Four decades ago, Tenerife, the largest of the pristine, quiet Spanish Canary Islands, was suddenly home to the worst airline disaster the world had ever seen, both then and now.

&ldquoHistorically, it&rsquos an accident with an almost mythical kind of aura around it,&rdquo said Patrick Smith, a commercial airline pilot and author who has studied Tenerife extensively. &ldquoWhere that comes from, I think, is partly the bizarre cascading series of ironies and coincidences that led to it happening, beginning with the fact that neither of these two planes was supposed to be at Tenerife in the first place.&rdquo

Two jumbo jets had been shifted to Tenerife by a global threat that still haunts the industry, after a terrorist bomb explosion at the Canary Islands&rsquo main airport in Las Palmas.

The two 747s (one American, operated by Pan Am one Dutch, operated by KLM) ended up on an infrequently-used runway.

Populære nyheder

As both planes waited for several hours, an unusually dense fog descended. Eventually the tower sent a message to the KLM flight to taxi to the end of the runway and turn around, then instructed the Pan Am flight to follow.

The KLM jet got into position and announced they were ready to go.

&ldquoThe Pan Am pilots heard this, became startled, clicked their mic to say, &lsquoHey, we&rsquore still on the runway,&rsquo&rdquo said Smith.

Because of radio interference, the KLM plane didn&rsquot get that message. The pilot, thinking he was cleared for take off, sent his plane rocketing down the runway, where the Pan Am plane was still taxiing.

Bob Bragg, the first officer of the Pan Am flight, spoke to CBS News in 2000: &ldquoAs soon as I saw the man moving and coming at us, I started saying, &lsquoGet off!&rsquo As we were turning to the left, I looked back out of my side window, and that&rsquos when he had lifted off the ground and become airborne, right as close to us as I could see him.&rdquo

The KLM plane wasn&rsquot high enough.

On contact it burst into flames and tore the top of the Pan Am jet clear off.

Joan Feathers of Phoenix survived the deadly collision, jumping from the Pan Am flight moments before it went up in flames. CBS Nyheder

Everyone aboard the KLM flight was killed. But inside the Pan Am plane, some remained alive, including Joan Feathers, whom correspondent Jeff Glor found outside Phoenix just last week.

&ldquoYou haven&rsquot really talked about this publicly in 40 years,&rdquo Glor said.

&ldquoI wonder what you&rsquore thinking here as the anniversary arrives.&rdquo

&ldquoHow fortunate I am,&rdquo Feather replied.

She recalled, &ldquoI sat there thinking, &lsquoThis is the end.&rsquo So as we made our way to the side of the plane, all these little implosions of fire, I just felt that it was imminent. I did not want to burn up. So there was a doctor from Chicago that had been in the plane and he was down below and he said, &lsquoJump, I&rsquoll catch you.&rsquo&rdquo

As she looked around, Feathers said, &ldquoI could tell that there was a lot of these little fires that were getting bigger, so I kept running. And it wasn&rsquot maybe fifteen seconds and the plane went up like an atom bomb. &hellip It just phewww, and then a huge fire.&rdquo

A KLM ad featuring Captain Jacob Veldhuyzen van Zanten. KLM

Investigators pinned most of the blame on the KLM pilot, Jacob van Zanten, who was considered such an exceptional flier he was the face of the company.

&ldquoHe was on KLM billboards and in KLM advertisements,&rdquo Smith said. &ldquoAnd one of the famous little nuggets of the story is that when word got back to KLM that one of their planes had crashed, they went looking for Captain van Zanten to go to the scene to figure out what happened, unaware that he was actually the captain.&rdquo

The Tenerife disaster, the worst in aviation history, remains relevant today.

As Patrick Smith said, &ldquoWe&rsquove engineered away what used to be the causes of some of the worst crashes ever. But this one, I think the fundamental cause or causes are really still there.&rdquo

Including: Runway congestion, air traffic control communications issues, and potential pilot error.

&ldquoThose problems are still out there,&rdquo Smith said. &ldquoAnd there&rsquos not a crisis, but we shouldn&rsquot be complacent about that.&rdquo

As for Joan Feathers, she&rsquos never stopped thinking about Tenerife. &ldquoEvery year on March 27th, I remember, and it&rsquos as if it happened not long ago,&rdquo she said.


Fog played a part in the disaster

Because of the low visibility, both pilots on the Pan Am plane failed to see where they were supposed to turn off the runway. Usually, this would be no big deal as they would continue until they saw the next turnoff. However, the problem was that it put them on the runways for several seconds more than they should have been.

As the Pan Am Clipper was looking for the next turnoff, the KLM plane had completed its 180 and was waiting for permission to take off. First Officer, Klaas Meurs, received the ATC route clearance from the tower, which is not a clearance for takeoff but a procedure that outlines turns, altitudes, and radio frequencies. Because of the delay, both pilots were tired, irritable, and eager to get moving.

For an unexplained reason, the pilots mistook the route clearance as permission to takeoff and started hurtling the jet down the runway.

The pilots could not see each other because of fog. Image: Anynobody via Wilipedia

Simultaneously, as the KLM plane is already picking up speed, the Pan Am First Officer radios the tower to tell them that they are still on the runway. The tower then calls the KLM plane and tells them to wait for permission to takeoff. Usually, that would have stopped the KLM plane from taking off, but because the tower and the aircraft were talking simultaneously, the KLM crew never heard the message.

Suddenly, the Pan American crew sees the lights of the KLM 747 emerge from the fog 2,000 feet away and closing in fast. On seeing the approaching plane, Grubbs shoves the thrust levers to full power and tries to take the plane off of the runway and onto some grass that runs alongside it.

Van Zanten sees the Pan Am 747 before him, but he can do nothing other than try and get the plane airborne by pulling back on the elevators. As the KLM 747 starts to gain height, its undercarriage slams into the Pan Am plane’s midsection setting off a series of explosions.

Tenerife memorial for the 583 passengers and crew who lost their lives. Photo: Martin Lewison via Flickr


The Tenerife crash - March 27th, 1977

Some 583 people died or were mortally injured on March 27th 1977 after two Boeing 747 jumbo jets collided on a runway at Los Rodeos airport, Tenerife, in the Canary Islands, making this the world's worst civil aviation disaster.

The Canary Islands are located in the Atlantic Ocean, off the Western coast of Africa, between 27 and 29 degrees north latitude, and between 13 and 18 degrees west longitude. They are volcanic islands. Tenerife is the archipelago's middle island and is 81 km long and 45 km wide.

The PanAm Boeing 747-121, on a charter passenger flight from Los Angeles to Las Palmas, had been in the air for eight hours. Some 396 people, including 16 crew, were onboard. Its captain was annoyed as he had not obtained clearance to land at Las Palmas. A bomb had exploded there two hours previously and the airport was closed for repair. The 747 was requested to divert to Tenerife, 70 km west of Las Palmas. The Captain and his passengers were unhappy about this arrangement, but they had no other choice.

At 14h15 GMT, PanAm flight 1736 made its final approach on runway 30. The landing at Los Rodeos airport (Tenerife) was a smooth one, but the captain noticed the larger than usual number of aircraft at the airport. Many aircraft, including a 747-206B from KLM, had landed there following the closure of Las Palmas airport. The small Tenerife airport was saturated.

The PanAm 747 was requested to park in fourth position, behind the KLM 747. The KLM aircraft was also a charter flight (KLM 4805). It had landed 45 minutes previously, with 248 people onboard, including 14 crew. Its captain was nervous: very strict Dutch regulation forbid the crew to exceed their quota of flying hours. Should the plane not take-off soon, its captain and KLM could be in serious trouble.

At 14h30 GMT, good news: the Tenerife control tower informed all grounded aircraft that Las Palmas airport had just re-opened. The controller informed the Panam Captain that in order to speed up take-off he could taxi right behind the KLM 747. The Panam captain agreed.

Weather deteriorated: a heavy fog would soon cover the airport. The visibility rapidly dropped to a few hundred meters (300 feet). At 16h51, the KLM 747 was cleared to start its engines. At 16h52, the Panam 747 requested clearance to start its engines. The control tower's answer was as follows:

16:52 (Tenerife control tower) - PanAm 1736, you are cleared to start. Report ready for taxi. For your information, you will have to backtrack behind the other 747 and leave the runway third taxiway to your left.

Both 747s would therefore backtrack the length of the 3,400-meter (11,000 feet) runway at low speed. The KLM aircraft would backtrack to the end of the runway, make a u-turn and report ready for take-off. The PanAm plane would exit the runway into the third taxiway in order to free the way for the KLM aircraft to take off. This was deemed the simplest solution in view of heavy traffic at the airport.

At 16h55, the Dutch 747 reached the runway, the American 747 a few hundred meters behind it. The fog was becoming denser: the 747s could not see each other, and neither aircraft could be seen from the control tower. The visibility was less than 200 meters.

17 :01 :57 (PanAm first officer) – Tenerife the Clipper one seven three six.

17 :02 :01 (Tenerife control tower) – Clipper one seven three six Tenerife.

17 :02 :03 (PanAm first officer) – Ah. We were instructed to contact you and also to taxi down the runway, is that correct?

17 :02 :08 (Tenerife control tower) – Affirmative, taxi into the runway and -ah leave the runway third, third to your left.

17 :02 :16 (PanAm first officer) – Third to the left, OK.

Background conversation in the control tower made it difficult for the crew to hear the instructions.


Tenerife: The Deadliest Aircraft Accident

On March 27, 1977, two 747 jumbo jets collided on the runway at an airport on Tenerife, one of the Canary Islands off the coast of Morocco. Of the 644 people on board the two planes, 583 were killed. The Tenerife collision still remains the deadliest aircraft accident in history.

A KLM Airlines Boeing 747. photo from WikiCommons

Located about 50 miles off the coast of Morocco, the Canary Islands have been a Spanish possession since the 15th century. In modern times, the tropical climate and good weather have made the islands a popular tourist destination.

On March 27, 1977, at about 1pm, a small bomb exploded in the terminal at the primary airport on the island of Las Palmas. Credit was quickly claimed by a small pro-independence group, which warned that other bombs had also been planted. As a precaution, the Las Palmas Airport was closed down, and all incoming air traffic was diverted to the smaller secondary Los Rodeos Airport, on the nearby island of Tenerife. Two of those diverted flights, that landed at Tenerife at around 2pm, were KLM Flight 4805 and Pan Am Flight 736. Both of these were Boeing 747 aircraft, which the Tenerife airport was just barely big enough to handle. Flight 4805 was piloted by Captain Jacob van Zanten, a supremely experienced pilot who was in charge of training for all of the Dutch airline’s 747 captains. Flight 736 was under the command of Captain Victor Grubbs, a veteran pilot with 21,000 hours of flying time.

At about 4pm, the Las Palmas Airport was reopened (no additional bombs had been found), and both 747s were cleared to taxi to the runway for takeoff from Tenerife to return to Las Palmas. KLM Captain van Zanten, however, requested additional fuel, and because of the small size of the airport (there was only one runway), the Pan Am 747 did not have enough room to get around them. Both jumbo jets waited as the fuel truck was rolled out. Then bad luck struck. As the KLM was being refueled, a heavy fog rolled in and shut down all flights leaving Tenerife. The planes were grounded again.

Shortly before 5pm, the fog began to lift, and it was decided to let both of the 747s go first. Because of all the rerouted planes crowded into the airport, the taxiway, which ran alongside the runway, was full, and there wasn’t enough room for the big jumbo jets to taxi. So the airport’s traffic controllers decided to let the 747s taxi down the main runway instead. Captain van Zanten on KLM 4805 was instructed to taxi all the way down the runway to the far end, turn around, and hold there. Captain Grubbs in Pan Am 736 was to follow partway down the runway, turn into one of the taxiways and wait there until KLM 4805 had taken off, then taxi back out onto the runway, turn around at the far end, and take off.

At 5:06pm, KLM Flight 4805 had completed its turnaround and was now waiting for clearance to take off. Pan Am 736, however, was still on the runway–the combination of low visibility in the fog and the unfamiliar airport had caused them to miss their turn, and they were forced to taxi further down the runway to another taxiway.

At about the same time, the Tenerife air traffic control tower gave KLM 4805 its “route clearance”, providing information on the heading and altitude it should take once airborne. This route clearance was normally given to pilots before they taxi’d to the runway, but now it was delayed by the chaotic conditions in the crowded foggy airport. At this point, however, Captain van Zanten made a lethal error–he mistook the tower’s route clearance for an actual takeoffclearance. Pushing the throttles forward, he began his takeoff run. “We are now at takeoff”, the copilot radio’d.

And now, a second fatal event. Hearing that the KLM pilot had started his takeoff, the tower radio’d to Captain van Zanten “Stand by for takeoff, I will call you.” But at the same instant, the copilot on Pan Am 736, Bob Bragg, also radio’d “We’re still taxiing down the runway!” But because both calls were made at the same time, the two radio signals interfered with each other, and the KLM crew heard only a burst of high-pitched static. Several seconds later, the tower told the Pan Am jet to “Report when runway clear”, followed by Bragg acknowledging “We’ll report when runway cleared.” And this time, the KLM crew heard it. The second officer on the KLM shouted to Captain van Zanten, over the roar of the engines, “Is he not clear? That Pan Am?” Van Zanten, inexplicably, shouted back, “Oh, yes.”

But the Pan Am 747 was not clear.

In the fog, Captain Grubbs can’t see the KLM jet at the end of the runway, but he now knows that it has begun its takeoff roll-directly at him. “Let’s get the fuck out of here,” he says, and begins to turn onto the grass at the side of the runway. Just seconds later, he sees the takeoff lights of the KLM 747 in the fog. “There he is!” he shouts. “Look at him! Goddamn, that son of a bitch is coming!” Copilot Bragg also shouts, “Get off! Get off!”

But it’s too late. In the KLM cockpit, Captain van Zanten desperately slams back on the control stick, pulling the nose of the plane up sharply to try to hop over the Pan Am jet. The KLM’s tail digs into the runway, and the landing gear and belly slams into the top of the Pan Am at over 100mph. The impact tears the top off the Pan Am 747 like a can opener. The KLM 747 drops back to the runway and explodes on impact. The Pan Am plane also bursts into flame.

On KLM Flight 4805, there are no survivors. On Pan Am Flight 736, 61 people survive–including the cockpit crew. A total of 583 people are killed.

Accident investigators concluded that although the accident had been compounded by the poor visibility and the garbled communications with the air traffic controller, the cause of the accident was pilot error–KLM Captain van Zanten’s takeoff without clearance, and his failure to abort that takeoff when he heard that the Pan Am plane was still on the runway.


1977: Deadliest Aviation Accident in History

The deadliest aviation accident in history occurred on this day. Namely, a record number of 583 people were killed when two Boeing 747 jumbo-jets collided on the runway at Tenerife in the Canary Islands.

That day, because of a bomb attack, the main airport on the island of Gran Canaria was closed and all traffic was re-routed to Tenerife. The airport became overloaded while a dense fog developed.

One of the Boeings 747, owned by the Dutch company KLM, tried to take off, not knowing that another Boeing (Pan Am flight) was still on the runway.

KLM’s plane crashed into Pan Am causing an explosion that killed all 248 passengers on the KLM aircraft and 335 out of 396 passengers on Pan Am. Therefore, only 61 passengers survived.

The confusion because of which the KLM’s aircraft began its takeoff was a result of misunderstandings with flight control. Namely, the pilot thought he had permission for take-off because he misunderstood the controller.

After the accident, a strict use of standardized phrases in communication between controllers and pilots was introduced. For example, the word “take-off” is only spoken when actually clearing an aircraft to take off and is prohibited in general usage.


Se videoen: Pakuj sa na Kanárske ostrovy!