'Lov og orden' debuterer

'Lov og orden' debuterer

Den 13. september 1990 kom dramaserien Lov og orden har premiere på NBC; det vil blive et af de længst kørende primetime-dramaer i tv-historien og afføde flere populære spin-offs. Ifølge den nu berømte Lov og orden formel, den første halvdel af det timelange program, der foregår i New York City, fokuserer på politiet, når de efterforsker en forbrydelse-ofte inspireret af virkelige nyhedshistorier-mens den anden del af showet er centreret om retsforfølgning af de anklagede for den forbrydelse. Hver episode åbner med en fortæller, der siger: ”I det strafferetlige system er folket repræsenteret af to separate, men lige så vigtige grupper: politiet, der efterforsker kriminalitet, og distriktsadvokaterne, der retsforfølger gerningsmændene. Det er deres historier. ”

Lov og orden'S cast har ændret sig løbende i løbet af sit løb. Blandt de mest kendte figurer er Homicide Detective Lennie Brisco, der blev spillet af Jerry Orbach fra 1994 til sin død i 2004; Løjt Anita Van Buren, spillet af S. Epatha Merkerson siden 1993; Distriktsadvokat Jack McCoy, portrætteret af Sam Waterson siden 1993; Detektiv Mike Logan, spillet af Chris Noth fra 1990 til 1995 (han gentog senere karakteren for spin-off Lov og orden: kriminel hensigt); Kriminalbetjent Rey Curtis, spillet af Benjamin Bratt fra 1995 til 1999; og kriminalbetjent Ed Green, spillet af Jesse Martin fra 1999 til 2008. Skuespillerinderne Jill Hennessey, Carey Lowell og Angie Harmon gjorde hver især en indsats Lov og orden som assisterende distriktsadvokater. Fred Thompson, der var en amerikansk senator fra Tennessee fra 1994 til 2002, portrætterede distriktsadvokat Arthur Branch fra 2002 til 2007. I 2008 lancerede Thompson et mislykket bud på den republikanske nominering til USA's præsident. Lov og orden har også vist en lang række gæsteoptrædener af berømte skuespillere, herunder Julia Roberts, Samuel L. Jackson, Chevy Chase og Edie Falco. Lov og orden's tyvende og sidste sæson sluttede den 24. maj 2010.

Den 20. september 1999, Lov og orden: Special Victims Unit, med Mariska Hargitay og Christopher Meloni i hovedrollen som et par New York City-detektiver, der efterforsker kønsrelaterede forbrydelser, havde premiere. Lov og orden: kriminel hensigt fulgte i 2001. Law & Order: Trial by Jury debuterede i 2005 og varede i en sæson.

Det Lov og orden franchise blev skabt af Dick Wolf, der blev født i 1946 og begyndte sin tv -karriere som forfatter til sådanne shows som Miami politi.


Fra Wallace til Trump, Evolutionen af ​​“Law And Order ”

Da atmosfæren inden for og uden for Donald Trump & rsquos -stævner tog en voldsom drejning i denne weekend, voksede sammenligningerne mellem Trump og to figurer fra en tidligere tumult -æra: Præsident Richard Nixon og George Wallace, den konservative populistiske politiker, hvis kampagne for præsident i 1968 trak om råb efter & ldquolaw og orden. & rdquo Trump & rsquos sprog har tydeligvis hørt tilbage til den omtumlede periode i Vietnamkrigen, selv ved at bruge de samme sætninger.

& ldquoDer skal være noget dekorum, & rdquo sagde han i St. Louis fredag. & ldquoDer skal være noget lov og orden i vores land. & rdquo Han har gentagne gange omtalt sin kampagne som at tale for & ldquosilent flertallet, & rdquo ekko Nixon & rsquos samlingsråb til den hvide middelklasse. Trump & rsquos bevidste ordvalg har rejst presserende spørgsmål om, hvorvidt han laver en lignende racialiseret appel.

For at sætte disse seneste udviklinger i en ordentlig kontekst er vi imidlertid nødt til at tage et kig på udviklingen af ​​udtrykket & ldquolaw-and-order politik, & rdquo, som ikke altid indeholdt et udelukkende racemæssigt budskab. Lov og orden, som Wallace definerede det, omfattede en række kulturelle såvel som racemæssige temaer. Historikeren Dan T. Carter trækker denne sondring og bemærker, at Wallace -tilhængere var bekymrede for & ldquoerosion af de kulturelle værdier, der ligger til grund for det sociale system. & Rdquo

I sin historie om amerikansk populisme bemærker Michael Kazin også, at lovens og ordenens budskab i denne periode var relateret til racisme, men ikke blot en forlængelse af segregationistisk stemning. & ldquo Slovenske og upatriotiske demonstranter & rdquo var lige så meget et mål for denne retorik i 1960'erne og & rsquo70'erne som racemæssige minoriteter, skriver Kazin. Med andre ord var den første definition af lov og orden tæt forbundet med en bred social kontekst, en reaktion på aktivister, der udfordrede amerikansk udenrigspolitik, traditionelle kønsroller og andre aspekter af den sociale orden ved siden af ​​racespørgsmål. Disse spørgsmål fremkaldes specifikt af Nixon & rsquos brug af udtrykket & ldquosilent majority & rdquo i en tale om Vietnam & ndash kontrasten i den tale blev trukket mellem modkulturelle demonstranter og massen af ​​& ldquoordinary & rdquo-amerikanere, der stadig fører ordnede og traditionelle liv.

I løbet af denne periode, selv så tidligt som i 1968, forsøgte Nixon og andre almindelige politikere at skelne mellem kriminalitet og race, og sagde, at hårdhed over for kriminalitet var godt for sorte samfund.

Vietnam -demonstranter og uroligheder på college -campus forsvandt gradvist fra den nationale dagsorden, men kriminalitet og dens racemæssige undertekst blev ved. Bekymringer om kriminalitet spillede en fremtrædende rolle i efterfølgende præsidentkampagner, måske mest berømt og levende med 1988 & ldquoWillie Horton-annoncen. & Rdquo Lov-og-orden-politik udviklede sig væk fra kulturelle spørgsmål og mod en snævrere samtale om kriminalitet og straf. Denne samtale, forskning viser, har været karakteriseret ved at undgå åbenlys raceterminologi, men er underlagt en uudslettelig forbindelse til race.

Undersøger måden og tidspunktet for, hvordan kriminalitet blev et politisk spørgsmål, teoretiserer Yale-politologen Vesla Weaver, at den hårde kriminalitetsbevægelse repræsenterer en indsats fra taberne af borgerrettighedskampen for at omdefinere den politiske debat.

I 1980'erne og 1990'erne blev kriminalitetspolitikken tydeligt straffende og forblev racekodet. Hillary Clinton & rsquos henvisning til & ldquosuperpredators & rdquo, når han talte om kriminalitet (som gentagne gange er kommet frem i den aktuelle kampagne) blev foretaget i 1996. På kampagnesporet og på kontoret arbejdede Bill Clinton med at forstærke sin & ldquotough om kriminalitet og legitimationsoplysninger. Som retshistorikeren Ian Haney Lopez skriver, fløj & ldquoClinton tilbage til Arkansas for at føre tilsyn med henrettelsen af ​​en psykisk svækket sort person, Ricky Ray Rector, & rdquo, og han gik ind for en række føderale foranstaltninger, herunder føderal & ldquothree -strejke & rdquo -lov.

Politisk psykologisk forskning tyder på, at de racekodede meddelelser, der ligger til grund for årtiers kriminalitetsbeskeder, virkede: Mark Peffley og Jon Hurwitz fandt ud af, at når mange hvide tænker på straffekriminalitetspolitik for at håndtere voldelige lovovertrædere, tænker de på sorte lovovertrædere. & Rdquo

I 2016 har vi set tilbagevenden af ​​protestbevægelser, der udfordrer love, institutioner og senest den førende kandidat til den republikanske præsidentnominering. Meningsmålinger viser, at mange amerikanere er urolige over protestpolitikken i Black Lives Matter -bevægelsen og bekymrede over dens potentiale til at inspirere til vold. Andre bekymringer om lov og orden berører krigen mod terror og behandlingen af ​​formodede terrorister, argumenterer Marc Hetherington og Jonathan Weiler, der har studeret autoritarismens politik. Disse temaer har naturligvis også forankret Trump -bevægelsen.

Med andre ord, som mange allerede har observeret, har kodet racesprog i 2016 givet plads til mere åbenlyse appeller til harme og eksklusion. Efterhånden som Trump-stævner tiltrækker demonstranter, der gør indsigelse mod disse meddelelser, har racespændinger smeltet sammen med de gamle definitioner af lov og orden i 1960'erne: foragt for dem, der sætter spørgsmålstegn ved tradition og støtte til magtanvendelse for at holde orden. I løbet af de sidste 50 år har lov og orden politik udviklet sig til at betyde forskellige ting. 2016 -definitionen er ankommet.


Lov & amp Orden

Vores redaktører vil gennemgå, hvad du har indsendt, og afgøre, om artiklen skal revideres.

Lov & amp Orden, længst kørende retshåndhævende serier i amerikansk tv. Showet blev sendt på National Broadcasting Company (NBC) -netværket fra 1990 til 2010 og havde stærke ratings under hele løbet. Den vandt 1997 Emmy Award for bedste dramaserie.

Den timelange Lov & amp Orden blev sat i New York City, hvor det også blev skudt, og nærmede sig sine kriminalitets- og retshåndhævende fortællinger på en ny måde, der skildrede sagen i midten af ​​hver episode fra to perspektiver, politiets og anklagernes. Den første halvdel af hver episode fulgte typisk den almindelige rollebesætning af politifolk, da de undersøgte en forbrydelse, med deres indsats resulterede i anholdelse af en mistænkt. I anden halvdel af episoden flyttede plottet og perspektivet til distriktsadvokatens kontor i Manhattan, da anklagerne forberedte deres sag og gik for retten. De fleste af showets sager var inspireret af faktiske forbrydelser eller retssager "revet fra overskrifter", men begivenhederne i showet var rent fiktive. Lov & amp Orden'S splittede struktur var afhængig af høje indsatser og komplekse sager, der udgjorde utallige problemer for både efterforskerne og anklagerne.

I løbet af seriens lange løb var der mange cast -ændringer. Største karakterer omfattede detektiv Lennie Briscoe (spillet af Jerry Orbach, 1992–2004), distriktsadvokat Jack McCoy (Sam Waterston, 1994–2010), kriminalbetjent Mike Logan (Chris Noth, 1990–95), assisterende distriktsadvokat Claire Kincaid (Jill Hennessy , 1993–96), kriminalbetjent Reynaldo Curtis (Benjamin Bratt, 1995–99), distriktsadvokat Arthur Branch (Fred Thompson, 2002–07) og Lieut. Anita Van Buren (S. Epatha Merkerson, 1993–2010). Serien bød regelmæssigt på højt profilerede gæstestjerner, såsom Julia Roberts og Samuel L. Jackson. For at tilføje realisme inkluderede showet også New York -politikere, såsom borgmestre Rudy Giuliani og Michael Bloomberg, der spillede sig selv.

Lov & amp Orden blev en netværksfranchise og skabte flere spin-offs, herunder Lov & amp: Bekendtgørelse: Special Victims Unit (1999– ), Law & amp Order: Criminal Intent (2001–11), Law & amp Order: Trial by Jury (2005–06), Domfældelse (2006) og Law & amp Order: Los Angeles (2010–11).

I 2010 blev NBC annulleret Lov & amp Orden, og det sidste afsnit blev sendt den 24. maj. Showet bundet Pistolrygning som det længst kørende prime-time drama i USA begge var på luften i 20 år.

Redaktionen af ​​Encyclopaedia Britannica Denne artikel blev senest revideret og opdateret af Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.


Tv -producent Dick Wolf laver historie med 'Law & Order: SVU'

NEW YORK-Den velkendte "cha-CHUNG" lydeffekt fra åbningskreditterne til "Law & Order: Special Victims Unit" denne torsdag vil signalere debut af en ny sæson og noget andet-tv-historie.

Seriens lancering af 21. sæson gør det til den længst kørende prime-time live-action-serie i amerikansk tv-historie og vil endelig opfylde et mål, der undgik showskaberen Dick Wolf for ni år siden med den originale "Law & Order".

Hans håb nu? Femogtyve sæsoner, selvfølgelig. "Du bliver ved med at skubbe målstolperne tilbage, fordi du naturligvis ikke får uddelt disse hænder meget ofte," sagde Wolf til Associated Press. "Det er en kontinuerlig spænding at kunne gøre det."

Den Mariska Hargitay-ledede "SVU" trækker nu foran "Gunsmoke" og den originale "Law & Order", der er bundet med 20. ("Gunsmoke" har stadig flere samlede antal afsnit, mens "The Simpsons", en animeret prime-time serier, overstiger dem begge.)

Den nye rekord er en fjer i hatten for en tårnhøj figur i tv -historien, der alene sidste år producerede fem shows, der tiltrak 50 millioner seere. Mere end 150 milliarder minutter blev set af "SVU" alene, vist på NBC, USA, ION og Hulu. Når alle taler om streaming, er han stadig en netværk fyr.

"Dick Wolfs glans er, at han stadig værdsætter og værdsætter kraften i broadcast-tv," sagde George Cheeks, medformand for NBC Entertainment. "Han ser den digitale oplevelse som en forlængelse af måden at fortælle historier på, men at lancere dem på et broadcast -netværk er ankeret, der tillader andre platforme og andre måder, hvorpå folk kan opleve dette indhold."

Wolf var en annoncemand i New York, der forlod forretningen i 1976 og flyttede til Los Angeles for at skrive manuskripter. Han sluttede sig til skriveholdet for den ærede "Hill Street Blues" og hævede derefter øjenbryn, da han sprang til den lunefulde, uforudsigelige "Miami Vice".

"Mange mennesker sagde: 'Hvordan kan du gå fra det bedste tv -show til en tegneserie?' Jeg sagde, 'Nå, det er en ny æra', "sagde han. "Historierne blev ikke revet fra overskriften, men revet fra tidsånden."

Siden da har han skabt en svimlende mængde tv. Nogle varede ikke - som "Mann & Machine", med en robotbetjent - men han slog guld med "Law & Order", hvilket udløste spinoffs som "SVU", "Criminal Intent", '' Trial by Jury " og versioner i Storbritannien og Los Angeles.

Wolf har også skabt den såkaldte tv-stak-fyldt onsdag aften på NBC med back-to-back-to-back timer med "Chicago" -dramaer med politi, læger og brandmænd. "Det er en mini-binge," sagde Wolf. "Jeg tror, ​​det er en gentagelig formel." (Hans output inkluderer også den proceduremæssige "FBI" på CBS og dens kommende udspilning "Most Wanted.")

Wolf har sejret med både skuespillerturnering og dyb stabilitet. "Law & Order" var et seks-personers ensemble, der beskæftigede 29 skuespillere i løbet af sine 20 år, hvoraf ingen varede hele løbet. På den anden side har Hargitay været på "SVU" siden starten, hvilket gjorde hendes Lt. Olivia Benson til den længst kørende prime-time dramakarakter nogensinde.

"Jeg hader at lyde koldblodig, men jeg ser normalt omarbejdning som ikke en katastrofe, men en mulighed. Slå træ, det meste af tiden er det gået sådan," sagde Wolf. "Hvis du får den rigtige person derinde, virker det i årevis. Hvis du får den forkerte person derinde, er de normalt væk efter en sæson."

"SVU "'s præstation er endnu mere bemærkelsesværdig, da den overlevede overgangen fra sæson 13 fra en tohånds-med Hargitay i samarbejde med skuespilleren Christopher Meloni-til et stjernekøretøj for Hargitay.

"Da Chris forlod showet, troede alle, at det var slutningen af ​​showet. De fleste troede, at året efter ville være det sidste år. Mariska steg mere end op," sagde Wolf. "Hun er tændrøret, lederen, showets ansigt."

Nogle troede ikke, at et tv-program, der beskæftiger sig med sexforbrydelser, ville have nok materiale til at vare så længe, ​​men rapperen og skuespilleren Ice-T, der har været med i 20 år, sagde, at det er noget, som fans har brug for.

"Seksuelle overgreb er ude af kontrol, og det har det altid været," sagde han. "Mange mennesker har faktisk været igennem det her. Jeg synes, det er delshow, dels terapi. Måske fik de ikke retfærdighed i deres liv, men de leder efter retfærdighed i tv -programmet."

Paul Telegdy, den anden medformand for NBC Entertainment, sagde, at hans ældre døtre ser "SVU" og er forbløffede over at se genudsendelser om seksuelle forseelser, der blev behandlet længe før #MeToo-bevægelsen tog fart.

"De ser det, og de kan ikke tro, hvor engang selv de ældre afsnit var, hvor friske og relevante det er," sagde han. "Det har haft en utrolig social rolle."

At være gæstestjerne på et Wolf -show er en overgangsritual, og alle fra James Earl Jones til Julia Roberts er blevet præsenteret. Liam Neeson fik sin første optræden på amerikansk tv i "Miami Vice", og den nye "SVU" sæson starter med en gæsteplads fra Ian McShane, en skuespiller Wolf længe har beundret.

"Folk, der ikke laver fjernsyn, gør dette, fordi de forbinder det med et bestemt kvalitetsniveau og et bestemt interesseniveau," sagde Wolf og krediterede showløberne Neal Baer og Warren Leight.

Blandt Wolfs nøgler til tv-levetid er en tendens til selvstændige episoder, som hjælper syndikering og et bevidst forsøg på ikke at slibe hans shows i for meget virkelighed.

Hans advokater, betjente og brandmænd klæder sig i generiske outfits, og skriften har en tendens til at undgå summende kulturelle referencer, som kan dateres dem. På et Wolf -show er det svært at sige, hvilket år det er, langt mindre årtiet.

Wolf forventede at slå prime-time-rekorden tilbage i 2010, da moderskibet "Law & Order" forsøgte at nå 21 sæsoner-men det var ikke meningen. NBC syntes at signalere, at det var at forny showet, men annullerede det derefter.

"Det var hjerteskærende at miste det på grænsen til det, der er sket, men det er også meget tilfredsstillende at have en og to af de længst kørende dramaer i historien," sagde Wolf. "Det er en ære for en stor rollebesætning og som altid skrivningen."

Wolf har set tv -landskabet gå gennem tumult med stigningen af ​​streamingtjenester, og mens han er en loyal netværks fyr, ser han også, hvad der kommer.

"Om 20 år vil udsendelse være en fjern hukommelse for de fleste mennesker. Det hele kommer til at streame. Du kan ikke holde teknologi tilbage. At prøve er en garanteret recept på fiasko."

Wolf har også taget tendensen til sig. Han planlægger at lægge et kommende show på en streamingplatform, fordi emnet og sproget ikke passer til udsendelse. Og, ja, det er en spin-off af "Law & Order"-"Law & Order: Hate Crimes."


The Long, White History of & ldquoLaw and Order & rdquo Retorik: Fra Nixon til Original Klan

Midt i den løbende forargelse over mordet på George Floyd, og nu Rayshard Brooks, og med opfordringer til reform af strafferetsplejen, der vokser højere end nogensinde før, har Donald Trump gentagne gange fordoblet sit løfte om at være "lov og orden" -præsident. Dette perks ørerne for alle, der har fulgt eller studeret amerikansk politik i det tyvende århundrede. Men de færreste værdsætter den fulde historie med denne sætnings mærkelige karriere i dette lands politiske leksikon. Og intet af det er smukt.

Trumps hold spiller formodentlig "lov og orden" -kortet for at male hundredtusinder af fredelige demonstranter over hele landet, herunder dem, der voldsomt blev flokket ud af Lafayette Park for at give plads til Trumps latterlige bibelfoto, som en og samme med optøjer og plyndrere, der gik på gaden for at frigøre deres ret forståelige raseri i dagene umiddelbart efter Floyds død.

Præsidentens regelmæssige tweeting af "LOV OG ORDER!" synes at være et forsøg på at kanalisere Richard Nixons succes i 1968. Nixon var ivrig efter at få fat i hvid frygt for sorte demonstranter, der optøjer i gaderne i byer i hele Amerika i kølvandet på mordet på Martin Luther King, Jr., og dem som havde taget på gaden i de foregående tre år i Newark, Detroit, Watts og andre steder, rasende over systemisk fattigdom, systemisk racisme og militant politi.

I sidste uge, selv ved at annoncere sin kommende bekendtgørelse vagt og angiveligt rettet mod politireformer, forklarede Trump: ”Det overordnede mål er, at vi vil have lov og orden, og vi vil have det gjort rimeligt, retfærdigt, vi vil have det gjort sikkert. Men vi vil have lov og orden. Det handler om lov og orden. ” Senere samme eftermiddag tweetede præsidenten igen “LOV OG KENDELSE!” og denne gang tilføjede "The Silent Majority har aldrig været stærkere", hvilket gjorde Nixon -forbindelsen endnu mere eksplicit.

Da tirsdag, da Trump underskrev ordren, der forudsigeligt er tandløs og helt mangler anerkendelse af systemisk racisme, tilbragte han størstedelen af ​​sin Rose Garden -tale igen og igen med lov og orden, rosende retshåndhævelse og hævdede, at en "meget lille ”antal dårlige frø var skylden, og at afveje emnet, sigende, for at insistere på, at” skolevalg ”, besættelsen af ​​hans mest inkompetente og sandsynligvis mest racistiske kabinetsmedlem, Betsy Devos, er vores tids borgerrettighedsspørgsmål.

Ligesom "skolevalg" er en koloraskeret måde at gå ind for tilbageførsel af retskendt integration, foreslog Nixons lov-og-orden-besked, uden at bruge åbenlyst racistisk sprog, at han ville blive hård ved sorte optøjer og frigøre politi eller måske tropper , på ikke kun plyndrerne, men deres New Left liberale allierede som Weather Underground, hvis maner havde givet Chicago -politiet den undskyldning, de havde brug for for voldeligt at angribe fredelige demonstranter uden for den demokratiske nationale konvention i 1968.

Mens nogle Trump -tilhængere synes at tro, at hans tilsvarende betændende reaktion på urolighederne vil give ham en "jordskred" -sejr i efteråret, har historikeren Kevin Kruse argumenteret for, at en sådan strategi i Trumps tilfælde i bedste fald virker forvirrende, da Nixon var outsider i 1968, og Trump er nu den siddende. Nixon kritiserede det demokratiske etablissement, otte år efter at John Kennedy overtog formandsposten og fire år efter at Lyndon Johnson vandt i 1964.

Da Nixon brugte den samme besked i midten af ​​1970'erne, mistede republikanerne pladser i kongressen. Hans hold bakkede tilbage på retorikken i 1972, og Nixon vandt stort igen. Hvis Trump prøver at efterligne Nixon, har han måske valgt det forkerte tidspunkt og synes kun at kritisere sig selv og sit eget parti, uanset om hans base ser det sådan eller ej.

Uanset Trump-teamets begrundelse har mange noteret sig ikke kun forbindelsen til Nixon, men de racistiske undertoner i lov-og-orden-retorikken generelt. Hvad de måske ikke er klar over, er, hvor langt tilbage en sådan retorik kan spores, og hvor lumsk dens historie er.

Nixon antog sandsynligvis sætningen fra George Wallace, tredjeparts torn i hans side, der inspirerede Nixons såkaldte "Southern Strategy"-vinde over utilfredse hvide i det tidligere "solide" demokratiske syd ved at tale om racespørgsmål på måder, som de ville genkende og sætte pris på.

Sydhvide var vrede over skoledegregering og havde gjort sig klog på holdbarheden af ​​deres nationale partitilknytning siden i det mindste vedtagelsen af ​​borger- og stemmerettighedslovene i 1964-65, hvis ikke da Dixiecrats nægtede at støtte Harry Truman i 1948 på grund af hans (yderst begrænsede) borgerrettigheds -overtures. Nixons folk overbeviste ham om, at stærkt fordømmelse af uroen og at stå fast på busing kunne vinde med disse mennesker og med ængstelige hvide uden for Syd. Det virkede. Og Nixon lå fast på "lov og orden", specifikt som en måde at spille på hvides frygt for og afsky for optøjer.

Wallace havde dog indtil da brugt "lov og orden" anderledes. Som jeg argumenterer i min bog, De hvide rettigheders politik (UGA Press, 2018), han anvendte det på samme måde, som de fleste hvide sydboere gjorde i 1950'erne og begyndelsen af ​​1960'erne: som en måde at tage afstand fra voldelige handlinger, som mord på børn i en kirke, samtidig med at de forpligter sig til at bekæmpe borgerrettighedsbevægelsen, især integrationen af ​​folkeskoler, med alle mulige "juridiske" midler.

I sensommeren 1963 brugte Wallace statstropperne i Alabama til at blokere for en retfærdig indrejse af en lille håndfuld sorte elever på hvide skoler i flere byer. Til forsvar for sine handlinger stod han på et podium med voldelige hvide supremacister Bull Connor, Art Hanes og Edward Fields og opfordrede hvide borgere til at "overholde lov og orden", så han og andre kunne "tage enhver risiko ... inden for loven "Til" at omregulere eventuelle desegregerede skoler. "

Da Wallace mislykkedes med det, og flere sorte elever blev indskrevet på hvide skoler, der falder, plantede associerede fra Fields bomben under sidetrinnene til Birminghams 16. baptistkirke, der dræbte fire unge piger, der forberedte sig til søndagsskolen. Mange segregationister reagerede ved at opfordre til lov og orden.

I dette tilfælde betød det at afkræfte så ekstrem hvid vold, primært fordi det var kontraproduktivt til årsagen til at beskytte segregering og hvid overherredømme, på samme måde som Birminghams forretningsmænd havde forhandlet om et forlig med King og Southern Christian Leadership Conference i foråret , accepterede at nedlægge Jim Crow -skiltning og ansætte et par sorte ekspedienter, hvis King ville stoppe en økonomisk ødelæggende demonstration og forlade byen.

Den føderale dommer, der indkaldte en stor jury til at undersøge kirkens bombardement, mente i retten, at bombeflyene var "forrædere for deres sag" for at bevare adskillelse og havde gjort "det [hvide] Syd en stor bjørnetjeneste." Ingen bør “myrde eller skræmme eller håne over lovens dom”, insisterede han, “uanset hvor usmagelig eller upopulær loven måtte være.” Han argumenterede, "Hver af os har lejlighedsvis følt, at en bestemt sag skulle have været afgjort anderledes," med henvisning til afgørelser om adskillelse, "men uanset om vi er enige eller uenige i resultatet, er domstolens afgørelse lov og skal være adlød. "

Det var lov-og-orden-etos for segregationister på det tidspunkt: skoledegregering var afskyeligt og burde bekæmpes på alle måder uden vold, som var blevet selvnedslående. Fra dette kunne segregationister falde ind i en milquetoast tilslutning til minimale ændringer (som token desegregering af nogle få skoler), mens de kæmper mod mere væsentlige ændringer (som faktisk integration), tand-og-søm, alt sammen uden at afvise hvid overlegenhed eller adskillelse om moral eller etiske grunde.

Avisredaktører i hele Alabama reagerede på kirkens bombardement ved at indrømme, at børnemord var dårligt og insisterede på, at lov og orden var grundlæggende principper, mens de samtidig registrerede modstand mod adskillelsesordrer og uden at fordømme den herskende orden. De havde "aldrig godkendt integration", men de var "bestemt for lov og orden." De insisterede på, at ingen måtte "opgive princippet for at opretholde et standpunkt for lov og orden". Og de var enige om, at "meningsløs slagtning" var forkert, mens de advarede om, at hvis aktivister fortsatte med at protestere, så ville "træet af borgerrettigheder" "bære en bitter frugt."

Hvid flyvning til sikkert hvide forstæder og adskilte private skoler steg betydeligt i løbet af de følgende fem år, mens lovgivningsmæssige bestræbelser på at forhindre adskillelse krævede dyre og endeløse retssager. Da lidt havde ændret sig mod slutningen af ​​årtiet, begyndte føderale domstole at indrømme lettelse, da sagsøgerne i skolesegregationssager opfordrede til obligatoriske opgaveplaner, der ville opnå faktisk integration og ikke kun basere tokenisme. Hvide gjorde oprør, og afklaringsopkaldet var lov og orden.

Denne gang forbandt sådanne anbringender opsigelsen af ​​vold med opfordringer til at beskytte hvide rettigheder til valgfrihed, noget hvide lige havde brugt 20 år på at kæmpe, som det vedrørte sorte studerende, og foreningsfrihed, hvilket betyder, at man burde kunne leve næste gang til og gå i skole med mennesker efter eget valg.

I beklagelse af fiaskoen i det, der syntes at være retslige afgørelser, der varede en reel forandring, et årti siden Brun, bemærkede det sydlige regionsråd, ”Vi lærer vores børn, alle børn, at USA er dedikeret til lov og orden. Vi lyver. ” Rådet fordømte opfordringerne til at adlyde, hvad hvide modstandere karakteriserede som "usmagelige" retsafgørelser, mens de forsøgte at modarbejde dem alle sammen og spekulerede på, "Hvad vil de frygtelige virkninger af denne løgn være på børn, både sorte og hvide. . . når de hører os sige 'lov' og kun observerer 'orden'. ”

Sydlige embedsmænd, herunder ikke kun Wallace i Alabama, men også manden, der menes at være hans mere moderate protegé, daværende guvernør Albert Brewer, indtog en justeret lov-og-orden-holdning, der tillod dem at fortsætte med at fordømme vold, men at love at kæmpe alle obligatoriske beslutninger om overdragelse, at dæmonisere føderale dommere, der overholdt og håndhævede dem, at kritisere sorte sagsøgere, at acceptere hvid flugt som en fait accompli, og for at begynde at implementere mere koloraskeret retorik i udarbejdelsen af ​​holdbare lovgivningsbeskyttelser for hvide rettigheder. Brewer, der modtog hundredtusinder af dollars i hemmelige kampagnebidrag fra Nixon -kampagnen, karakteriserede på et tidspunkt føderale integrationsordrer som "utålelige" og foreslog, at måske hvid Alabamier kan gå til retten og bede "om lige beskyttelse af lovene."

På det tidspunkt blev nogle få sorte elever uddannet i tidligere helt hvide skoler i hele Syd. En ting, de kunne nyde, som ikke havde været almindeligt i sorte skoler, var lærebøger. Sorte skoler havde typisk et minimalt udbud af forældede tekster. Da sorte børn tog deres historiebøger med hjem fra hvide skoler, blev deres forældre imidlertid forfærdet over det, de læste. Historietekster var gennemsyret af det, historikere nu kalder Mystologi for tabt årsag.

En sådan tekst, som var den eneste statsgodkendte lærebog for elever i 4. klasse i Alabama så sent i midten af ​​1970'erne, begyndte sit kapitel om Antebellum-perioden med at beskrive plantagelivet som "en af ​​de lykkeligste måder at leve i Alabama før krigen mellem staterne. ” Slaver "hjalp med arbejdet", blev behandlet godt, arbejdet entusiastisk og havde "rækker af lyse hvide tænder." Elskerinden i Det Store Hus var "den bedste ven [slaverne] havde", og de vidste det.

Desværre gik det, alt det blev ødelagt af "krigen mod nordlig aggression", og en periode med "sort genopbygning" begyndte (og i dette tilfælde er konnotationen af sort var negativ, i modsætning til som brugt af W.E.B. Dubois i beskrivelsen af ​​den "pragtfulde fiasko"). Ifølge teksten, skrevet af en universitetsprofessor, der åbent indrømmede, at hans mål var at hjernevaske børn, blev regeringen lagt i hænderne på sorte, der ikke engang kunne læse eller skrive og "tæppebagere" og "scalawags", der ville lyve og snyde folk .

Heldigvis fortsatte fortællingen, en gruppe hvide mænd i Pulaski, Tennessee besluttede, at de skulle "gøre noget for at bringe lov og orden tilbage". Og et "bånd af hvide klædte figurer dukkede op på gaderne." De ”red gennem byerne som spøgelser og forsvandt”. De målrettede mænd, der gjorde "dårlige, lovløse ting", og de "holdt dom i de mørke skove om natten", hvor de dømte dom over de dårlige, lovløse mennesker. Børn læste: "Ku Klux Klan kørte ikke ofte, kun når det var nødvendigt." Når først “lov og orden” blev genoprettet, var der ikke behov for Klanen. Børnene, der blev opdraget i denne litteratur, var lederne af 1970'erne og 1980'erne, da "lov og orden" havde betydet at slå ned på utilfredse sorte mennesker i Amerikas daværende ødelagte byområder.

Og det var ikke en lærebog og ikke kun Alabama. Der var nok sådanne tekster til at inspirere U.S. House Underudvalg for Uddannelse til at afholde høringer, der undersøgte sagen. Retssager førte i sidste ende til fjernelse af de fleste sådanne bøger. Men konsekvenserne for det aktuelle øjeblik synes klare.

Hver gang hvide populister og nationalister har opfordret til "lov og orden", har de implementeret dette som et kolormaskeret sprog, der skal understøtte undertrykkelsen af ​​grundlæggende sorte rettigheder. Og hvis vi igen ser på den nuværende præsidents retorik, kan vi tættere forbinde fortid med nutid.

Da Klansmen og andre hvide nationalister for nylig marcherede i Charlottesville, hvor en mand myrdede en fredelig demonstrant med sit køretøj, kaldte præsidenten de hvide folk "meget fine mennesker." Han har sagt det samme om hvide nationalister, der fræk har besat statshusets trin bevæbnet med AR-15'er i modsætning til COVID-19 karantæneordrer, samtidig med at sorte mennesker bliver skudt for at holde legetøjspistoler eller skudt i ryggen, mens de løb away, unarmed, or shot doing any number of non-life-threatening things that people from Trayvon Martin to Philando Castille to Botham Jean to Brianna Taylor were doing when they were killed.

Perhaps what the president really wants is a reinvigoration of white supremacist vigilante groups, and/or a renewed focus on durable legislation that protects white rights. He has already warned that if his (almost exclusively white) base is angered enough they might lash out violently. And they have, in his name. And his sycophants in Congress seem willing to turn a blind eye to anything he does, perhaps even up to his hypothetically shooting someone in the street, and to pass whatever he puts before them. Either way, as his reelection campaign falters, he has the weight of history behind him, whether he knows it or not.

Dr. Joseph Bagley is an Assistant Professor of History at Georgia State University, Perimeter College. He studies Twentieth Century American politics and law, particularly as these intersect with race and education. His work has been cited in the New York Times Magazine by MacArthur “Genius” grant winner Nikole Hannah-Jones. His book, The Politics of White Rights: Race, Justice, and Integrating Alabama’s Schools was published in 2018 by the University of Georgia Press.


Stephen Colbert Debuts the Latest ‘Law & Order’ Spinoff, All About Impeaching Trump (Video)

Who says CBS and NBC can’t work well together toward a common goal? On Tuesday, Stephen Colbert’s “The Late Show” supplied Dick Wolf with his latest “Law & Order” spinoff concept. Yeah, it’s all about impeaching Donald Trump.

Colbert’s writing staff even took care of the voiceover for the newest take on the old — but still successful — I.P.

In the “Late Show” cold open, the V.O. artist had a bit of difficulty staying cool and impartial while recording audio for the “Law & Order: Impeachment Unit” cold open, however.

Take 1: “In the impeachment system, democracy is represented by two separate yet equally important groups: The House, which impeaches, and the Senate, which seems OK with the president sending angry mobs to murder them.”

Take 2: “In the impeachment system, democracy is the House, which has a solid case, and the Senate, which says you can’t impeach because he’s not in office anymore. But they did impeach him while he was in office…”

Take 3: “…those who accept fact as reality and those who believe in Jewish space lasers.”

This spinoff was then spun off once more into “Law & Order: Free Britney Unit.”

Watch Tuesday’s cold open via the video above.

The actual (second) impeachment trial of former president Donald J. Trump started earlier in the day on Tuesday. By most accounts, it didn’t get off to a great start for the defense.

“Two Trump lawyers spoke today. Bruce Castor Jr., the former district attorney who famously declined to prosecute Bill Cosby, and David Schoen, who famously repped Jeffrey Epstein, formed the dynamic duo he hired to suck all the oxygen out of the room,” Kimmel said, before focuing on Castor.

“Castor was the worst. He spent 15 minutes just flattering the senators. Watching this guy go was like a Seinfeld routine without the punchlines.”


Indhold

– Opening narration spoken by Steven Zirnkilton [3]

A spinoff of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit. The series centers on Detective Elliot Stabler, a veteran Detective who returns to the NYPD after a heinous attack on his family. He joins a Organized Crime Task Force led by Sergeant Ayanna Bell as they take down dangerous criminal organizations one by one while also seeking justice for his wife's death.

Main Edit

    as Detective 1st Grade Elliot Stabler, a former Manhattan Special Victims Unit detective who returns to New York after retiring from the police department several years earlier. He joins a task force within the Organized Crime Control Bureau to find his wife's killers and becomes its second-in-command. as Sergeant Ayanna Bell, squad supervisor of the OCCB task force and Stabler's current partner. as Prof. Angela Wheatley, math professor at Hudson University, ex-wife of Richard Wheatley, and a suspect in the hit ordered on Kathy Stabler.
  • Ainsley Seiger as Jet Slootmaekers, a former independent hacker who is recruited to the OCCB task force by Stabler's recommendation. as Richard Wheatley, son of notorious mobster Manfredi Sinatra, now a businessman and owner of an online pharmaceutical company who leads a second life as a crime boss, and was a suspect in the murder of Stabler's wife.

Recurring Edit

  • Ben Chase as Detective 1st Grade Freddie Washburn, a Detective from the Narcotics unit recruited to the OCCB task force, and Bell's former senior partner in Narcotics.
  • Michael Rivera as Detective 2nd Grade Diego Morales, a Detective originally from the Gun Violence Suppression Division recruited to the OCCB task force. He is eventually uncovered as the mole for Richard Wheatley, and is killed by Bell in the season 1 finale during a last attempt to assassinate Angela.
  • Shauna Harley as Pilar Wheatley, Richard's current wife.
  • Nick Creegan as Richard "Richie" Wheatley Jr., Richard and Prof. Angela Wheatley's older son, who aspires to follow in the family business. He is eventually arrested alongside his father in a bust, and later puts a hit out on him in the season 1 finale after learning that he was responsible for the murder of his grandfather, Manfredi Sinatra.
  • Jaylin Fletcher as Ryan Wheatley, Richard's and Pilar's son.
  • Christina Marie Karis as Dana Wheatley, Richard and Prof. Angela Wheatley's only daughter who assists her father in his crimes including the robbery of several COVID-19 vaccines.
  • Ibrahim Renno as Izak Bekher, Richard's right-hand man who begins working for the NYPD to trap Wheatley. He is later killed at Richard Sr.'s command because he was the sole witness to Richard Jr.'s involvement in Gina's murder. as Detective 3rd Grade Gina Cappelletti, an undercover detective assigned to the OCCB task force who has infiltrated a club run by the mafia to keep an eye on Richard. However, Gina is eventually caught by the Wheatleys and is subsequently executed by a reluctant Richie.
  • Nicky Torchia as Elliot "Eli" Stabler Jr., Stabler's youngest son.
  • Diany Rodriguez as ADA Maria Delgado, an ADA who formerly worked with the task force.
  • Wendy Moniz as ADA Anne Frazier, the prosecutor on the Wheatley case. as Lieutenant Marv Moennig, the commanding officer of the OCCB task force.
  • Nicholas Baroudi as Joey Raven, the owner of the Seven Knights club. as Ellsworth Lee, Angela Wheatley's attorney.

Crossover characters Edit

    as Olivia Benson, Captain of the Manhattan Special Victims Unit, and Stabler's former partner. as Dominick Carisi Jr., Manhattan Assistant District Attorney. as Christian Garland, Deputy Chief of all NYPD Special Victims units.
  • Allison Siko as Kathleen Stabler, Stabler's second eldest daughter.
  • Jeffrey Scaperrotta as Richard "Dickie" Stabler, Stabler's eldest son.
  • Autumn Mirassou as Maureen Stabler, Stabler's eldest child.
  • Kaitlyn Davidson as Elizabeth Stabler, Stabler's youngest daughter and Dickie's twin sister. as Kathy Stabler, Stabler's wife who was murdered after being involved in a car bombing committed by Sacha Lenski, Izak Bekher and Angela Wheatley. as Noah Benson, Olivia's son
Law & Order: Organized Crime season 1 episodes
Ingen. Title [4] Directed bySkrevet afOriginal air date [4] U.S. viewers
(millions)
1"What Happens in Puglia"Fred BernerTeleplay by : Ilene Chaiken
Story by : Dick Wolf & Ilene Chaiken and Matt Olmstead
April 1, 2021 ( 2021-04-01 ) 7.86 [5]
Detective Elliot Stabler, now a member of an elite organized crime task force, relocates to New York after years of absence and works to take down a crime family who has been selling fake N95 respirators and personal protection equipment overseas while searching for the people responsible for his wife's murder. This episode concludes a crossover event that begins on Law & Order: Special Victims Unit season 22 episode 9.
2"Not Your Father's Organized Crime"Ken GirottiIlene ChaikenApril 8, 2021 ( 2021-04-08 ) 4.84 [6]
The task force investigates stolen COVID-19 vaccines being distributed to corrupt doctors who are selling priority access to the vaccine. Meanwhile, Richard tries to bond with Richie over the family empire, but Dana tries to convince Richie that it is not worth it.
3"Say Hello to My Little Friends"John David ColesRick MarinApril 15, 2021 ( 2021-04-15 ) 4.41 [7]
The task force gets intel on a public vaccination drive being organized by Richard, so they plan to foil it while also making a major bust in the case. Later, Richie tries to convince Gina to see him but is met with pushback.
4"The Stuff That Dreams Are Made of"Fred BernerJuliet Lashinksy-ReveneApril 22, 2021 ( 2021-04-22 ) 4.36 [8]
Elliot, in denial about his worsening post-traumatic stress disorder, becomes subject to an intervention staged by his family and Olivia Benson, much to his dismay. Meanwhile, Gina tries to plant a bug in Richard's wine cellar while maintaining her cover in front of him.
5"An Inferior Product"Eriq La SalleZachary ReiterMay 13, 2021 ( 2021-05-13 ) 4.45 [9]
After a failed drug bust ends with an informant dead and an attack by corrupt NYPD officers leaves Bell's nephew hospitalized, Stabler works with Benson to investigate. Wheatley orders a hit on a gang replicating Purple Magic. One of the survivors is implicated in supplying the drugs that killed Benson's half-brother Simon. Elliot learns from Bekher that Angela arranged the hit on Kathy. This episode concludes a crossover event that begins on Law & Order: Special Victims Unit season 22 episode 13.
6"I Got This Rat"Bethany RooneyJean Kyoung Frazier & Rick MarinMay 20, 2021 ( 2021-05-20 ) 4.24 [10]
Angela is arrested for ordering the hit on Kathy Stabler. She blames Richard for deceiving her by telling her it was Elliot who was responsible for her son Rafiq's death, when in reality, Richard killed him because he was ripping off Purple Magic. She then decides to cooperate with the investigation to put Richard away. Meanwhile, Dana finds out Gina is an undercover cop and informs Richard. A furious Richard then instructs a reluctant Richie to kill Gina. Bekher is present when Richie carries out the hit.
7"Everybody Takes a Beating Sometime"Jean de SegonzacMarcus J. GuilloryMay 27, 2021 ( 2021-05-27 ) 4.04 [11]
One of Richard's men shoots and kills Bekher, later telling Richie there cannot be a witness to him murdering Gina. The task force sets up a sting with international arms dealer Gianluca Silvano, now an informant, making an illegal COVID-19 vaccine buy from Richard. When the buy goes as planned, Stabler and the task force move in to arrest Richard, his son and his men, but Richard escapes on a subway train which has Stabler going after him. They get into a fight, but Stabler overpowers Richard and cuffs him. Dana is arrested by NYPD officers at the Contrapos office and some of Wheatley's accomplices are arrested as well. Bell finds out that Gina is dead and confronts Richie in his jail cell.
8"Forget it, Jake it's Chinatown"Fred BernerZachary Reiter & Juliet Lashinsky-ReveneJune 3, 2021 ( 2021-06-03 ) 4.02 [12]
The Wheatleys are formally indicted. Kept under protection in a hotel during the trial, Angela collapses in the shower her bath supplies are found to be poisoned with a Novichok agent. Wheatley approaches a U.S. Attorney to move his case to federal court, where he offers up his associates in exchange for leniency. Having learned the truth of his grandfather's murder, Richie contracts a hit on his father from prison. Wheatley is wounded, but is rescued by Stabler and Bell. Using a hidden cell phone, Wheatley arranges for Stabler and Benson to meet in the hospital where Angela is recuperating. His inside man turns out to be Morales, who is killed by Bell, but not before injecting Angela with another poison.

Udvikling Rediger

On March 31, 2020, NBC had given a 13-episode order to a new crime drama starring Meloni as his character from Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, Elliot Stabler. Dick Wolf, Arthur W. Forney, and Peter Jankowski, serve as the executive producers, with Matt Olmstead being looked at as showrunner and writer. The series came following Wolf's five-year deal with Universal Television, which will serve as the series' production company along with Wolf Entertainment. [13]

The series was originally planned to be set up in the twenty-first season finale of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, with Stabler's wife and son returning. The episode would also have revealed the whereabouts of the Stabler family following Meloni's departure as the character in season twelve. When asked whether or not the storyline would instead happen in the twenty-second season premiere, Law & Order: Special Victims Unit showrunner Warren Leight said that "it's pretty clear that Elliot will be in the SVU season opener". [14] Craig Gore was set to be a writer for the series, but was fired by Wolf on June 2, 2020, for controversial Facebook posts about looters and the curfew put in place in Los Angeles due to protests about the killing of George Floyd. [15] Gore had listed himself as co-executive producer on the series on his Facebook profile, [15] but Meloni announced Olmstead would be the showrunner for the series, not Gore. [16] The same day, the series title is revealed to be Law & Order: Organized Crime. [15] The first teaser for the series was released during the 30 Rock: A One-Time Special on July 17. [17] In July, Meloni stated he had not yet seen a script, and the writers were still working on the story. [18] In October, Olmstead had stepped down as showrunner, [19] and he was later replaced by Ilene Chaiken in December. [20] On May 14, 2021, NBC renewed the series for a second season. [2]

Casting Edit

During the production of the series, in July, Meloni announced Mariska Hargitay would make a guest appearance as her character from Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, Olivia Benson. [21] On January 27, 2021, Dylan McDermott had been cast in the series, [22] with Tamara Taylor, [23] Danielle Moné Truitt, [24] Ainsley Seiger, Jaylin Fletcher, Charlotte Sullivan, Nick Creegan, and Ben Chase joining the following month. [25] At the end of March, it was reported that Nicky Torchia, Michael Rivera, and Ibrahim Renno would appear in recurring roles. [26] In March it was revealed that some of the actors who played members of the Stabler family as far back as 1999, in episodes of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, would appear in the new series, including Allison Siko as oldest daughter Kathleen and Jeffrey Scaperrotta as son Dickie, while Isabel Gillies appeared as soon to be murdered wife Kathy in the Law & Order: Special Victims Unit episode that sees the Stablers return to New York, setting the scene for the new series. [27]

Film Rediger

Synes godt om Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, the series is filmed on location in New York. [28] Production was set to begin on the series in August 2020, [29] but was announced in September that the series was the only one produced by Wolf Entertainment to not be given a start date for production. [30] The series later began production on January 27, 2021, during the COVID-19 pandemic, with Meloni and Hargitay sharing pictures on set. [22] [31] In the following months, the production on the series had been halted twice due to two positive COVID-19 tests despite the halt, it was announced the series would still premiere on the same date. [32] [33]

Broadcast Edit

On June 16, 2020, it was announced the series would air on Thursdays on NBC at 10 p.m. Eastern Time, the former timeslot of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, with the latter moving up an hour to 9 p.m. The series was the only new series on NBC's fall lineup at the moment for the 2020–21 television season. [34] In August 2020, the series was pushed back to 2021 [35] and on February 4, 2021, it was announced the series would premiere on April 1, 2021, as part of a two-hour crossover with Law & Order: Special Victims Unit. [36] [37] The first season consists of eight episodes. [38]

Streaming Rediger

The series is set to be available on NBC's streaming service, Peacock, with episodes being released on the service a week after they air on NBC for the service's free tier, and the next day for the paid tier. [34] The entire first season is also available on Hulu.

International Edit

I Canada, Organized Crime airs on Citytv in simulcast with NBC, unlike past U.S.-set Law & Order series which have all aired on CTV. [39] Because of commitments to other Thursday night programming like Grey's Anatomy, CTV aired the direct lead-in episode of SVU out of simulcast in the 10:00 p.m. ET/PT timeslot, airing directly against the premiere of its spin-off on Citytv. [40] [41]

in Australia, Organized Crime airs on the Nine Network on Monday night timeslot starting April 12, 2021. [ citat nødvendig ]

The first season ranked 11th in the 18–49 key demographic among all series in the 2020–21 United States network television season with a 1.5 rating. Among total viewers, it ranked 21st with 7.83 million. [42]


28 Actors Who Started Out on Lov og orden

Call it a “role” all you want. For any actor who got his or her start after 1990, a guest spot on Law & Order is more like a rite of passage.

While well-known actors such as Robin Williams, Frank Langella, Henry Winkler, Angela Lansbury, Jerry Lewis, Ellen Burstyn, Carol Burnett, and even Julia Roberts have filled in as special guest stars over the years, here are 28 actors who appeared on the show before they were stars (dun dun).

1. PHILIP SEYMOUR HOFFMAN: SEASON 1, EPISODE 14

Fifteen years before he was clearing space on his bookshelf for a Best Actor Oscar, the late Philip Seymour Hoffman made his on-screen debut in Law & Order’s first season. (The 1991 episode, “The Violence of Summer,” is also notable for being one of the few in which “Order” comes before the “Law.”)

2. JENNIFER GARNER: SEASON 6, EPISODE 23

Less than a year into her career, Jennifer Garner played temptress to Benjamin Bratt’s happily married Detective Curtis in the show’s sixth season finale, which was notable for its lack of the show’s typical “first comes law, then comes order” format. Instead, it follows the series’ key players in the aftermath of witnessing an execution at Attica.

3. CLAIRE DANES: SEASON 3, EPISODE 1

Claire Danes was clearly tinkering with her now-famous “cry face” at the tender age of 13, when she played the distraught daughter of a sometime-prostitute and murder suspect with her own romantic links to the murder victim. Six Feet Under star Lauren Ambrose makes one of her earliest career appearances in the same episode.

4. TY BURRELL: SEASON 11, EPISODE 2

Modern Family’s father of the year Ty Burrell was a bit of a latecomer to the game he was 33 years old when he was cast in his first on-screen role in the 2000 episode “Turnstile Justice,” in which a mentally unstable homeless man is accused of killing a woman on the subway. The producers must have liked what they saw, because they brought Burrell back two seasons later to play a Marine marksman-turned-kidnapper.

5. ROONEY MARA: SEASON 7, EPISODE 20 (SVU)

By now, most people know that a year after (barely) appearing in the straight-to-video Urban Legends: Bloody Mary, Oscar-nominated actress Rooney Mara appeared in an episode of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit as a formerly overweight teen who bullies overweight teens. Why do most people know this? Because she caused a bit of a PR stir when she was quoted in Lokke as saying the experience “was so awful.” Fans of the series were none too happy with Mara’s criticism, but she was quick to respond, clarifying that, “If anything, I didn't mean that the storyline was ridiculous I meant that humanity is ridiculous.”

6. KATE MARA: SEASON 8, EPISODE 8

Rooney isn’t the only Mara to count L&O among her earliest roles. It’s also the show (albeit the original edition) that gave big sister Kate her first paying gig in 1997 as Jenna Erlich, the daughter of a murdered bail bondsman.

7. JOHN KRASINSKI: SEASON 3, EPISODE 11 (CRIMINAL INTENT)

A year before he began giving sideways glances to the documentary crew of Kontoret for nine seasons, John Krasinski was the anti-Jim Halpert when he played a violent—and possibly homicidal—high school basketball player facing off against Vincent D’Onofrio in a 2004 Law & Order: Criminal Intent.

8. JESSICA CHASTAIN: SEASON 1, EPISODES 2, 3 and 13 (TRIAL BY JURY)

In the span of less than a year beginning in the fall of 2011, now-two-time Oscar nominee Jessica Chastain went from being in no movies to being in, well, just about every movie. One of the shows that got her there, after guest spots on ER og Veronica Mars, was the single-season snoozer of a Law & Order spinoff, Trial By Jury, on which she played an assistant district attorney.

9. PETER FACINELLI: SEASON 5, EPISODE 14

Three years before his breakthrough role as teenaged stud (but 25 at the time) Mike Dexter in Can’t Hardly Wait, Peter Facinelli was playing another teenaged stud, this one at the center of a points-for-sex rape scandal, in his second credited performance.

10. VERA FARMIGA: SEASON 8, EPISODE 12

After a recurring role on the short-lived series Roar, starring Heath Ledger, Oscar nominee Vera Farmiga did the L&O thing in 1998 as the daughter of a convicted murderer who goes on her own mini killing spree.

11. EDIE FALCO: SEASON 3, EPISODE 15

By the time she made her first of four appearances on L&O—all of them as attorney Sally Bell—Edie Falco was already becoming an increasingly familiar face to fans of American independent cinema, having appeared in Hal Hartley’s The Unbelievable Truth og Tillid and Nick Gomez’s Laws of Gravity. But her introduction to television audiences came with L&O, and it is on the small screen that she would later find her greatest success with shows like Sopranerne og Nurse Jackie.

12. JULIANNA MARGULIES: SEASON 3, EPISODE 17

Before they were warring spouses on The Good Wife, Julianna Margulies—as a military lieutenant—played a brick wall to Chris Noth’s investigation into the death of a female Navy officer at a Manhattan hotel. The role was Margulies’ second ever two years earlier she had played a prostitute in the Steven Seagal actioner Out for Justice.

13. ROB MCELHENNEY: SEASON 8, EPISODE 1

It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia star Rob McElhenney wasn’t even old enough to drink at Paddy’s Pub when he appeared as one half of a thrill-killing duo who turns witness for the state. The role is actually referenced in the original Sunny pilot, when a gorgeous transsexual (played by Homeland’s Morena Baccharin) tells McElhenney how much she liked him in the show.

14. EMMY ROSSUM: SEASON 8, EPISODE 10

Skamløs star Emmy Rossum was just 11 years old when she landed her first on-screen appearance in 1997. So we’re guessing/hoping that much of the episode’s plot—which involved an Egyptian family’s fight over whether or not the pre-teen should be circumcised—was a bit over her head.

15. LEIGHTON MEESTER: SEASON 9, EPISODE 15

As a teenager living in a shelter who may know more than she’s letting on about the circumstances surrounding the death of a classmate, Leighton Meester’s first role is a far cry from Gossip Girl’s Blair Waldorf in the glamour department. But her ability to sass all those around her, including Detectives Briscoe and Curtis, is evident.

16. CLARK GREGG: SEASON 1, EPISODE 12

Three years after making his big-screen debut in the role of “Stage Manager” in David Mamet’s Things Change, soon-to-be Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D. Clark Gregg got mixed up in an investigation into the bombing of an abortion clinic in the first season of L&O.

17. CAMRYN MANHEIM: SEASON 1, EPISODE 12

Camryn Manheim made her television debut in the first season of L&O, in the same episode as Gregg. She would go on to star in two more episodes over the next three years.

18. AMANDA PEET: SEASON 6, EPISODE 5

Amanda Peet channeled her inner Patty Hearst for a 1995 L&O episode in which she claimed that she was kidnapped and forced to partake in a recent crime spree that has resulted in the death of four individuals.

19. PETER SARSGAARD: SEASON 6, EPISODE 6

Less than two months before he made his film debut in Dead Man Walking, Golden Globe nominee Peter Sarsgaard was just another college student caught up in the middle of a murder/cyber-stalking investigation.

20. ALLISON JANNEY: SEASON 2, EPISODE 12

With nearly 100 credits on her resume, Allison Janney is one of those actresses who seems to have been around forever. But one of her earliest roles was in a small part in a 1992 episode of L&O that follows the murder of a soap star. Two years later she appeared in a second episode of the series, this time playing a witness against the Russian mob.

21. GIL BELLOWS: SEASON 1, EPISODE 14

While his official acting debut came in a little-seen 1988 film called The First Season, Gil Bellows’ second professional credit—and first television gig—was as Hoffman’s scene partner-in-crime. Three years later, Bellows would share screen time with Tim Robbins and Morgan Freeman in his breakthrough role in The Shawshank Redemption. In 1997 he returned to the small screen in a big way as the (sometime) romantic lead in Ally McBeal.

Fun fact: Samuel L. Jackson was also one of this same episode’s guest stars though he was far from a household name at the time, he had made an impression with small but memorable parts in Do the Right Thing, Coming to America, og Goodfellas.

22. ELLEN POMPEO: SEASON 6, EPISODE 16

Greys hvide verden star Ellen Pompeo played the lone survivor of an attack that took the lives of her mom and brother, and landed her father in jail. But as her dad’s trial progresses, fingers start pointing in her direction. Four years later, Pompeo played a similar role in a different episode of L&O, but this time the crime was sororicide.

23. CHANDRA WILSON: SEASON 2, EPISODE 18

Four years before Pompeo’s L&O debut, her future Greys hvide verden co-star Chandra Wilson made her first of three L&O appearances (the latter two for SVU) in the (appropriately) hospital-themed “Cradle to the Grave,” in which a baby is found frozen to death in an emergency room.

24. MICHAEL PITT: SEASON 8, EPISODE 17

Michael Pitt has never conformed to the typical “rising young star” formula, not even when he was just starting out at the age of 17 and starred in “Carrier,” a 1998 L&O episode that played a bit like the movie Børn it told the story of an HIV positive young man who is knowingly infecting others with the disease.

25. SARAH PAULSON: SEASON 5, EPISODE 4

Sixteen years before she was well-known enough to score a big promo as a “special guest star” on SVU, Sarah Paulson was stirring up a whole lot of family drama in her first-ever role in the original series’ fifth season, as the daughter of a murder victim who also may or may not be sleeping with her stepfather.

26. CHRIS MESSINA: SEASON 6, EPISODE 2

Being killed in a 1995 episode of Law & Order wasn’t exactly the breakthrough role Chris Messina—star of The Mindy Project og The Newsroom—needed. But it didn’t prevent him from appearing on the show on two more occasions in the next eight years (in different roles, obviously).

27. PAUL WESLEY: SEASON 2, EPISODE 1 (SVU)

In the same year that he landed a recurring role on Guiding Light, The Vampire Diaries star Paul Wesley—then just 18 years old, and going by the name Paul Wasilewski—made his Law & Order debut as an uncooperative head of security.

28. SARAH WAYNE CALLIES: SEASON 4, EPISODE 17 (SVU)

The Walking Dead’s Sarah Wayne Callies has kept herself busy with television gigs for the past decade, but it all started with a 2003 episode of SVU. She plays a one-percenting wife who used to be a prostitute, whose testimony could provide invaluable to Detectives Benson and Stabler in a rape and murder case.

See Also.

25 Future Stars Who Appeared on Seinfeld
27 Future Stars Who Appeared on Miami Vice
35 Future Stars Who Appeared on Vestfløjen


What is Law & Order: Organized Crime about?

Law & Order: Organized Crime see's Detective Elliot Stabler, former member of the Special Victims Unit and his ex-partner of Capt. Olivia Benson, return to the New York Police Department to tackle organized crime in the wake of a devastating personal loss.

Inevitably, the city and police department have changed dramatically in the decade he's been away, Stabler has no choice but to adapt.

He must take on a case he is arguably too invested in, all the while trying to rebuild his life, his family and his career as a police officer.

Christopher Meloni

The man behind Elliot Stabler, Meloni spent 12 seasons as part of the cast of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit before retiring his role as an NYPD Detective.

Meloni has enjoyed great success in other programmes, his performances as inmate Chris Keller in prison drama OZ earned him rave reviews while he also enjoyed a season as part of the main cast on the HBO smash-hit series True Blood.

The 60-year-old actor has also featured on the big screen, including roles in major motion pictures such as Superman: Man of Steel, Wet Hot American Summer and Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle.

When asked about his thoughts on his character's reunion with Hargitay's, Meloni told TVLine: "Well, this is what I think about that: No one’s going to be satisfied. I mean, it’s such a long time. It is so many unanswered questions. I think there’s such a great sense of abandonment and betrayal and a what-the-f–k-ed-ness of it all, that, you know. it’s going to be a process, right?"

Mariska Hargitay

The most decorated of all her castmates, Hargitay has occupied the role of Olivia Benson on Law & Order: SVU for 22 years.

In that time, the 57-year-old California native has won both a Primetime Emmy Award and a Golden Globe.

Away from the screen, Hargitay founded the Joyful Heart Foundation, an organization that helps to provide support to people who have been sexually abused.

One of multiple Law & Order: Organized Crime actors who have also made the transition into music videos, Hargitay has featured in two music videos dated 31 years apart, appearing in Ronnie Mislap's 'She Loves My Car' before also joining the star-studded cast of Taylor Swift's 𧮭 Blood' video.

Dylan McDermott

Golden Globe winner McDermott is probably best known for his role as Bobby Donnell in the legal series The Practice. The role also led to him being nominated for an Emmy for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series.

Though his career in cinema isn't quite as established as his co-star Meloni, McDermott has still featured in some blockbuster films, including The Perks of Being a Wallflower and The Campaign, in which he starred alongside Will Ferrell and Zach Galifianakis.

He is also one of the few Law & Order: Organized Crime cast members to feature on People magazine's list of ❐ Most Beautiful People in the World', with the publication describing him as a 'prime-time heartthrob' in 1998.

Tamara Taylor

Canadian actress Tamara Taylor already has experience in investigative drama series', she occupied the role of Dr. Camille Saroyan, head of the Forensic Division, in the forensic crime drama Bones for 11 years.

She can also boast her status as the only cast member to be accepted into the Marvel franchise, after she played the role of secondary antagonist Sibyl in season seven of Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

Her interests are not solely confined to acting, Taylor originally dropped out of school to pursue her dream of becoming a model.

She will play Angela Wheatley in the new Law & Order spinoff.

Danielle Moné Truitt

Best known for her roles in BET series Rebel as well as Fox's drama Deputy, the early stages of Truitt's career were actually rooted in dance.

Singing, dancing and acting - the 40-year-old has earned her tag as a 'triple threat'. Raised in Sacramento, California where she studied Theatre and Dance at Sacramento State University, Truitt eventually moved to Los Angeles to pursue a career in television and film.

She does not have quite the same number of shows under her belt as her Law & Order: Organized Crime cast mates, but she has thrived in her lead role in Rebel, where the entire show is centred around her character.

An impressive theatre background, Truitt previously sold out the Rockwell Table and Stage venue for her self-produced one woman show Overnight Success.

Isabel Gillies

Gillies history with Law & Order as a franchise runs deep - a regular on Law & Order: SVU, Gillies played the role of Christopher Meloni's on-screen wife Kathy Stabler for 11 years.

However, before she established herself on SVU, Gillies actually appeared in "Bad Girl," an episode of the original Law & Order series playing Monica Johnson, a young woman who murders an undercover police officer before undergoing a religious conversion during her trial and is born again.

Outside of acting, Gillies is a hugely successful author, with her memoir Happens Every Day going on to become a New York Times bestseller. She has since released another book, titled Starry Night.


‘Law & Order: Organized Crime’ to debut April 1

Feb. 4 (UPI) — NBC said Thursday its new police procedural Law & Order: Organized Crime, starring Chris Meloni, is set to debut April 1.

“Well… I think it’s official official now so…. see ya in April. And May. And…” Meloni tweeted.

The series premiere will be part of 2-hour Law & Order television event, NBC said.

The first part of the story will be told on Law & Order: SVU, then will continue with the first episode of Law & Order: Organized Crime.

The episodes will reunite Meloni’s character, New York Police Department Detective Elliot Stabler, with his former partner, Capt. Olivia Benson, played by Mariska Hargitay.

Meloni played Stabler for the first 12 seasons of SVU.

The new series follows him as he returns to the NYPD to battle organized crime after a devastating personal loss.

Hargitay has been on SVU since its first season. It is now in its 22nd season.

Bones and Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. alum Tamara Taylor confirmed she joined the cast of Organized Crime earlier this week.

American Horror Story and The Practice actor Dylan McDermott announced his casting on the show last week.


Reviews & endorsements

"Classical Athens was a marvel. With style and insight, Lanni scours the limited sources to identify the institutions that enabled the city to flourish."
Robert Ellickson, Yale Law School, Connecticut

"The Classical Athenian democracy, despite its relatively weak mechanisms of formal coercion, normally exhibited a remarkably high level of social order. This is a puzzling paradox that Harvard Law School professor Adriaan Lanni, building on her exemplary Law and Justice in the Courts of Classical Athens (Cambridge, 2006), decrypts and illuminates with her usual brilliance of insight and forensic skill in argument."
Paul Cartledge, A. G. Leventis Senior Research Fellow, Clare College, Cambridge, and co-editor of KOSMOS: Essays in Order, Conflict and Community in Classical Athens (Cambridge, 2002)

"This is a groundbreaking work. Lanni provides a fascinating analysis of the complex interplay of formal and informal norms and procedures, showing how such features as the expressive function of laws can help explain why, despite the unpredictable and inconsistent judicial enforcement of statutory norms, Athenians by and large adhered to both statutory and non-statutory norms."
Michael Gagarin, James R. Dougherty, Jr, Centennial Professor of Classics Emeritus, University of Texas

"In this masterful, deeply textured, in-the-round account of ancient Athenian law and social practice, Adriaan Lanni explores a deep mystery about ancient democracy: how did the Athenian state, with its limited coercive capacity, achieve a peaceful and productive social order? Lanni elucidates how law's expressive function dynamically interacted with formal Athenian legal institutions, and with litigants' strategic deployment of extra-statutory norms. As a result, we understand better than ever before how the Athenians successfully deterred socially destructive behavior, how they survived civil war, and how bold courtroom arguments can change social behavior through creatively reinterpreting the relationship between law and norm. Lanni's outstanding legal sociology reveals anew the startling similarities and discontinuities between ancient and modern approaches to democracy and rule of law."
Josiah Ober, Stanford University, California


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