Joel Lieberman - Historie

Joel Lieberman - Historie

Joel Lieberman


Joes far arbejdede sig op fra bagsiden af ​​en bagerbil for at eje sin egen vinhandel. Hans mor er ligesom sin far immigranters barn. Sammen arbejdede de hårdt for at tjene penge til at sende Joe på college - den første i hans familie, der gik. Derfra gik han på jurastudiet og begyndte at betjene befolkningen i hans stat i statssenatet i 1971. I løbet af 1970'erne arbejdede Joe sammen med guvernør Ella Grasso for at beskytte forbrugere og miljø og fremme ny jobvækst i Connecticut .

Lieberman har kæmpet for at slå barrierer ned, stoppe diskrimination og udvide løftet om Amerika til alle vores folk. I 1960'erne sluttede Joe sig til tusinder for at høre Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ved det historiske marts i Washington, og førte en gruppe studerende til Mississippi for at kæmpe for afroamerikanernes stemmeret.

Som Connecticuts statsadvokat fra 1983 til 1988 stod Joe sammen med enlige mødre mod dødsfaldsfædre, kæmpede virksomheder, der brød loven for at bytte forbrugere, og forfulgte forurenere for at få dem til at betale. Og i Senatet i løbet af de sidste 14 år har han fortsat ledet - styret ikke af partipolitik, men af ​​hans principper - og at kæmpe for, hvad der er rigtigt for Amerika.

Joe har arbejdet hårdt på at anspore innovation, skabe job og holde regeringens bøger i balance. Han har kæmpet for at holde vores nation sikker og sikker ved at kæmpe for oprettelsen af ​​et Department of Homeland Security for bedre at beskytte Amerika mod terrorangreb. Han har presset på for at beskytte og bevare vores miljø for fremtidige generationer. Han er en stærk fortaler for at investere i vores offentlige skoler, styrke forældre og give alle amerikanere chancen for at gå på college. Og han har arbejdet på at udvide kvalitet og økonomisk overkommelig sundhedspleje til enhver amerikaner og beskytte Medicare og Social Security for fremtidige generationer.

Joe og hans kone Hadassah har fire børn: Matthew, Rebecca, Ethan og Hana. Plus de er bedsteforældre til tre smukke piger, Tennessee, Willie og Eden. Han ønsker for dem, hvad alle amerikanere ønsker for deres familier, en rimelig chance for at leve deres drømme. Det er Amerikas løfte.



Joe "Sweetheart" Liebermans lange historie om at lyve om Irak og WMD

Ligesom solen altid står op i øst, sådan lyver også Joe Lieberman om Irak og WMD.

LIEBERMAN:. beviserne er meget klare på, at [Saddam] udviklede masseødelæggelsesvåben. Charles Duelfer foretog den mest omfattende rapport på vegne af vores regering. han fandt, og beviste jeg tror, ​​at Saddam. udviklede kemiske og biologiske våben.

Lieberman fulgte op på denne pinlige præstation med snedig nedlatelse over for Arianna Huffington, som også var på programmet:

HUFFINGTON: Godt, ud fra denne helt ubegrundede antagelse håber jeg oprigtigt af hensyn til landet, at du ikke bliver forsvarsminister.

LIEBERMAN: Nu Arianna, disse er ikke ubegrundede. Læs Duelfer -rapporten.

HUFFINGTON: Der er intet i rapporten, der beviser noget, som du har sagt.

LIEBERMAN: Jeg tror ikke, du har læst den, skat.

Dette er åbenbart falsk. Rapporten, som Lieberman refererede til, blev produceret af Iraq Survey Group, ledet af Charles Duelfer. Rapporten er bestemt ikke upartisk, da den er skrevet af amerikanske regeringsembedsmænd, der - som det fremgår af rapporten - følte et betydeligt pres for at dreje tingene på den mest gunstige måde for krigssupporter som Lieberman. Så det er endnu mere bemærkelsesværdigt, at det ikke siger noget som Lieberman påstår.

Her er rapportens konklusion (tilgængelig på CIA-webstedet) om Iraks ikke-eksisterende kemiske våbenprogram:

Irak ødelagde ensidigt sit sort lager af kemiske våben i 1991. Der er ingen troværdige tegn på, at Bagdad derefter genoptog produktionen af ​​kemisk ammunition.

Og her er rapportens konklusion om Iraks ikke-eksisterende biologiske våbenprogram:

. i 1991 besluttede irakiske ledere at ødelægge Iraks ikke -erklærede våbenlager i hemmelighed. i slutningen af ​​1995 vurderer ISG, at Bagdad opgav sit eksisterende BW -program. ISG fandt ingen direkte beviser for, at Irak efter 1996 havde planer om et nyt BW -program.

Som nævnt er det naturligvis langt fra første gang, Joe Lieberman har løjet om, hvad der blev fundet i Irak. Faktisk ligger han normalt med endnu mere homoseksuel opgivelse, end han gjorde i dag. Her er Lieberman på Hugh Hewitt Show tilbage i 2007:

HEWITT: Tror du, at Saddam havde WMD i 2002?

LIEBERMAN: Tja, se, han sikkert, selv Duelfer -rapporten, som var den mest autoritative rapport, sagde, at han havde nogle, og han havde et netværk af kemiske og biologiske eksperter, der arbejdede på det, og en slags tilbagekaldsnetværk om atomvåben, som er hvad han virkelig ville. Her er pointen. I 2002 sagde Saddam selv, at han havde masseødelæggelsesvåben, og vi gav ham alle chancer i henhold til FN -resolutionerne, som USA bad om, for at blive rene og vise os, at han havde ødelagt opgørelsen over masseødelæggelsesvåben, som han indgav med FN som en betingelse for afslutningen af ​​Golfkrigen i '91, og han ville ikke gøre det. Så ved du, jeg ved, at folk ser tilbage og siger, at dette var en klassisk kolossal bedrag af bedrag fra vores regering. Jeg tror, ​​at alle i verden og de bedste efterretningstjenester helt ærligt, inklusive de fleste mennesker omkring Saddam Hussein, der har været interviewet siden, troede, at han havde WMD.

Lad os gå igennem disse løgne en ad gangen:

1. "Dueler -rapporten. Sagde, at han havde nogle." Falsk se ovenfor.

2. ". Han havde et netværk af kemiske og biologiske eksperter, der arbejdede på det." Falsk se ovenfor.

3. ". En slags tilbagekaldsnetværk på atomvåben." Gud ved kun, hvad Liebermans grusomme ord skal betyde, men her er hvad Duelfer -rapporten sagde om dette emne:

Saddam Husayn sluttede atomprogrammet i 1991 efter Golfkrigen. ISG fandt ingen beviser for en samlet indsats for at genstarte programmet. Selvom Saddam tydeligvis tildelte de nukleare fremskridt og talent, der var blevet udviklet op til krigen i 1991, en høj værdi, sluttede programmet, og den intellektuelle kapital forfaldt i de efterfølgende år.

4. "I 2002 sagde Saddam selv, at han havde masseødelæggelsesvåben." Helt falsk. Tværtimod sagde Irak og Saddam Hussein igen og igen fra 1991 og fremefter, og især i tiden op til krigen i 2002 og 2003, at Irak ikke havde nogen WMD.

5. ". Vi gav ham enhver chance i henhold til FN -resolutionerne, som USA bad om, for at komme ren. Og han ville ikke gøre det." Helt falsk. Irak forklarede igen og igen over for FN, hvad der var sket med dets WMD -programmer efter 1991. Rapporterne, Irak indgav til FN, siger næsten præcis det samme som CIA's Duelfer -rapport fra 2004.

6. ". Alle i verden og de bedste efterretningstjenester. Troede, at han havde WMD." Helt falsk. Her er hvad Alan Foley, der kørte CIA's bestræbelser på at undersøge Iraks WMD -programmer, mente (ifølge bogen Det italienske brev):

Der var stærke tegn på, at Foley hele tiden tåede en linje, han ikke troede på. Flere dage efter Bushs tale om Unionens tilstand orienterede Foley studenterofficerer ved National Defense University i Fort McNair i Washington, DC. Efter orienteringen bragte Melvin Goodman, der havde trukket sig tilbage fra CIA og derefter var på universitetets fakultet, Foley ind i det sikre kommunikationsområde i Fort McNair -forbindelsen. Goodman takkede Foley for at henvende sig til eleverne og spurgte ham, hvilke masseødelæggelsesvåben han troede ville blive fundet efter invasionen. "Ikke meget, om noget," huskede Goodman, at Foley reagerede. Foley afviste at blive interviewet til denne bog.

På den anden side, så vidt jeg ved, har Lieberman aldrig påstået, at Saddam Hussein var 2.000 fod høj og kunne skyde atomlaserstråler ud af hans øjne. Så jeg tror, ​​vi skal være taknemmelige for små velsignelser.


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Hvordan Joe Lieberman forsøgte at dræbe Rock'n'Roll

Joe Lieberman arbejder hårdt på at komme på tale som en flink mand. Men som veteran inden for musikbranchen med en lang hukommelse kan jeg sige, at erfaring Joe Lieberman aldrig har været en sød mand, bare en halshugger inden for partipolitik-med et stort smil. Han er til genvalg i efteråret, og alle bør være klar over, at han har gjort mere i sin tid for at fremme regeringens censur og ødelægge ytringsfrihed for kunstnere end nogen politiker på den nationale scene i dag.

Først lidt afsløring. Jeg er en tidligere punk rock dj, tidligere grundlægger og præsident for alternativ rock label 415 Records, tidligere general manager og vicepræsident for Sire Records og tidligere præsident for Reprise Records. Jeg er nu pensioneret fra musikbranchen, men der er ingen tvivl om, at Joe Liebermans frontalangreb på musikbranchen var noget, der meget forstyrrede mig. Faktisk var flere af hans og hans allieredes primære mål personlige venner såvel som forretningsforbindelser. (Og et af de album, han mest og mest ærgrede sig over, BODY COUNT, var en plade, jeg var Executive Producer af).

Lieberman startede sin politiske karriere i 1970 ved at gå op imod et demokratisk parti chef Arthur Barbieri og overliste ham i at manipulere ældre vælgere i Crawford Manor, et regeringsbygget pensionistsamfund, i et valg til Connecticut State Senate, hvor Lieberman udfordrede New Haven Democratic siddende Ed Marcus. Lieberman erkendte, at partier ikke længere leverer alle de stemmer og penge, der er nødvendige for at vinde valg. Du skal bygge din egen maskine baseret på personlig loyalitet.

Lieberman erkendte, at for mange vælgere var blevet forsigtige med automatisk at trække partihåndtag. (Denne meget blå stat har nu flere registrerede uafhængige end registrerede demokrater- og har regelmæssigt valgt republikanere til guvernørens palæ.) Og fremstår for offentligheden som en flink fyr, tæller nu mere end at knække knoerne i baglokalet, fordi medier (især TV) erstattede partiet som det vigtigste middel til at nå vælgerne. Bland var i. Ikke-truende var i. Plus du skulle vide, hvordan du laver vittigheder på Imus og POLITISK Ukorrekt.

Men Lieberman blev behandlet 2 afgørende politiske nederlag, før han startede sit virkelige opstigning. Particheferne slog ham i et forsøg på at blive løjtnantguvernør i 1978, og han blev besejret i et bud på kongressen af ​​en republikaner 2 år senere. I sin selvbetjeningsbog, IN PRAEE OF PUBLIC LIFE, afgrænser Lieberman de 3 lektioner, han tog fra det løb: at stole på daglige sporingsmålinger, for aldrig at "lade din modstander gå negativt til dig uden at give mindst lige så god som dig få til gengæld, "og vigtigst af alt til" aldrig, nogensinde lad nogen angribe dig som en 'højtbeskattende, storudgifterende liberal.' "Den tredje er den, han har baseret resten af ​​sin karriere i politik på.

I 1982 stillede han op til Connecticut Attorney General som en lov-og-orden-kandidat, der svingede lidt mod højre og glemte videre til en aggressivt "familievenlig" stilling, der har tjent ham meget godt. Han vandt. I de næste 6 år markedsførte han sig ihærdigt over for Connecticut -borgere. I 1988 udfordrede han den progressive republikanske siddende amerikanske senator Lowell Weicker - angriber fra højre - og slog ham. Lieberman kørte en brutal og ondskabsfuldt negativ kampagne, der spottede Weicker personligt og endda red-baiting ham for at være blød på Castro (William Buckley dannede en PAC for at rejse penge til Lieberman og senere kaldte Jack Kemp ham "en af ​​os.") I dag er Lieberman langt mere populær i Connecticut med republikanere og med konservative end han er hos demokrater og med progressive, og i 1988 gav konservative ham sin lille sejrsmargin over Weicker. En gang i Senatet gik han endnu længere til højre og pro-corporate. "Han akkumulerede den mest pro-corporate rekord af enhver senatsdemokrat-og de millioner af kampagnedollar, der fulgte med dem." Han sluttede sig til DLC og blev deres præsident-før det var domænet for højrehøjede syddemokrater.

Det var da Lieberman, som en slange, slog sin gamle hud helt og kasserede de sidste rester af noget vagt demokratisk og blev, hvad han er i dag: en højreorienteret demagog, en virkelig modbydelig politiker, der hører hjemme i det republikanske parti, ikke den Det demokratiske parti. Han gjorde racisme næsten acceptabel ved at fremstille den som værende imod urimelig bekræftende handling. Som en ubarmhjertig homofobe sluttede han sig til Jesse Helms 'kampagne for ærekrænkelse af homoseksuelle, og han sluttede sig sammen med yderste højreekstremister som Christian Coalition -chef Ralph Reed for at fremme skolebøn og værdikuponprogrammer for religiøse skoler. Og så kom han ind i min egen virksomhed, og mit voksende had til Joe Lieberman blev personligt.

Historien starter med grundlæggelsen af ​​PMRC, og hvis du er for ung til at huske, burde du læse om det triste kapitel i amerikansk politisk/kulturhistorie (i det link derude eller enten denne her eller denne Gore-bashing højre vinger synspunkt her. Forstandernes navne burde alle lyde bekendte: Tipper Gore (kone til Al), Susan Baker (kone til Bush -familiens fastholder/fixer James), Nancy Thurmond (en af ​​Strom -konerne), Lynn Cheney (lesbisk pornografisk skribent og hustru til den nuværende alkoholiserede vicepræsident Dick. Denne gaggle af magtfulde mænds koner var forløberen for tre af Washingtons mest berømte hyklere med høj mund: Bill Bennett, Sam Brownback og naturligvis Joe Lieberman, der tog deres kampagne op næsten lige så snart han blev valgt.

For at citere den republikanske nationale komité (der hyklerisk udelod Lynn Cheneys deltagelse i PMRC, var gruppens mission "at rydde op i voldsomme tekster og suggestive albumomslag i musikindustrien. Gruppen pressede på for et 'ratingsystem, der ligner det for film , trykte tekster på albumcover og uklarhed i håndkøb for covers, der skildrer vold eller eksplicitte seksuelle temaer. I august 1985, under pres fra PMRC og andre forældregrupper, blev pladeselskaber enige om at placere advarslen 'Parental Guidance: Explicit Lyrics 'på album og kassetter, der indeholder eksplicitte tekster. Men for Tipper og PMRC var det sprog ikke nok, og gruppen fortsatte sin krig mod kontroversielle musiktekster, "til sidst bragte rodet frem for Senatskomiteen for handel, videnskab og transport. Kunstnere som Jello Biafra, Ice-T og Frank Zappa viste, hvor farlige PMRC's planer var for ytrings- og ytringsfrihed, hvor Zappa forklarede senatorerne, at "t den komplette liste over PMRC-krav lyder som en instruktionsbog til en uhyggelig form for toilettræningsprogram til at afbryde alle komponister og kunstnere på grund af nogle få tekster, "tilføjer dramatisk" Damer, hvor tør du. Dårlige fakta gør dårlig lov, og folk, der skriver dårlige love, er efter min mening farligere end sangskrivere, der fejrer seksualitet. Ytringsfrihed, religiøs tankegang og retten til en rimelig proces for komponister, kunstnere og detailhandlere er i fare, hvis PMRC og de store etiketter gennemfører denne grimme handel. "(Blandt de kunstnere, der specifikt blev angrebet af PMRC, var Madonna, Prince, Judas Priest, AC/DC, Def Leppard, Black Sabbath, Cyndi Lauper og Sheena Easton.)

Folk spørger mig ofte, hvad der skete, og hvad der var det store problem. Lieberman vidste nøjagtigt, hvad han lavede- langt bedre end den gruppe, der gik forud for ham- da han insisterede på klassificeringer på cd'er, og det havde intet at gøre med at hjælpe forældre med at føre tilsyn med deres børn. De færreste forstår- den måde Lieberman gjorde- at i slutningen af ​​80'erne blev der solgt noget som 70% af al indspillet musik i butikker i indkøbscentre, og at indkøbscentre har meget strenge lejeaftaler om, at deres lejere ikke sælger "pornografi". I løbet af denne kontrovers skubbede to af Senatets mest stramme og nærsindede grise, Sam Brownback og Lieberman, efter den slags klistermærker, der ville gøre det umuligt for den slags musik, de protesterede imod-som alt, hvad der taler om onani eller homoseksualitet, for eksempel- at blive lagerført af 70% af amerikanske detailhandlere. Effekten inde i musikbranchen var nedkøling- og øjeblikkelig. Pludselig skulle der oprettes et helt nyt internt bureaukrati for at politi hver rekord og pludselig blev kunstnere presset- nogle gange åbenlyst og undertiden mindre åbenlyst- til at indfri krav fra to virkelig reaktionære fundamentalister, hvis værdier langt fra er almindelige. Med ét slag ødelagde Lieberman en alliance mellem unge vælgere og det demokratiske parti, der var startet med John Kennedys valg, da han skamfistet ødelagde deres kultur for sine egne politiske ambitioner.

Paula O'Keefes indsigtsfulde artikel fra 1997 kaldet "Who Watches The Watchmen?" er en glimrende redegørelse for Liebermans fanatiske post-PMRC hysteri og ekstremisme om kulturelle spørgsmål, der fører til hans vanvittige og i sidste ende mislykkede lovgivning fra 2001, Media Marketing Accountability Act, et lovforslag om forbud mod markedsføring af "voksenbedømte medier", dvs. film , musik og computerspil, der indeholder voldeligt eller seksuelt materiale, til unge under 17 år. Lieberman forsøgte at give Federal Trade Commission beføjelse til at regulere reklame for musik, film og spil til unge. Den foreslåede lovgivning, hvis den blev vedtaget, ville have injiceret et føderalt agentur i beslutninger om markedsføring af film, musik og elektroniske spil - og dermed potentielt i beslutninger om, hvilke slags film, musik og spil der produceres.

En del af tiden var jeg formand for Reprise, en af ​​mine gamle venner, Danny Goldberg, var formand for Warner Bros Records, Reprises moderselskab. Danny er en inspirerende progressiv og en strålende tænker og forfatter. Hans bog, SENDER FRA KULTURKRIGEN- HVORDAN DEN VENSTRE TABTE TEEN ÅND giver nogle af de bedste indsigter i den virkelige Joe Lieberman hvor som helst. Danny anerkender Liebermans "elskværdige opførsel", men påpeger hans "selvgode, intolerante, puritanske streak". Da den tidligere LBJ -rådgiver Jack Valenti, dengang leder af filmindustrien, og en ven af ​​Lieberman blev spurgt af Danny, om han nogensinde havde fortalt Lieberman om konsekvenserne af det første ændringsforslag af den type censur, han gik ind for, svarede Valenti: "Da mennesker bliver meget religiøse, og de tror, ​​at deres handlemåde er sanktioneret af en højere myndighed, der er ikke meget, du kan gøre for at kommunikere med dem- til venstre, højre eller i midten. " Hmmm. måske derfor kysser Bush og Lieberman altid!

Danny forklarer, at mens han og andre mennesker i underholdningssamfundet har været uenige med politikere som Clintons og Al Gore om kulturelle spørgsmål, var de stadig i stand til at støtte dem. "Dog skriver han," jeg ville aldrig under nogen omstændigheder støtte eller stemme på en billet med Joe Lieberman på. Ikke alene er han en af ​​de mest konservative demokrater med en national profil, men hans selvretfærdighed omkring religion og gift mod populærkultur ville gøre ham til en alvorlig trussel mod et frit og intellektuelt mangfoldigt amerikansk samfund, hvis han skulle få mere magt. "

Danny er ikke alene om sin vurdering af Lieberman. Scott Goodstein, mangeårig demokratisk politisk konsulent og medstifter af Military Free Zone, var administrerende direktør for punkvoter, da de mobiliserede og hjalp med at registrere over en million tidligere uregistrerede unge vælgere i 2004. Professionelt følelsesløs over for politikere er Lieberman tæt på at få sin ged. "Det er ærgerligt, at politikere som Joe Lieberman er så ude af kontakt med unge vælgere. Han er en af ​​den voksende gruppe af politikere, der konstant bebrejder musik og underholdning som roden til alt ondt, støtter uamerikansk lovgivning som PATRIOT-loven og andre former censur, og gentagne gange dømme og marginalisere den næste generation uden nogensinde at have en reel dialog. Lieberman og politikere, der bruger denne moralske overlegenhedsretorik i stedet for at fokusere på at løse reelle problemer-som de hundrede plus uddannelsesnedskæringer, som denne administration i øjeblikket foreslår- slukker simpelthen unge vælgere i stedet for at tilskynde den næste generation til at fortsætte deres engagement i politik. "

For et par uger siden mødte jeg Ned Lamont, den progressive demokrat, der har udfordret Lieberman, i en vens hus her i Los Angeles. Han inspirerede en følelse af tillid til mig, der var det modsatte af, hvordan jeg reagerede, da jeg mødte Lieberman, dybest set en smarmy karakter, der oser af falsk fromhed, falsk åbenhed og falsk venlighed. Lamont lyttede, da jeg talte og stillede alle de rigtige spørgsmål. Jeg var overrasket. En uge senere talte min ven Jane med Lamont og nævnte mit navn for ham, og han bemærkede, hvordan jeg havde forklaret den måde, Lieberman havde brugt musikindustrien-og ungdomskulturen-som et pengeindsamlingsværktøj ved at dæmonisere det og gøre alt, hvad han kunne kunne forårsage uenighed og disharmoni. Verdens Joe Liebermans og Sam Brownbacks har ret til deres moralistiske verdensopfattelse, men regeringen bør ikke skubbe det ned i halsen på hele befolkningen. Ikke alle skatteydere føler, at hvis en sang omtaler homoseksualitet eller onani (for at gå tilbage til de 2 eksempler, der krænkede Lieberman, som jeg citerede ovenfor), skal den holdes uden for pladebutikker. Stor regering er ikke en effektiv eller passende erstatning for et godt forældre. Ned Lamont forstod det intuitivt. Lieberman vil aldrig forstå det, ligesom han aldrig vil forstå, hvor katastrofal Bush -regimets besættelse af Irak er for Israel, der driver hans beslutninger.

Hvis du ikke stemmer i Connecticut, men gerne vil se Ned Lamont trække Lieberman tilbage fra det offentlige liv, kan du hjælpe ved at donere til Lamonts kampagne via denne ACT BLUE -side. Hver cent går direkte til hans kampagne.


Udvikling

Den første kendte skabelse af Ena er fra et tweet af Joel Guerra, der viser en kort animeret GIF af Ena efterfulgt af, at han tænkte på at lave karakterer med mærkelige designs i en meningsløs, farverig verden. Α ] Tweetet modtog positiv feedback, og derfor svarede Joel ved at tale om sin taknemmelighed og potentiale for serien. Vedhæftet svaret var konceptkunst af Ena og Moony. Β ]

På Joels YouTube -konto blev der lagt en video ud med titlen "ENA", der viste en simpel inaktiv animation af titelfiguren som sangen "Browser History" af Graham Kartna spillede. Det blev afsløret, at hendes design var inspireret af maleriet Pige før et spejl af Pablo Picasso, såvel som Romero Brittos kunst som angivet i videoens beskrivelse. Γ ]

Hendes navn blev oprindeligt stavet som "ƎNA", men blev senere ændret til "ENA", da Joel mente, at det ville være for svært for folk at skrive, når de ville sige hendes navn. Δ ]

Enas design i den originale video ændres i den animerede serie, med hendes blå side vist geometrisk i stedet for glat. Det første afsnit af serien blev udgivet den 26. maj 2020 med titlen som auktionsdag.


Joe Lieberman ’s lange, topartige historie i Palm Beach County

Tidligere Connecticut -senator Joe Lieberman, der modtog stærk overvejelse fra præsident Donald Trump for det ledige job i FBI -direktøren, har været en kendt skikkelse i Palm Beach County, der kæmper for præsidentbilletter, men har også spillet en rolle ved lokale valg.

Lieberman kæmper for John McCain i West Palm Beach i 2008. (Bruce Bennett/The Palm Beach Post)

Lieberman var den første jødiske kandidat på en storpartis præsidentbillet, da demokrat Al Gore benyttede ham som sin kammerat i 2000. Lieberman tog ofte kampagne i Sydflorida det år og nød rockstjernestatus i de stærkt jødiske pensionistsamfund i Palm Beach og Broward amter.

Efter at have indgået et nært venskab med den tidligere demokratiske amerikanske rep. Robert Wexler , førte Lieberman i 2004 kampagne for, at Wexlers håndplukkede kandidat til valgchef i Palm Beach County, Arthur Anderson, kunne udnytte demokratisk harme over amtets sommerfugl i 2000 afstemning .

Lieberman vendte også tilbage til lejlighedskredsen i Palm Beach County, der falder på vegne af demokraten John Kerry, da demokraterne var bekymrede for at miste nogle jødiske stemmer til den israelske præsident George W. Bush.

Lieberman endte med at give en vis troværdighed til den demokratiske frygt og sagde, at Bush havde rekord med stærk, konsekvent støtte til Israel. Du kan ikke sige andet, men tilføjer, at Kerry også har været en stærk og konsekvent tilhænger af Israel.

Lieberman ankom til Palm Beachs hjemsted for Norma og Simon Fireman i 2010 til en Rabbinical College of America Founders Event (Bruce Bennett/The Palm Beach Post)

I 2005 indsamlede Lieberman penge til sit genvalg i Senatet i 2006 i Boca Raton ved hjælp af advokat Ted Deutch og spildte de bønner, som Deutch ville stille op til statens senat i 2006. Deutch er nu medlem af kongressen.

Lieberman mistede sin demokratiske primærvalg i 2006 i Connecticut, stort set over sin støtte til Irak -krigen, men beholdt sit senatsæde ved at stille op som selvstændig og vinde ved folketingsvalget.

(Den tabende republikaner ved det valg i Connecticut i 2006, Alan Schlesinger, flyttede senere til Palm Beach County og stillede uden held til kongressen i 2014.)

Lieberman vendte tilbage til Palm Beach County under præsidentkampagnen i 2008 - men denne gang - på vegne af en republikansk kandidat, John McCain. Lieberman stumpede med McCain før Floridas primære GOP -primære og under folketingsvalget.

Han var også tilbage i 2010 og optrådte i Palm Beachs hjemsted for Simon og Norma Fireman til en Rabbinical College of America -begivenhed.

Og i oktober sidste år kæmpede den potentielle Trump -udnævnte for Demokraten Hillary Clinton i Century Village of Boca Raton som en del af en tur i Sydflorida rettet mod jødiske vælgere.


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Og se og se, vi står overfor endnu et valg, hvor Lieberman udfører sin sædvanlige shtick. Han tjekker, hvem der hader denne gang, om det er araberne eller de ultraortodokse, og udarbejder sin kampagne i overensstemmelse hermed. Denne gang gik han og gik efter de ultraortodokse. De sekulære mennesker, der følger ham, savler, tåber i magten.

Lieberman & rsquos rutinerede vælgere kender ham allerede, og derfor må han stille sig som liberal. Han og rsquos forsøgte endda at henvende sig til LGBT -samfundet i håb om, at det ville glemme, at han modsatte sig afholdelse af gay pride -parader. Det var ikke så længe siden, og det var kun to år siden.

Hvis vi værner om livet, har vi brug for en fungerende hukommelse og en evne til at smide Lieberman, hvor han hører hjemme, på historiens skraldespand.


Joel Lieberman - Historie

Messiansk rabbiner Dr. Joel Liberman

Den åndelige leder af Livets træ siden marts 1996 har været Joel Liberman. Han er opvokset i et messiansk jødisk hjem og har været aktiv i den messianske bevægelse i fireogtredive år, herunder at være den nuværende præsident for Messianic Jewish Alliance of America (MJAA), valgt til valgperioder som vicepræsident og kasserer for de unge Messianic Jewish Alliance (YMJA), en periode som kasserer for MJAA, yderligere fire år i MJAAs forretningsudvalg, to år som kasserer for International Messianic Jewish Alliance (IMJA) og næsten fire år som administrerende direktør for IMJA.

I de sidste otte år har Joel fungeret som direktør for operationer og udvikling for International Alliance of Messianic Congregations & amp Synagogues (IAMCS) samt har siddet i fem toårige valgperioder i dets styregruppe. Han er en ordineret messiansk rabbiner gennem IAMCS, som Livets træ er medlem af. Joel har tjent i forskellige egenskaber i ledelsen af ​​Tree of Life siden dets begyndelse og er en hyppig taler og lærer ved messianske jødiske konferencer. Han har en Bachelor of Science grad i regnskab fra San Diego State University og er en autoriseret revisor (inaktiv), der har arbejdet på dette område i over tyve år.

Joel har en nationalt godkendt Doctor of Ministry -grad, er kandidat til en Doctor of Religious Studies -grad og har skrevet flere bibelkommentarer sammen med at udgive sit Doctor of Ministry -projekt, som alle kan købes på Amazon.com. Joel har også undervist gennem meget af Tanakh (Torah, Profeter, Skrifter) og B ’rit Chadasha (Ny Pagt) Skrifterne på Livets Træ, og mens de sidste syv år af disse videolæringer er arkiveret på Livets Tree ’s YouTube -side (‘Tree of Life Live fra San Diego ’) for at se når som helst, hele lydbiblioteket med undervisning er tilgængeligt for dem, der er interesseret i at studere Bibelen (afslutningen af ​​nogle af kurserne for betalt kredit kan anvendes til at tjene et certifikat i messianske jødiske studier med IAMCS) med Rabbi Joel her-Tree of Life Yeshiva Satellite Brochure 2021

Joel ’s kone Darcie har også tjent den messianske bevægelse, især i forskellige dansetrupper og underviser i israelsk og messiansk dans på konferencer. Darcie har en Bachelor of Arts Degree in Drama fra University of California i Irvine. Hun er deltids fitnessinstruktør for 󈧜-Hour Fitness ’ og andre lokale fitnesscentre. Joel og Darcie er blevet velsignet med at opdrage to vidunderlige unge voksne, der fortsatte deres studier på universiteter i Californien og Arizona (Avi – alder 24 og Ariela – alder 21).


Indhold

Siden allerede i 1970'erne er videospil blevet kritiseret for at have voldeligt indhold, der psykologisk påvirker spillere. I 1982 fastslog kirurggeneral C. Everett Koop, at videospil kan påvirke de unges sundhed og velvære og potentielt er vanedannende. [1] Men indtil 1990'erne var det opfattede målmarked for videospil generelt for børn, og producenter af videospil inkluderede typisk ikke høje niveauer af grafisk vold i deres spil. [2] De fleste computerspil software ville blive solgt gennem legetøjsbutikker som Toys 'R' Us eller almindelige detailforretninger som Sears og Wal-Mart, frem for computerforretninger. [3]

Industriens tilstand Rediger

I 1993 var videospilindustrien kommet sig efter ulykken i 1983 og blev anslået til at være 6 milliarder dollars værd. [4] Videospilkonsoller havde nået 16-bit-æraen med evnen til at understøtte grafik med højere opløsning. Udover dette var videospil begyndt at trække ældre spillere, hvilket skabte et marked for spil med mere modent indhold, både på hjemmekonsoller og i arkader. [2]

I denne periode var to nøglespillere Nintendo og Sega. Nintendo havde været med til at hjælpe med at genoprette det nordamerikanske marked efter nedbruddet med introduktionen af ​​Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) i 1990, Nintendo -salget tegnede sig for 90% af det amerikanske marked på 3 milliarder dollars. [5] Dets efterfølgersystem, Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES), blev udgivet i 1991. Men for at undgå at gentage et af de spørgsmål, der forårsagede nedbruddet, sørgede Nintendo for at begrænse og gennemgå, hvad tredjepartsspil kunne laves for sine platforme for at undgå en overflod af dårlige spil. Sega, which had already released its Sega Genesis in the US in 1989, found their sales to be lagging behind Nintendo. In an aggressive campaign aimed at the United States market, Sega heavily pushed the game pindsvinet Sonic, with its titular character aimed to become Sega's mascot and rival that of Nintendo's Mario. [6] Sega was also less selective about which games it allowed on the platform, allowing many more third-party games onto the system to increase its library in contrast to Nintendo's. [5] Further, Sega used marketing language purposely aimed at Nintendo, such as "Sega does what Nintendon't". [7] By 1992, Sega had obtained 65% of the US gaming market, overtaking Nintendo's dominant position. [8] Subsequently, a strong rivalry between Nintendo and Sega was formed, referred as the "Console Wars", which continued through the next decade and into the fifth generation of consoles, after which Sega dropped out of the hardware market and became principally a game developer and publisher, and at times working collaboratively with Nintendo. [9]

Existing content ratings system Edit

Prior to 1994, the video game industry did not have a unified content rating system. Entering 1993, the Children's Advertising Review Unit (CARU) of the Better Business Bureau had heard rumblings from politicians that the content of video games was under scrutiny, and sent word to its board members, Sega and Nintendo. [10] Sega agreed that they should have a ratings system, and had developed its Videogame Rating Council in June 1993 in association independent educators, psychologists, child development experts and sociologists. [10] The Videogames Rating Council had three principal ratings for games released on the Genesis platform: GA for General Audiences, MA-13 for games intended for those thirteen years and older, and MA-17 for those 17 years and older. Sega debuted their system in June 1993 just prior to the release of Mortal Kombat for the Genesis, knowing the ratings system would help mitigate concerns over the violent content in the game. [11] [10] Nintendo did not have a ratings system, but as it had control over the cartridge manufacturing process, it would only publish games they felt appropriate for a family console. [4] Nintendo also refused to use Sega's ratings solution due to their continued corporate rivalry. [10]

A further difficulty for the industry was that there was no established trade group for the video game industry. While many of the game publishers belonged to the Software Publishers Association, this group represented more practical software interests, such as word processors and spreadsheets, and the Association did not hold the entertainment software membership in high regard. [12]

Mortal Kombat Redigere

Fighting games had become a lucrative property after the release of Capcom's arcade Street Fighter II: The World Warrior in 1991, which established many conventions of the genre. While Sega lured many of Nintendo's third-party developers to break their exclusivity agreements to publish games only for the Nintendo consoles, Capcom remained loyal to Nintendo, licensing only a few titles to Sega to publish, and only the SNES received the home console port of Street Fighter II in 1992, which was said to help keep the SNES sales ahead of the Genesis in the United States for that year. [13]

Numerous other fighting games followed to try to capture on Street Fighter II 's success, but most notably was Midway's Mortal Kombat, first released as an arcade game in 1992. [14] Mortal Kombat was highly controversial at its release: as a fighter game, the game has photo-realistic sprites of the game's characters, graphic spurting of blood on several hits, and a number of "fatalities" such as decapitation or impaling a body on spikes. Despite the game's advertising indicating the game was meant for mature audiences, the perception that video games were still aimed at children caused parents and other concerned groups to criticize the violence within the game. However, at this point, Mortal Kombat was only an arcade game, making it relatively easy to segregate it from other arcade games if necessary. [2] Greg Fischbach, the co-founder and CEO of Acclaim Entertainment, the company that had secured the license for home console versions of the game, said while attention to the game from the negative press helped to boost its popularity, that "We didn't want that press or publicity" and recognized that the industry may need to take steps to quell similar problems in the future. [15]

Because of its success in the arcade, Acclaim Entertainment started to bring Mortal Kombat to various home consoles. Both Sega and Nintendo both sought the game for their consoles, the Genesis and the SNES, respectively. Both companies recognized the issue with the level of gore in the game, but took very different approaches. Sega, staying with their attempt to capture as much of the market, went with trying to keep as much of the visual gore from the arcade game in place. While the Genesis version of Mortal Kombat as shipped eliminated the blood and fatalities, they could be activated via the use of a well-published cheat code. As the game, as shipped, did not include the blood and gore, Sega labelled it with their MA-13 VRC label. [16] On the other hand, Nintendo wanted to keep games on their system appropriate for families and children, and required Acclaim to change the red blood to grey sweat, edit the fatalities, and change other parts of the game's artwork to remove elements like severed heads on spikes. [2] Sega's version of Mortal Kombat outsold Nintendo's by a factor of five. This furthered the existing rivalry between the two companies. [2]

Night Trap Redigere

Night Trap is a 1992 game developed by Digital Pictures and released on the Sega CD, a CD-ROM attachment for the Sega Genesis. Night Trap is presented as an interactive movie, using full-motion video to show scenes and allowing players to choose their next option, creating divergence in the story. [17] The game's narration centered on the disappearance of teenage girls (starring Dana Plato) at a winery estate, tied in with the appearance of vampire-like beings that feed on young females. Subsequently, the video scenes often veered into some sexually-alluring context as well as violence with various encounters.

Night Trap drew criticism worldwide, but which helped to publicize it. Similar issues were brought up in the United Kingdom, with former Sega of Europe development director Mike Brogan noting that "Night Trap got Sega an awful lot of publicity. Questions were even raised in the UK Parliament about its suitability. This came at a time when Sega was capitalizing on its image as an edgy company with attitude, and this only served to reinforce that image." [18] However, in retrospective, much of this criticism was deemed misguided. Steven L. Kent writes that "Reading the transcripts of the 1993 hearings, it is hard to believe that anybody had ever actually played Night Trap. Few people bothered to acknowledge that the goal of Night Trap was not to kill women but to save them from vampires. Players did not even kill the vampires—they simply trapped them in Rube Goldberg–like booby traps. Nearly everyone who referred to Night Trap mentioned a scene in which a girl in a rather modest teddy is caught by the vampires and killed. The scene was meant to show players that they had lost and allowed too many vampires into the house." [12] Jeremy Parish of 1UP.com noted that "its game objectives were mischaracterized either through ignorance or deliberate obfuscation, transforming it from bland and barely titillating FMV adventure to child-corrupting sexual boogeyman." [17]

Lethal Enforcers Redigere

Lethal Enforcers was a 1992 arcade game released in 1992 by Konami which used light guns the player takes the role of a police officer to lethally take down criminals while avoiding killing civilians and fellow police officers or being shot by criminals. The game was rendered using photo-realistic imagery which drew some concern. [19] It was ported to home consoles the next year (on Sega systems in late 1993, and on the SNES by early 1994). These games shipped with the Konami Justifier, a plastic light gun modeled after a revolver. [20]

Moral panic around gun violence Edit

In the months prior to the hearings, there had been a small moral panic in America on gun-related crimes, which fueled the concerns related to violent video games. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, gun-related homicides had reached record highs in 1993 since the 1970s. [21] Both Congress and the Justice Department were looking to reduce the amount of violence on television. [22] [23] [24]

Congressional concern Edit

The violence in video games became a concern after Mortal Kombat ' s home console release in September 1992. One of Senator Joe Lieberman's former chief of staff, Bill Andresen, had been asked by his son to purchase the Sega version of Mortal Kombat for him. Andresen was appalled by the amount of violence in the game, and approached Lieberman on the matter. Lieberman was also shocked by the content of the game and began gathering more information. [2] Lieberman had stated he had heard about Night Trap, evaluated the game himself, and also recognized its content as problematic. [12]

By December 1, 1993, Lieberman held a press conference alongside other children's advocates including Bob Keeshan, the actor of "Captain Kangaroo". Lieberman stated his intention to open a congressional hearing the following week to address the issue of violent video games and the lack of content ratings, and his plans to introduce a ratings body through legislation to regulate the video game industry. [25] During the conference, he showed footage from Mortal Kombat, Night Trap, and other games. [2] Lieberman's research concluded that the average video game player at the time was between seven and twelve years old, and that video game publishers were marketing violence to children. [12] Lieberman commented on the sales of Mortal Kombat to date, having sold 3 million copies by that point and was estimated to bring in over US$100 million by the end of the year, demonstrating the greed of the industry to use violence to cater to children. [25] Of Night Trap, Lieberman said "I looked at that game, too, and there was a classic. It ends with this attack scene on this woman in lingerie, in her bathroom. I know that the creator of the game said it was all meant to be a satire of Dracula but nonetheless, I thought it sent out the wrong message." [12] Lieberman stated "Few parents would buy these games for their kids if they knew what was in them" and "We're talking about video games that glorify violence and teach children to enjoy inflicting the most gruesome forms of cruelty imaginable." [2] Lieberman subsequently stated that while he'd "like to ban all the violent video games", he knew this would conflict with the First Amendment, and instead wanted to seek a solution involving a content ratings system, which he felt would not impede First Amendment rights. [22]

First hearing Edit

The first hearing was held on December 9, 1993, in front of the combined Governmental Affairs and Judiciary Senate committees. [12] At the time, Senate was on recess, so the only Senators present were Lieberman, Kohl and Byron Dorgan. [26]

Hours before the hearing, representatives of the video game industry announced that they have agreed to endorse and develop an industry-standard video game content ratings system, as an attempt to defuse the bad publicity of the hearings. This announcement was referred to several times throughout the first hearing. [12]

Speaking witnesses to the panel included: [27] [26]

  • Dr. Parker Page of the Children's Television Resource and Education Center
  • Professor Eugene F. Provenzo of the University of Miami and author of the recently published Video Kids: Making Sense of Nintendo (1991)
  • Robert Chase of National Education Association
  • Marilyn Droz of the National Coalition on Television Violence , vice president of Nintendo of America
  • Bill White, vice president of Sega of America
  • Ilene Rosenthal, General Counsel, Software Publishers Association
  • Dawn Weiner, Video Software Dealers Association
  • Craig Johnson, Past-President, Amusement and Music Operators Association

The first half of the hearing was devoted to the experts on education and child psychology. [12] These four discussed their concerns and findings on the impact of violence in video games on children. Chase stated "Electronic games, because they are active rather than passive, can do more than desensitize impressionable children to violence. They actually encourage violence as the resolution of first resort by rewarding participants for killing one's opponents in the most grisly ways imaginable." [12] Provenzo iterated his findings in writing Video Kids, stated that recent games had become "overwhelmingly violent, sexist, and racist", and affirmed that he felt that with games like Night Trap, the industry was "endorsing violence" and further called for a ratings system. [12] Droz stated that children "need action, but they do not need to find murder as a form of entertainment". [12]

The second half of the hearing focused on the industry representatives. [12] During the hearing, both Sega and Nintendo continued their ongoing rivalry, accusing the other of the reason behind the hearings. Nintendo's Lincoln had led off his part of the testimony by acknowledging Nintendo's action to remove some of the violence of Mortal Kombat, which observers found gave Lincoln more respect from Lieberman than Sega's White received. [12] One of White's key points was the transformation of the video game industry from primarily having a younger audience to an adult, and that Night Trap was meant only for adults. Lincoln retorted these claims, telling White, "I can't just sit here and allow you to be told that the video game industry has been transformed from children [as primary consumers] to adults." [26] White referred to statistics collected from warranty cards on hardware and game sales that Sega kept and Nintendo would have also kept to justify the older demographics of current video games. [12] Further, Lincoln asserted that Sega only developed its rating system after the release of Night Trap and only started to label its games after the game was criticized by consumers. [12] White responded by showing a videotape of violent video games on the SNES and stressed the importance of rating video games, which at this point, Nintendo lacked. [12]

Af Lethal Enforcers, Lieberman criticized the design of the Konami Enforcer to resemble a revolver an infamous still of C-SPAN's coverage of the hearings was Lieberman holding up the Enforcer to talk about its realistic nature. [28] Sega's White countered that Nintendo had a similar light gun product on the market, the Super Scope, that was shaped after a bazooka. Lieberman asserted that both the Enforcer and Super Scope looked too much like real weapons and should not be in the hands of children. [26]

Lieberman was also critical of how the video game industry company approached advertising. During the hearing it showcased a Sega television advertisement where a school-aged child wins several video games over others, and then makes the other students obey his commands. [23] Lieberman also expressed concern on Sega's Videogame Ratings Council, that while the ratings were reasonable, there was no standardization of how they were displayed, sometimes only printed on the game cartridge itself, and thus preventing parents from being able to review these before purchase. [29]

Kohl warned the video game publishers that "If you don't do something about [content ratings], we will." speaking to the start of a bill Lieberman had been drafting that would have the government become involved in a ratings system. [24] By the end of the hearing, Sega and Nintendo said they would commit themselves towards working with retail outlets including Sears and Toys 'R' Us to create a voluntary content ratings system to denote any violence or sexual content in their games, to be modeled after the film rating system created by the Motion Picture Association of America. [3] At the conclusion of the first hearing, Lieberman decided they would have a second session in a few months to see on the progress of the industry on this effort. [12]

Video Game Rating Act of 1994 Edit

Following the December 1993 hearing, Senator Lieberman, co-sponsored by Kohl and Dorgan, introduced the Video Games Rating Act of 1994 (S.1823) on February 3, 1994 to the Senate [30] the equivalent bill (H.R.3785) was introduced to the House of Representatives by Tom Lantos. [31] The Act, if passed, would have established an Interactive Entertainment Rating Commission, a five-member panel appointed by the President. This commission would then have coordinated with the video game industry to develop a ratings system and method of disseminating information related to violence and sexually explicit content to potential buyers. Lieberman asserted that the bill had been presented as to coerce the video game industry to take voluntary action themselves to come up with a ratings system, but that he had no plans to follow through on the bill should the industry come to an agreement. [32]

Interim events Edit

As a result of the Congressional hearings, Night Trap started to generate more sales. According to Digital Pictures founder Tom Zito, "You know, I sold 50,000 units of Night Trap a week after those hearings." [12] Two weeks before Christmas 1993, Night Trap was removed from store shelves in the US's two largest toy store chains, Toys "R" Us and Kay-Bee Toys, after receiving numerous complaints. Michael Goldstein, the vice president of Toys 'R' Us, stated in mid-December that this was "a decision we made several weeks ago with the concurrence of Sega, which agrees with our decision". [33] [3] Sega withdrew Night Trap from all retail markets in January 1994, but not after selling over 250,000 copies. [12] Bill White, Sega Vice President of Marketing, stated that Night Trap was pulled because the continued controversy surrounding it prevented constructive dialogue about an industry-wide rating system. [34] Sega also stated at the time they would later release a censored version pending the establishment of an industry-wide ratings system. [35]

Second hearing Edit

The second hearing was held on March 5, 1994, which included as speakers: [27]

  • Congressman Tom Lantos
  • Jack Heistand, Senior Vice President for Electronic Arts
  • Mary Evan, Vice President of Store Operations, Babbages
  • Chuck Kerby, Divisional Merchandise Manager, Wal-Mart
  • Steve Loenigsberg, President, American Amusement Machine Association
  • R.A. Green, III, Amusements & Music Operator Association

Heistand presented himself as part of the newly formed Interactive Entertainment Industry Rating Commission, the industry group working to establish the desired ratings systems. He reported to the joint committee that seven companies, including Electronic Arts, Sega, Nintendo, Atari, Acclaim, Philips and 3DO, representing about 60% of video game software in the United States, had committed to developing an industry software ratings board. [36] Heistand said they anticipated to have come to agreements on the ratings standards by June 1994, such that by November of that year (in time for the holiday shopping season), they will be able to rate all new games coming to the market going forward, an estimated 2,500 games per year. [37] However, Heistand also reported that the industry said there would too much effort to review all previously released games. [36] Heistand also cautioned that the system may not take off if they could not get other software developers outside the group to also sign on to support the ratings system. [36]

Lieberman acknowledged the proposed system as a critical step towards helping parents make informed decisions, but cautioned that until the rating system was in place, they would not be removing the proposed bill from their agenda. Retailers such as Wal-Mart, Toys "R" Us, and Babbages agreed that they would only stock games that have received these ratings, though had not yet decided on how to handle selling games rating for adults to children. [37] The Senators still expressed concern at the type of content the industry was willing to produce. Kohl stated "Let me give you my honest perspective on this issue: Violent video games that degrade women are harmful to our children and are garbage. But we live by and cherish a Constitution that prevents government from censoring material. So we will try to live with a rating system". [36] Lieberman stated "'the video game industry had practiced self-restraint before now, we wouldn't be here today". [36]

By April 1994, the coalition of companies represented by Heistand established the Interactive Digital Software Association (IDSA), with Acclaim's Fischbach serving as its initial CEO. [38] [15] One of the first tasks taken by the IDSA was to establish the promised rating system. While Sega offered their existing VRC as a basis, Nintendo, among others, steadfastly refused as they did not want to have to deal with anything created by their main competitor. Instead, a vendor-independent solution was developed, the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), with a new set of rating standards developed in conjunction with parents and educators. The ESRB ratings system was modeled after the Motion Picture Association of America, defining five age-related categories, but also adding a set of descriptive terms that would appear next to the rating to describe the specific content that would be found in the game. [32]

The ESRB was formally introduced to Congress in July 1994 to show that they had met Lieberman's goal, and the Board became officially active on September 13, 1994. [32] Lieberman stated in a 2017 interview that the video game industry "actually came up with a rating system that I think at the time — I honestly haven't been back to this in a long time — was the best. Much better than the movies." [39] The IDSA also served to become the industry trade association to help advocate for the industry to the government and other groups. Eventually, IDSA was renamed to the Entertainment Software Association and launched the industry's principal trade show, the Electronic Entertainment Expo. [40]

While The 3DO Company had stated they would help back an industry-wide solution to content ratings, they concurrently developed their own 3DO Rating System for games released on the 3DO platform. The 3DO system was voluntary and unlike the ESRB, allowed the publisher to select the rating. Publishers of 3DO games were split whether to use the ESRB or 3DO system. [41] [42] Ultimately, 3DO exited the hardware business around 1996, nullifying the need of the 3DO Rating System. [43]

Separately, the Software Publishers Association (now the Software and Information Industry Association), the Association of Shareware Professionals, and other groups that represented developers of video game software on personal computers felt that the proposed ESRB system, which was based principally on age ratings, was not sufficient and wanted to inform parents to the specific types of content that would be in their games. These groups developed the Recreational Software Advisory Council (RSAC) in 1994 which rated games in three areas: violence, sexual content, and language, with each being rated among five levels. The following year, the RSAC system was also developed for Internet cites under the "RSACi" system. By 1999, RSAC and RSACi were transitioned to the Internet Content Rating Association dedicated specifically for rating Internet content, while software developers adopted the ESRB system for their games. [44] [45]

Senator Lieberman continued to monitor the video game industry following the hearings, a general part of his own position related to violent content from entertainment industries. [46] In 1997, he stated that one of his intentions of the 1993 hearings was to have the industry regulate how much violence that the video game industry was putting into its games by having them implement the ratings system, but felt that "The rating system has not stopped game producers from putting out some very violent games." [47]

Mortal Kombat II was released to arcades in its final form by January 1994, and to home consoles later that year. Among other changes, the game added a variation on the "fatalities", called "Friendships", which would occur if the player performed a separate move mechanically similar to a fatality in such a case, the winning fighter would do a non-hostile action, such as giving the defeated fighter a virtual present. According to John Tobias, co-creator of Mortal Kombat, these friendships were added due to response from the Congressional hearings. [12] When the home console versions were released, after the establishment for the ESRB, Nintendo did not take issue with the amount of violence in the game, and allowed it to release without any changes on the SNES. The SNES version of Mortal Kombat II outsold the Sega Genesis version that year. [12]

id Software's Doom, a first-person shooter where the player fought hellish creatures and included graphic violence, was released on December 10, 1993, the day following the first hearing. Outside of the hearings, there was concern by parents and other organizations on the violence in this game as well. Mens Doom was not mentioned in either Senate hearing, it would come up again in 1999 following the Columbine High School massacre, where the perpetrators had described their planned attack as something straight out of Doom. Som resultat, Doom is frequently classified along with Mortal Kombat, Night Trap, og Lethal Enforcers as early examples of violent video games highlighted by the media. [48]

At the time of the hearings, video games were not established as a protected form of speech covered under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, though Lieberman and others had stated their concerns about First Amendment rights through censoring violent games and sought the ratings approach. Since the formation of the ESRB, attempts have been made by lawmakers at federal and state levels to restrict video game sales by their ESRB rating, principally in regards to their level of violence. [49] [50] [51] In a landmark case in 2011, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association that video games are an art form, protected by the First Amendment. The ruling found that while states can pass laws to block the sale of "obscene" video games to minors, violence would not fall within the Miller test of what is considered obscene. [52]

One of Howard Lincoln's statements during the first hearing was "Let me say for the record, I want to state that Night Trap will never appear on a Nintendo System." The statement was jokingly referred to in 2018 when a remake of Night Trap for its 25th anniversary was announced for release on the Nintendo Switch among other systems. [53]


Joe Lieberman, Natan Sharansky: The Holocaust story does not end at Auschwitz – here's one you should know

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International Holocaust Day is observed on January 27, the anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz, which has become the symbol of the evils of the Holocaust. It was a place of unbridled inhumanity and brutality. Yet, Auschwitz does not tell the entire story of the Holocaust.

Not all the victims of the Holocaust were herded into cattle trucks, to gas chambers at concentration camps like Auschwitz. There are many other stories to be told and we are duty-bound to tell them.

None more so than the estimated 1.5 million Jews who were murdered in mass shootings across Eastern Europe. For too long, this ‘Holocaust by bullets’ has been largely unknown.

Before the construction of Auschwitz and other concentration camps, as the Nazis invaded the Soviet Union, entire Jewish communities were rounded up, marched to their deaths and dumped in mass graves. The locations where these crimes were perpetrated usually remain unmarked, unlike the remains of the Nazi concentration camps.

The story of Babyn Yar in Ukraine is particularly powerful and important. In September 1941, just days after the Nazis occupied Kiev, almost 34,000 of the city’s Jews were marched to the Babyn Yar ravine on the edge of the city, where they were shot and killed over a period of two days.

A group of child survivors behind a barbed wire fence at the Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau in southern Poland, on the day of the camp’s liberation by the Red Army, 27th January 1945. Photo taken by Red Army photographer Captain Alexander Vorontsov during the making of a film about the liberation of the camp. The children were dressed in adult uniforms by the Russians. The children are (left to right): Tomy Schwarz (later Shacham), Miriam Ziegler, Paula Lebovics (front), Ruth Webber, Berta Weinhaber (later Bracha Katz), Erika Winter (later Dohan), Marta Weiss (later Wise), Eva Weiss (later Slonim), Gabor Hirsch (just visible behind Eva Weiss), Gabriel Neumann, Robert Schlesinger (later Shmuel Schelach), Eva Mozes Kor, and Miriam Mozes Zeiger.

Although Babyn Yar is probably Europe’s largest mass grave, the story of those murdered there is not widely known.

Its horrific memory was kept alive in a moving poem by the Russian poet Yevgeni Yevtushenko. For decades, the Soviets attempted to mask Babyn Yar’s tragic past.

The story of tens of thousands killed because of their Jewish identity did not conform with the prevailing Communist narrative.

Consequently, the Soviets attempted to physically and metaphorically bury the history, constructing housing and roads on this haunting site. Yevtushenko’s poem is a protest against this Soviet policy. Its first line is "No monument stands over Babyn Yar."

Babyn Yar became a blueprint for the Nazis. For a time, mass shooting became their murderous method of choice.

Jews were rounded up and massacred in huge numbers in Riga, Vilnius, Minsk, Brest and numerous other locations across Eastern Europe.

Many of these killings have been detailed by the tireless investigatory work of French priest Father Patrick Dubois. With the squeeze of a trigger, Jewish communities were wiped out and 1.5 million lives lost.

In the post-World War Two reconfiguration, these killing fields largely fell under Communist rule. Just like Babyn Yar, their significance was blurred from the historical record.

If the Holocaust is humanity’s darkest hour, then this ‘Holocaust by bullets’ is the beginning of the night. The Babyn Yar massacre was perpetrated four months before the infamous Wansee Conference, where the Nazi leadership plotted the eradication of Europe’s Jews.

Babyn Yar and its like was a precursor to the concentration camps which followed. The mass shootings served as an impetus for the Nazis to institute a campaign of even wider, industrial scale murder.

Auschwitz was not constructed in a vacuum. The massacres at Babyn Yar and beyond were a crucial link in the chain. Yet, too many remain historical footnotes at best.

Thankfully, steps are now being taken to right the wrongs of the past. The Babyn Yar Holocaust Memorial Center, whose Supervisory Board we are both privileged to serve on, is being developed to provide not only a fitting physical memorial, but also an ongoing, living record of all that was lost.

The Center has the backing of Ukraine’s President Volodomyr Zelensky and Kyiv’s Mayor Vitaly Klitschko, underscoring the importance of this effort.

The Center’s researchers have uncovered previously unknown names of victims. Advanced 3D mapping has pinpointed the exact spot, until now undiscovered, where the shootings took place. The story of Babyn Yar is finally being told in full, like never before.

International Holocaust Remembrance Day provides an opportunity for reflection. It is a time to consider how we remember the past.

As the number of Holocaust survivors continues to dwindle, it falls upon all of us to sustain the memory of the Holocaust.

We can only do this by knowing our history, by understanding that the Holocaust was not a uniform event.

The hell of Auschwitz was not the same as the horrors of Babyn Yar. Each is its own heart-wrenching chapter.

The time has come to know and tell the full story.

Natan Sharansky is a former prisoner of Zion and served as an Israeli government minister.


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