Combat of Carpio, 25. september 1811

Combat of Carpio, 25. september 1811

Combat of Carpio, 25. september 1811

Kampen mod Carpio den 25. september 1811 var et mindre sammenstød mellem Wellingtons kavaleriskærm og en del af en fransk hær under Marmont, der netop havde rejst blokaden af ​​Ciudad Rodrigo. Efter at have hævet blokaden besluttede Marmont at foretage en stærk kavaleri -rekognoscering for at opdage, om Wellington forberedte sig på en belejring. En af disse kolonner, der indeholdt to kavaleribrigader under kommando af general Wathier, blev sendt vest fra Ciudad Rodrigo for at undersøge Azaba (eller Azava) flodens linje. Dette bragte dem op mod Wellingtons venstre fløj, hvor 1. og 6. division under General Graham vogtede vejen til Almeida og forsyningsdepotet ved Villa da Ponte, mens Ansons brigade leverede et kavaleri på tværs af Carpio -vejen (en landsby lige for at øst for Azaba).

Wathiers fremrykning tvang Ansons mænd til at opgive deres staklinje og trække sig tilbage bag Azabaen. Wathier efterlod derefter seks af sine eskadriller ved Carpio og krydsede floden med de resterende otte. Graham reagerede ved at flytte lyskompagnierne i Hulses brigade til kanten af ​​en træstrækning lige vest for floden. Ansons kavaleri - det 14. og 16. Light Dragos) trak også tilbage til kanten af ​​træerne.

Skoven gjorde Wathier nervøs, og han besluttede at sende fire af sine otte eskadriller frem for at undersøge. Da den første af disse eskadriller kom tæt på skoven, blev den ladet af en eskadrille fra den 14. Light Dragons og tvunget tilbage på de tre andre. Alle fire franske eskadriller fortsatte derefter deres fremrykning. Da de kom tæt på skoven, åbnede de tre britiske lyskompagnier ild, og før franskmændene kunne genoprette det britiske kavaleri tiltalt igen. Denne gang vendte det franske kavaleri og flygtede og blev jaget tilbage til floden. Franskmændene mistede 11 døde og 37 taget til fange under denne træfning, mens briterne kun mistede 11 sårede og en savnet. Selvom det kun var et mindre sammenstød, bekræftede kampen mod Carpio, at briterne havde infanteri vest for Carpio og hjalp med at opbygge Marmonts billede af Wellingtons temmelig spredte disposition.

Napoleons hjemmeside | Bøger om Napoleonskrigene | Emneindeks: Napoleonskrige

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A Trek through old Mumbles Village: Part Nine af Stuart Batcup

Godt her er vi stadig uden for Thistleboon House i midten af ​​det nittende århundrede, hvor huset foretog et tydeligt skift i sit bidrag til ikke kun vores samfund i Oystermouth, men som vi skal se mod en meget bredere verden i næsten hundrede år som en skole og som et børnehjem tæt knyttet til vores All Saints Sognekirke.

Vi har allerede set, at fra en befolkning i Sognet 715 i 1801 var den steget til 1938 i 1851 og var bestemt til at stige dramatisk i 1901 til 4461 og fra 1951 til 11678, mere end fordobling hvert halvtreds år. Denne stigende befolkning førte naturligvis til de sædvanlige krav til boliger, motorveje, vand og sanitære forhold Lettelse af de fattige og begravelse af de døde ansvar for alle, der påhviler præstestyrelsen og kirkeværgerne i henhold til lov om ændring af fattige love fra 1834. Dette skulle fortsætte indtil 1885, da det nuværende lokale forvaltningssystem blev til.

Af denne grund er Vestry Minute Book og registre over dåb, ægteskaber og dødsfald en rig kilde til beviser. Sognet var en del af Gower Unionen, der var ansvarlig for Workhouse i Penmaen (nu Three Cliffs Plejehjem), hvor de fattige blev sendt, da systemet med 'udendørs nødhjælp' mislykkedes. Udendørs lettelse var de 'fordele', der blev betalt til de fattige og beskrevet i minutbogen, så alle kunne se.

Hvad angår uddannelse og dens sammenhænge med religion, Rapporten fra kommissærerne for undersøgelse af uddannelsesstaten i Wales 1847, den berygtede ' Blue Books ’ , bragte uddannelsestilstanden i Sognet skarpt fokus. Malcolm Ridge har offentliggjort del 1 af sin beretning om »Midt i 1800-tallets skoler for fattige i halvøernes sogne Gower ’ baseret på de blå bøger (se Gower 71.2020) og del 2 følger næste år, hvor han dækker Oystermouth.

Kommissæren, der besøgte Oystermouth, var kun der i et døgn, og de følgende udtræk giver en idé om, hvad der blev fundet, og hvad man tænkte:

”Oystermouth er et vigtigt og voksende sogn. Jernminer er blevet opdaget i det og bliver bearbejdet. Det vil sandsynligvis være omfattet af forbedringerne af Swanseas havn fra disse årsager, at befolkningen kan forventes at stige hurtigt. Lønningerne var gode og menneskene meget velstillede, hvis det ellers var på grund af besindighed og skødesløshed ”

Der var en spædbarnsskole fremmet af vores Henry Bath fra 'Rosehill', en kvæker, men som i 1860 var kirkeværge. Det havde 55 elever, heraf 18 over ti.

Der var to landsbyskoler, en for drenge og en for piger, begge stiftet i begyndelsen af ​​århundredet, forbundet med kirken og fremmet af den evige kurator, pastor Samuel Davies fra 'The Grange' på West Cross.

Kommissæren tænkte ikke meget på drengeskolen og betegnede den som 'en sløv usystematisk skole af den gamle slags'. Selvom der var 59 elever, hjalp det ikke, at der var et "tyndt fremmøde" på besøgets dag. "Der havde været et vrag i kvarteret dagen før, og alle de større drenge var væk for at se på det"!

Derimod gik pigeskolen lidt bedre. Skolestuen i køkkenet i elskerinderens sommerhus 'var meget pæn' og de 38 piger var 'ordnede og pæne', og såvel som de lærte at sy, lærte de katekismen, som de "kendte med rote, men var fuldstændig ude af stand til at give nogen rationel forklaring på enhver del eller sætning af den ”!

Sognet havde også den længst etablerede Private Adventure Day-skole på halvøen, som var blevet oprettet i 1806 af en pensioneret Ships Purser James Bennett, nu 77 år, og hans kone. Der var 55 elever, 5 i alderen 10 år, men de var alle på ferie, da kommissæren kaldte den 22. december, så meget lidt blev opdaget om skolen.

Der var ingen klager over brugen af ​​det walisiske sprog, som kommissærerne ikke kunne forstå (da det ikke var i brug), men det blev bemærket, at nogle af lærerne havde problemer med at forstå deres elever, da de talte den lokale/Gower -dialekt , noget jeg også kæmpede med i halvfemserne!

Derudover var der tre søndagsskoler:

1. En kirkesøndagsskole, den tidligste i Gower oprettet i 1805. Den brugte dagskolens lokaler og havde tre lærere til 74 elever alle under 15 år

2. En metodistisk søndagsskole i det gamle Wesleyan -kapel. Kapellet var blevet bygget i 1814, og søndagsskolen, der startede i 1825, brugte det kapel. Det havde ti lærere, der underviste 50 elever alle under 15 år

3. Parakletkapel i Newton, etableret af Lady Barham i 1819, var blevet et menighedskapel, men søndagsskolen, der mødtes der, var uafhængig af kapellet. Det havde også ti lærere og en forstander, der underviste i 66 elever, heraf 31 over 15

Rapporten siger ikke, hvor skoledagene blev afholdt eller angiver arten af ​​deres fonde. Carol Powells dejlige bog 'Dage før i går: Barndom på victoriansk Oystermouth ' udfylder mange af hullerne:


Combat of Carpio, 25. september 1811 - Historie

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Denne artikel skulle offentliggøres i 2017, men jeg trak den tilbage som følge af det, jeg overvejede. mere Denne artikel skulle offentliggøres i 2017, men jeg trak den tilbage som et resultat af det, jeg betragtede som redaktørens urimelige krav.

En kopi af kladde 2 er nu tilgængelig i kladder, og kommentarer vil være velkomne i sessioner.

Theobald Wolfe Tone: Irsk patriot, lurvegeneral? Spørgsmålet fremstår enkelt, endda trivielt, på. mere Theobald Wolfe Tone: Irsk patriot, lurvegeneral?

Spørgsmålet ser ud til at være enkelt, endda trivielt, men denne forskning har taget uforholdsmæssig lang tid, begyndende med en søgning efter bekræftelse af den irske legionschef Bernard MacSheehys forfremmelse i den franske hær i Egypten i 1800 til adjudant-general fra chef de bataillon, eller oberstløjtnant for infanteri.
Det faktum, at bekræftelsen af ​​MacSheehy var som adjudant-kommandant, rejste spørgsmålstegn ved, hvorfor ændringen var foretaget på den fejlagtige antagelse, at rangen som adjudant-kommandant på en eller anden måde var ringere end adjudant-general, som titlerne kunne antyde.
Vincennes-sagen om Theobald Wolfe Tone, den mest berømte irer, der havde rang som generaladjudant i den franske hær, kaster ikke lys over sagen, men svaret findes i franske militærregler fra 1790 til 1803. Mellem Tones udnævnelse og MacSheehys foreløbige forfremmelse, var rang som adjudant-général blevet erstattet af adjudant-kommandant, på hvilket niveau MacSheehy blev bekræftet i 1800.
Det, der viser sig, er det faktum, at Tone, som adjudant-general, var en af ​​mange, og ikke den etablerede i det unikke kontor som generaladjutant, som i den britiske hær i epoken. Desuden var rangen som adjudant-general-chef de brigade ikke en generel rang (officiers généraux), men svarer til oberst (officerer-superieurs), der tjener i staben i en division eller en hel hær, som begge ville indeholde flere adjudanter -genéraux.
Parade i sin uniform, som han beskriver sig selv, kunne Tone have troet, at han havde en generel rang, men om han havde til hensigt at vildlede er ikke klart. Kommentatorer synes imidlertid på grund af mangel på tilstrækkelig forskning at have antaget, at Tone havde en højere rang end den, han havde ret til.

Dette er mit første forsøg på at redigere et udgivet og velkendt værk. I øjeblikket kun et bind o. mere Dette er mit første forsøg på at redigere et udgivet og velkendt værk. På nuværende tidspunkt er der kun arbejdet med et bind ud af tre, og der skal arbejdes meget.
Imidlertid forelægger jeg hermed mit arbejde indtil videre for at undersøge mine jævnaldrende, som jeg håber vil have nogle meninger at byde på.
Byrnes karriere i den franske hær kan spores gennem militærarkiverne i Service Historique de la Défense, Vincennes (SHD) og andre arkiver. Bind 1, der beskriver Byrnes tidlige liv og hans rolle i oprørerne i 1798 og 1803, op til hans flugt til Frankrig, er langt vanskeligere, og meget af oplysningerne er meget svære at bekræfte.
Mange spørgsmål, som jeg henviser til i fodnoter, biografiske detaljer osv., Håber jeg at udvide i min biografi om Byrne: Soldier of Misfortune, A Military Biography of Miles Byrne, som er i de sene udviklingsstadier.


Combat of Carpio, 25. september 1811 - Historie

Det Maryland Gazette begyndte udgivelsen i september 1727 og ophørte med nummeret 29. november 1734 (MSA SC 2853). Det blev udgivet ugentligt. Titelhistorik delvist baseret på 3. december til 10. december 1728 [nr. 65]. Det blev udgivet som Maryland Gazette, 19. september 1727-marts 1731 den Maryland Gazette Reviv'd, December 1732-marts 1733 og Maryland Gazettemellem 23. marts og 13. april 1733. Publikationen blev suspenderet fra marts 1731 til december 1732.

Offentliggørelse af Maryland Gazette genoptaget den 1. januar 1745 (MSA SC 2731). Det blev udgivet som Maryland Gazette, 17. januar 1745-3. oktober 1765 den Maryland Gazette, udløber, 1. oktober 1765 den Maryland Gazette, genopliver, 30. januar 1766 den Maryland Gazette, genoplivet, 20. februar 1766 og Maryland Gazette, 6. marts, 1766-efter 1800. Udgave for 26. april 1745 kaldte også nr. 1. Offentliggørelsen blev suspenderet 31. oktober 1765 på grund af frimærkeloven og genoptaget den 30. januar 1766. Det sidste nummererede nummer, der blev offentliggjort før suspensionen, var 10. oktober 1765 [nr. 1066] efterfulgt af tre nummererede tillæg (17., 24., 31. oktober) og et særnummer den 10. december med titlen Udseende af afdøde Maryland Gazette, som ikke er død, men kun sover. Der blev ikke udgivet nogen numre 6.-14. Februar, 27., 1766. Publikationen blev suspenderet igen 25. december 1777-30. april 1779. Avisen blev videreført af Maryland Gazette og politisk intelligens, 1813-1824 (MSA SC 3403). Papiret blev kaldt Maryland Gazette and State Register, 1824-1826 (MSA SC 3428), indtil brug af Maryland Gazette den 4. januar 1827. Publikationen ophørte den 12. december 1839.

For abstracts, se: Robert W. Barnes, Gleanings fra Maryland Newspapers 1776-1785 (Lutherville, MD: Bettie Carothers, 1975) Robert W. Barnes, Gleanings fra Maryland Newspapers 1786-1790 (Silver Spring, MD: Family Line Publications, 1975) Robert Barnes, Gleanings fra Maryland Newspapers 1791-1795 (Lutherville, MD: Bettie Carothers, 1976) Robert Barnes, Ægteskaber og dødsfald fra Maryland Gazette, 1727-1839 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1979) Karen Mauer Green, Maryland Gazette Genealogiske og historiske abstrakter 1727-1761 (Galveston, TX: The Frontier Press, 1989) Effie L. Henry, komp., Uddrag fra Maryland Gazette [1730-1790] [Washington?, DC: 1936?] [LC -opkaldsnummer: F180 .H47].

For en komplet oversigt over Maryland Gazette -samlingerne (MSA SC 2853, SC 2731, SC 3403, SC 3428 og SC 3447) se vejledningen til Maryland Newspapers. Maryland State Archives ejer to mikrofilmsamlinger, der indeholder billeder af Maryland Gazette Collection fra 1745-1839. Den første samling af Maryland Gazette -mikrofilm blev filmet af Yale University Library mellem 1938 og 1940. Yale -filmen, ruller M1 til og med M25, er gammel og ufuldstændig, og billederne er ikke særlig læselige. Den anden samling blev filmet af Atlantic Microfilm Corporation i 1970 og omfatter rulle M1278 til M1291, de resulterende billeder fra denne samling er meget klarere end dem, der blev fundet på de tidligere hjul.


Camp Sevier

Denne lejr, opkaldt til ære for John Sevier, Lieut. Kol., N.C. -milits, 1777, Kol., 1781, Brig. Gen., USPA, 1796, blev godkendt som kantoningssted 21. maj 1917. Den 30. division uddannede her fra 28. august 1917 til 1. maj 1918 den 81. fra 18. maj 1918 til 16. juli 1918 den 20. fra august 12, 1918 til 28. februar 1919.

Opført 1938 af The American Legion of South Carolina. (Markørnummer 23-2.)

Emner. Denne historiske markør er opført på disse emnelister: Krig, USA's revolutionære og tyrekrig, Verden I. En vigtig historisk måned for denne post er februar 1842.

Beliggenhed. 34 & deg 53.986 ′ N, 82 & deg 20.245 ′ W. Marker er i Taylors, South Carolina, i Greenville County. Marker er i krydset mellem Wade Hampton Boulevard (U.S. 29) og Artillery Road, til venstre, når du rejser nordpå på Wade Hampton Boulevard. Marker er placeret ved siden af ​​Open Hearth Restaurant. Tryk for kort. Marker er på eller i nærheden af ​​denne postadresse: 2801 Wade Hampton Boulevard # 1, Taylors SC 29687, USA. Tryk for at få en vejvisning.

Andre markører i nærheden. Mindst 10 andre markører er inden for 3 miles fra denne markør, målt i luftlinje. Pastor James R. Rosemond (ca. en kilometer væk) en anden markør, der også hedder Camp Sevier (ca. 1 miles væk) Woodlawn Memorial Park Veterans Memorial (ca. 2,8 miles væk) Hvad er så specielt ved denne bro?

(ca. 2 miles væk) Dam til Reservoir 2 (ca. 4,6 miles væk) Velkommen til Paris Mountain State Park (ca. 4,6 miles væk) Nyt liv for Old Bathhouse (ca. 4,6 miles væk) Come On In, the Vand er fint! (ca. 4,6 miles væk) "Mor, kan jeg få et nikkel?" (ca. 2,6 miles væk) Åben for himlen (ca. 2,7 miles væk).

Angående Camp Sevier. Lejren lå tæt på krydset mellem Rutherford Street og Pine Knoll Drive. Hurtigt opført i 1917 for at hjælpe Amerika med at reagere på de allieredes behov for nyuddannede tropper til 1. verdenskrig, lå lejren 6 miles fra Greenville og dækkede 1.900 acres. Det omfattede et hospital, borepladser, bageri og kaserne til hærens 30. infanteri/feltartilleridivision. 80.000 mænd blev uddannet her til 1. verdenskrig. Efter grunduddannelse blev soldater sendt herfra til Charleston til kamp i Frankrig. (Kilde: http://www.greenville.k12.sc.us/league/tourprt.htm.)

Camp Sevier var en af ​​tre træningslejre i South Carolina. De andre var Camp Wadsworth og Camp Jackson, den eneste af de tre, der stadig er i drift.

Relaterede markører. Klik her for

en liste over markører, der er relateret til denne markør.

Se også. . .
1. 30. infanteridivision (USA). Den 30. infanteridivision var en enhed fra den amerikanske hær under første verdenskrig og anden verdenskrig. (Indsendt den 2. februar 2009 af Brian Scott fra Anderson, South Carolina.)

2. 81. infanteridivision (USA). Den 81. infanteridivision var en enhed i den amerikanske hær under første verdenskrig og anden verdenskrig. (Indsendt den 2. februar 2009 af Brian Scott fra Anderson, South Carolina.)

3. 20. division (USA). Organiseret i 1918 som en almindelig hær og national hær division for første verdenskrig, gik 20. division ikke til udlandet og demobiliserede i februar 1919 i Camp Sevier, South Carolina. (Indsendt den 2. februar 2009 af Brian Scott fra Anderson, South Carolina.)

4. John Sevier. John Sevier (23. september 1745 – 25. september 1815) tjente fire år (1785 �) som den eneste guvernør i staten Franklin og tolv år (1796 � og 1803 �) som guvernør i Tennessee og som en USA's repræsentant fra Tennessee fra 1811 til hans død. (Indsendt den 2. februar 2009 af Brian Scott fra Anderson, South Carolina.)

5. The Life of John Sevier Time Line. Herunder Family Origins & World Events, 1506 - 1815. (Indsendt den 2. februar 2009 af Brian Scott fra Anderson, South Carolina.)

Staten Franklin var et autonomt, secessionistisk amerikansk område, der ikke længe efter afslutningen af ​​den amerikanske revolution blev oprettet fra territorium, der senere blev afstået af North Carolina til den føderale regering. (Indsendt den 2. februar 2009 af Brian Scott fra Anderson, South Carolina.)

Yderligere kommentarer.
1. Om Camp Sevier
Den 6. april 1917 erklærede USA krig mod centralmagterne. Guvernør Manning gik hurtigt for at sikre, at South Carolina gjorde sit, men støtten til krigen var ikke enstemmig. I Lexington, Newberry, Orangeburg og Charleston amter var der stærk antikrigsstemning blandt dem af tysk og irsk afstamning. Ugen før krig blev erklæret, var der en beredskabsparade i Columbia og et krigssamling i Lexington County retshus. Føderale myndigheder fængslede redaktøren af ​​Abbeville Scimitar for at stille spørgsmålstegn ved Wilsons motiver til at gå i krig og forbød kort tid Charleston -amerikaneren fra mails for angiveligt subversive kommentarer. Cole Blease fordømte krigen og sammenlignede i en bidende tale Manning med genopbygningsguvernørerne. "Dick Manning er den værste guvernør, staten nogensinde har haft," sagde han, "værre end Scott, Chamberlain eller Moses, fordi de kun stjal penge, og han prøver

for at stjæle sjælene og kroppene til dine drenge. ”Selvom han senere tilbagekaldte og støttede krigen, havde han begået en politisk tabbe af den første orden.

Statens forsvarsråd udgav en håndbog om krigen i South Carolina, der afspejlede den iver, hvormed amerikanerne gik i krig for at vælte "det barbariske styre om brutalt Preussen." Enten støtte krigen eller blive stemplet som en forræder. Der kunne ikke være nogen mellemvej: "De, der ikke er for os, er imod os." Et korps på 200 erhvervs- og borgerledere (kaldet "Fire minutters mænd") var parat til at tale hvor som helst og når som helst. Højttalerbureauet var ligesom meget af materialet i pjecen en del af en koordineret national kampagne for at mobilisere hjemmefronten. Karolinere, hvide og sorte, samlede sig til flaget, men på grund af Jim Crow blev alle krigsstøtteaktiviteter (Røde Kors, obligationsdrev, sejrhaver) adskilt. Omkring 307.000 unge mænd registrerede sig til udkastet til disse, 54.000 blev udarbejdet. Patriotiske fondsdrivere hævede næsten $ 100 millioner ($ 1 milliard). Indbygger pr. Indbygger var statens økonomiske støtte til krigsindsatsen blandt de højeste i nationen. Og efter et halvt århundrede fejrede hvide karolinere endnu en gang den fjerde juli.

Krigens begyndelse gjorde borgerlige ledere ivrige efter at have militærbaser placeret nær deres byer. Greenville og Columbia havde lært under den spansk-amerikanske krig, hvor mange penge militære

installationer kunne pumpe ind i et fællesskab. En kombination af lokalt initiativ og statens politiske indflydelse med Wilson -administrationen resulterede i autorisation til hærens træningsbaser i Camp Jackson (Columbia), Camp Sevier (Greenville) og Camp Wadsworth (Spartanburg). Marine Corps -anlægget på Paris Island og Charleston Navy Yard travlt med øget aktivitet. Bekymring for tjenestemænds sundhed førte til føderalt pres, der hidtil lukkede for røde lysdistrikter i Charleston og Columbia.

Statens nationale vagtenheder blev indarbejdet i den 30. division (Old Hickory), der trænede i Camp Sevier. Mange karolinere var medlemmer af 81. (Wildcat) og 371. Regiment, 93d (Negro) divisioner, der trænede i Camp Jackson. Alle disse enheder så handling i Frankrig, 81. og 93d langs Hindenburg -linjen nær Bellincourt. Statens tjenestemænd udmærkede sig på slagmarken. Af de halvfjerds-ni æresmedaljer, der blev uddelt for adfærd "ud over pligten", gik syv til sydkarolinere. Blandt heltene var James Dozier fra Rock Hill, der senere tjente som statens adjutantgeneral i treogtredive år, og Freddy Stowers fra Sandy Springs, som var den eneste sorte amerikaner, der modtog medaljen i begge verdenskrig. (Kilde: South Carolina: En historie af Walter Edger (1998), s. 476-477.)


Combat of Carpio, 25. september 1811 - Historie

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nationsfor en verden uden sult

  1. Identitet
    1. Biologiske træk
    1. Historisk baggrund
    2. Vigtigste producentlande
    3. Habitat og biologi
    1. Produktionscyklus
    2. Produktionssystemer
    3. Sygdomme og kontrolforanstaltninger
    1. Produktionsstatistik
    2. Marked og handel
    1. Status og tendenser
    2. Vigtigste spørgsmål
      1. Ansvarlig akvakultur praksis
      1. Relaterede links

      Cyprinus carpio Linné, 1758 [Cyprinidae]
      FAO Navne: En - Almindelig karpe, Fr - Carpe kommune, Es - Carpa com & uacuten

      Biologiske træk
      Kroppen aflang og noget komprimeret. Læber tykke. To par barbels i mundvinkel, kortere på overlæben. Rygfinne base lang med 17-22 forgrenede stråler og en stærk, tandet rygsøjle foran rygfinnen omrids konkav fremad. Analfinne med 6-7 bløde stråler bageste kant af 3. dorsale og analfinspines med skarpe spindler. Sidelinje med 32 til 38 skalaer. Faryngeal tænder 5: 5, tænder med flade kroner. Farvevariabel, vilde karper er brungrønne på bagsiden og oversiden, skraver til gylden gul ventralt. Finnerne er mørke, ventralt med et rødligt skær. Gyldne karper er opdrættet til dekorative formål.

      Vigtigste producentlande
      De vigtigste producentlande for Cyprinus carpio (FAO Fiskeristatistik, 2006)
      Habitat og biologi

      Vilde almindelige karper (generelt omtalt som 'karper' i dette faktablad) lever i de midterste og nedre strømme af floder, i oversvømmede områder og i lavt indesluttede farvande, såsom søer, oxbow -søer og vandreservoirer. Karper er hovedsageligt bundboere, men søger efter mad i vandets midterste og øvre lag. Typiske 'karpedamme' i Europa er lavvandede, eutrofiske damme med en mudret bund og tæt vandvegetation ved digerne. Det økologiske spektrum af karper er bredt. Bedste vækst opnås, når vandtemperaturen ligger mellem 23 & degC og 30 & degC. Fisken kan overleve kolde vinterperioder. Saltholdighed op til ca. 5 & permil tolereres. Det optimale pH-område er 6,5-9,0. Arten kan overleve lav iltkoncentration (0,3-0,5 mg/liter) samt overmætning. Karper er altædende, med en høj tendens til indtagelse af animalsk mad, såsom vandinsekter, larver af insekter, orme, bløddyr og zooplankton. Forbruget af zooplankton er dominerende i fiskedamme, hvor strømtætheden er høj. Derudover forbruger karperne stilke, blade og frø af vand- og landplanter, forfaldne vandplanter osv. Karpernes dambrug er baseret på artens evne til at acceptere og udnytte korn, som landmændene leverer. Den daglige vækst af karper kan være 2 til 4 procent af kropsvægten. Karper kan nå 0,6 til 1,0 kg kropsvægt inden for en sæson i de polykulturelle fiskedamme i subtropiske/tropiske områder. Væksten er meget langsommere i den tempererede zone: her når fisken 1 til 2 kg kropsvægt efter 2 til 4 opdrætssæsoner. I Europa har hunkarper brug for omkring 11 000 til 12 000 graddage for at nå modenhed i de tempererede og subtropiske klimazoner. Hankarper modnes inden for en periode, der er 25-35 procent kortere. Løbetiden for asiatiske karper er lidt kortere. Gydningen af ​​europæisk karpe starter, når vandtemperaturen er 17-18 & degC. Asiatiske stammer begynder at gyde, når ionkoncentrationen af ​​vandet brat falder i begyndelsen af ​​regntiden. Vildkarper er delvise gyder. Tamme karper frigiver alle deres modne æg inden for få timer. Efter hormonbehandling frigiver karper deres modne æg inden for en meget kortere periode, hvilket gør det muligt at fjerne dem. Mængden af ​​frigivne æg er 100 til 230 g/kg legemsvægt. Æggeskallen bliver klistret efter kontakt med vand.

      Den embryonale udvikling af karper tager omkring 3 dage ved 20-23 & degC (60-70 grader-dage). Under naturlige forhold holder klækket yngel sig til underlaget. Omkring tre dage efter klækning udvikler den bageste del af svømmeblæren sig, larverne svømmer vandret og begynder at indtage ekstern mad med en maksimal størrelse på 150-180 & mikrometer (hovedsageligt rotifere).

      Produktionscyklus for Cyprinus carpio

      Gydning på reder, vandkrudt og oversvømmet græs i tanke og damme

      Karpe kan gyde hele året i tropiske områder i Indien, med toppe i januar-marts og juli-august. Avl udføres i hapas, cementtanke eller små damme. Nedsænkede vandplanter bruges som underlag til æglægning. Når ynglen er 4 til 5 dage gammel, lagres de i børnehaver.

      'Sundanesisk metode' bruges til gydende karper i Indonesien. Stamfiskene holdes i yngelfiskedamme, adskilt efter køn. Modnet ynglefisk overføres til 25-30 m & sup2 gydedamme. 'Kakabans' (reder lavet af fiber af Arenga -arter) installeres i dammen. Fiskene lægger deres æg på begge sider af kakabanerne. Når gydningen er afsluttet, overføres rederne til ruge-/plejedamme.

      Små damme bruges til gydekarper i Kina. Akvatiske ukrudt (Ceratophyllum, Myriophyllum) eller flydende palme blade bruges som gydende underlag.

      Små 'Dubits damme' (120-300 m og sup2 vandoverflade) blev tidligere brugt til gydning og til kort pleje af karpe yngel i Europa tidligere. For nylig bruges damme med et areal fra et par hundrede m & sup2 op til 10-30 ha her. To til fire uger efter gydning kan ynglen enten høstes fra disse store damme eller forblive der op til opdræt til fingerling størrelse.

      Kulturbrug baseret frøproduktion

      Dette er den mest effektive og pålidelige metode til frøproduktion. Kuldfisk holdes i vand mættet med ilt, inden for temperaturområdet 20-24 & ordmC. De får to doser hypofyseinjektion eller en blanding af GnRH/dopaminantagonist for at fremkalde ægløsning og spermiering. Æggene befrugtes (ved anvendelse af den 'tørre metode'), og æggets klæbeevne elimineres ved hjælp af salt/urinstofbehandling, efterfulgt af et tanninsyrebad ('Woynarovich -metoden'). Inkubation udføres i Zoug -krukker. De udklækkede yngel opbevares i store koniske tanke i 1 til 3 dage og lagres normalt på stadiet med 'swim-up' eller 'fodring af yngel' i korrekt tilberedte damme. Omkring 300 000 til 800 000 nyudklækkede yngel kan forventes fra en enkelt hun.

      Pleje af almindelig karpe i damme og tanke

      Lavvandede, vandfrit ukrudtsfrie drænbare damme på 0,5 til 1,0 ha er de mest egnede til karperepleje. Planteskoledamme skal forberedes inden strømpen for at fremme udviklingen af ​​en rotiferbestand, da dette udgør den første mad til fodring af yngel. Strømpe tætheden er 100-400 yngel/m & sup2. Damene skal inokuleres med Moina eller Daphnia efter strømning. Supplerende foderstoffer, såsom sojabønnemel, kornmåltider, kødmel eller blandinger af disse materialer, bør påføres. Risklid eller rispolering kan også bruges til fodring af yngel. Børnehaveperioden er 3 til 4 uger. Den endelige fisk vægt er 0,2-0,5 g. Overlevelsesraten er 40-70 procent.

      Hvis der er mange rovdyr i området, hvor damme ville ligge (insekter, slanger, frøer, fugle, vilde fisk), kan tankesygning af karper anvendes. Tanke på 5-100 m og sup2 overfladeareal, fremstillet af beton, mursten eller plast, kan bruges til ammeyngel op til 1-2 cm i størrelse. Ved at påføre hø og gødning kan der etableres tætte bestande af Paramecium og rotifere i disse tanke. Et par hundrede yngel pr. M & sup2 kan fyldes op. Indsamlede zooplankton- og fine partikelstørrelsesmåltider eller komplette starterfødevarer kan bruges. Industrielle type systemer, såsom racerbaner eller vandrecirkulationssystemer er også velegnede til pleje.

      Produktionen af ​​karperfinger finder normalt sted i halvintensive damme, baseret på gødning/gødningsgenereret naturlig mad og supplerende fodring. Fingerlingproduktion kan udføres i et enkelt trin system (strømning af nyklækkede yngel og høstning af fingerlinger), et to -trins system (strømning af plejet yngel og høst af fingerlings) eller et multicyklus system (når nyudklækkede yngel er opbevaret, og fisken er tyndes ud flere gange).

      Strømning af ynglet yngel er den mest effektive måde at producere mellemstore og store fingre. Afhængigt af den krævede endelige størrelse af fingerlinger kan 50 000-200 000 ammede yngel/ha lagres i tempererede zoner, fortrinsvis i polykulturelle systemer, hvor andelen almindelig karpe er 20-50 procent. Den sidste vægt af karpen er 30-100 g. I varme klimaer, hvis store fingre er produktionsmålet, er tætheden af ​​plejet yngel 50 000-70 000/ha, hvoraf andelen almindelig karpe er 20 procent. Overlevelse på 40-50 procent opnås. Små fingre kan produceres i damme fyldt med 400 000 små (15 mm) ynglede yngel. I dette tilfælde er overlevelsesraten 25-30 procent.

      Hyppig påføring af gødning er nødvendig for at opretholde planktonbestanden. Fodringen er hovedsageligt baseret på landbrugsbiprodukter i subtropiske områder, på korn og/eller piller i tempererede zoner.

      Produktion af to sommergamle karper

      I tempererede zoner skal en sommer gamle fisk (20-100 g) opdrættes op til 250-400 g i det andet år. Strømningsgraden er 4.000-6.000/ha plus ca. 3.000 kinesisk karpe/ha, hvis der kun fodres med korn. Strømningshastigheden kan være meget højere (op til 20 000/ha), hvis der også anvendes korn og piller. Den daglige ration er cirka 3-5 procent af kropsvægten.

      Produktion af fisk i markedsstørrelse

      Common carp can be produced in extensive, natural food and supplementary feed-based monocultural production systems, in stagnant water ponds. Artificial feed-based intensive monocultural production can be carried out in cages, irrigation reservoirs, and running water ponds and tanks, or in recirculation systems.

      Common carp are stocked with Chinese carps, and/or Indian major carps, tilapia, mullet, etc., in polycultural systems. This constitutes a natural food and supplementary feed-based production method, in which fish that have different feeding habits and occupy different trophic niches are stocked into the same ponds. The quantity of fish should be in accordance with the productivity of natural food organisms. The frequent application of manure or fertilizers and the proper species ratio, make the maintenance of productive populations of natural food organisms, and the maximal utilization of the productivity of pond ecosystem possible. Synergetic effects between fish species support the production in polycultural ponds.

      Carp culture can be integrated with animal husbandry and/or plant production. Integration can be direct (animals above fish ponds), indirect (wastes of animals are used in the ponds as manure), parallel (rice-cum-fish), or sequential (fish production between crops). The sequential cycling of fish/animal/legumes/rice (in 7 to 9 year cycles) is suitable for significantly decreasing the environmental loading of intensive aquaculture/agriculture. Since common carp burrow in the pond bottom, have a broad environmental tolerance and an omnivorous feeding habit, they are a key species in integrated systems.

      Common carp can also be stocked into natural waters, reservoirs, and temporarily inundated areas, in order to utilize the natural food production of these waters for enhanced capture fisheries. In this case the fish stocked should be 13-15 cm fingerlings produced in fish farms ('aquaculture-based fisheries') in order to avoid the losses that would occur with smaller fish. Common carp are usually stocked with other cyprinid species, in accordance with the productivity of the water and the intensity of exploitation.

      Undrainable ponds, or drainable ponds with a long harvesting ditch, or ponds with inner or outer harvesting pits are used for carp rearing. The fish are usually harvested by seine nets. The length of nets should be 1.5 times the width of ponds, but not longer than 120-150 m.

      In undrainable ponds, selective harvesting can be done. The maximum weight of carp which can get through various mesh size nets are: 20 mm mesh size = 20 g fish 25 mm = 40 g 30 mm =100 g 35 mm =170 g 40 mm = 270 g 50 mm = 400 g.

      Since the carp keep mud-free the area where they search for food, feeding should be done throughout the growing period in the harvest area. At harvest time the water should be drained slowly (1-3 days from a 1 ha pond, 8-14 days from 30-60 ha ponds). The fish gather in the deepest area of the pond, unless they are frightened away by an abrupt decrease of water level, or by noises. Since carp tend to swim towards incoming water, a small quantity of water is flowed into the pond near the drainage site to concentrate the fish, especially if the water temperature is high. When a large quantity of fish is concentrated in the harvesting pits aeration should be supplied. Sprinkling water on the surface is usually not sufficient.

      Partial harvesting (regardless whether the ponds are drainable or undrainable) increases the total production of the ponds by improving the conditions for the remaining population.

      If harvesting is carried out in warm water, the fish are pre-conditioned by repeated stressing before netting. Harvested fish can be transferred live in aerated tanks for 3-5 hours, if the fish/water ratio is not more than 1:2. The density of fish in transport tanks and the duration of transport depend on fish size, temperature and the amount of aeration.

      If, during harvesting, fish have been enticed into the harvesting area by feed, only very short transport time is feasible, since the oxygen demand of satiated fish is high.

      The majority of carps is transferred live to markets, and is sold either live or freshly dressed. Successful trials have been carried out on the large scale filleting of carp in France. Apart from value-added products, about 15 different products can be prepared from carp, representing different levels of processing.

      In some cases antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals have been used in treatment but their inclusion in this table does not imply an FAO recommendation.

      Suppliers of pathology expertise

      Expertise can be obtained from the following sources:

      • Asien
          .
      • Prof. Jiang Yulin, China
      • Aqua-Vet Technologies Ltd. Israel (Dr. Ra'anan Ariav) or
        • CEFAS Weymouth Laboratory, UK
          • Dr. Peter Dixon
          • Dr. Keith Way
          • Dr. Gyorgy Csaba
          • Dr. Maria Lang
          • Dr. Olga L.M. Haenen
          • Dr. Sven Bergmann
          • UC Davis, California
            • Prof. Ronald Hedrick

            Farmed common carp production was nearly 14 percent of the total global freshwater aquaculture production in 2002 (33 138 962 tonnes). Common carp production increased by an average global rate of 9.5 percent/yr between 1985 (681 319 tonnes) and 2002. In the past decade (1993-2002) this has increased to 10.4 percent/yr. This is greater than the expansion rate of farmed grass carp (10.1 percent/yr), silver carp (8.8 percent/yr), and bighead carp production (7.2 percent/yr), but less than that for tilapias (11.8 percent/yr) during this decade. In Europe, common carp production was 144 602 tonnes in 2002. This represents a substantial reduction from peak production of over 402 000 tonnes in 1990, caused by changes in Eastern Europe. However, European production appears to be gradually increasing again the 1993-2002 trough was 125 274 tonnes in 1997.

            According to FAO data, the global average unit price of farmed common carp has declined from USD 1.43/kg in 1993 to USD 0.92/kg in 2002. However, this may principally be due to a fall in the value of the RMB yuan during this period in China, where a large proportion of production (e.g. 70 percent in 2002) takes place.

            Market and trade

            Statistical data indicate that common carp production may have come close to its limit. However, common carp will remain an important species in those areas where it is produced traditionally. The majority of the carp are consumed domestically. Based on several trials on common carp processing carried out in Europe, it was revealed that live or freshly dressed fish are required by the market. Processing increased the price of carp to less competitive levels, so a significant increase in the demand for processed carp products can not be forecast.

            Typically, about 24 000 tonnes of live, fresh/chilled filleted or frozen carp products (all species) are traded (imported or exported) within Europe annually. The main exporters are Austria, the Czech Republic, Croatia and Lithuania. The main importers in 2002 were Austria, Germany, Hungary and Poland. In the whole of the rest of the world, including the principal producing region (Asia), international trading of all carp species is quite limited (39 000 tonnes/yr in 2002).

            Production of 'bio carp' has been started in some areas. Quality labelling and an emphasis on the fact that the carp are produced in extensive or semi-intensive systems that are environment-friendly technologies, may increase the acceptance of common carp by certain groups of consumers.

            A change in the main objective of common carp production can be observed in Europe. Formerly, the market demanded fish mainly for consumption. Recently, a significant quantity of the carp produced in aquaculture is stocked into natural waters and water reservoirs for angling purposes. Since the anglers prefer fish that are more active on the hook than the domesticated carp, they need wild carp or hybrids of domesticated and wild carp strains. Wild carp are required also for re-stocking natural waters, where the rehabilitation of natural fauna is carried out.

            Since this species has outstanding importance in freshwater aquaculture, many aspects of its physiology, nutrition, genetics, and diseases have been studied during past decades. The role of common carp in water ecosystems has been examined, and breeding and rearing technologies that fit various climatic conditions and intensity levels have been developed.

            • Rearing technology : introduction/adaptation of technologies that are optimal for various climatic, environmental and socio-economic conditions, and the wider application of environmental friendly bicultural and polycultural systems in traditional carp-producing areas.
            • Rotational aquaculture and agriculture : introduction of the rotational use of land for agricultural/carp-based aquacultural systems may help to eliminate the adverse environmental impact of intensive agriculture in many places. This system can also be used for soil desalination.
            • Genetics : practice-oriented genetic research needs to be continued for the development of reliable breeding systems. Based on genetic research, breeding associations should be established for maintaining the stabile 'landraces' (strains) in various geographical areas and climatic zones, in order to avoid inbreeding. INGA (International Network on Genetics in Aquaculture, organised by the World Fish Center, formerly ICLARM) helps to fulfil the above tasks in Southeast Asian and East European areas. There is some scope in fish genetics for increasing the disease resistance of carps by the development of resistant strains and hybrids.
            • Diseases and control : adverse changes in the natural environment, the increasing intensity of carp production in many areas, extensive inter-regional transport of common carp and other cyprinids, and the ban on using several traditional medicaments (fungicides, antibiotics and insecticides) call for the intensification of research on carp diseases. A relatively new and promising field of research is the development of immunostimulants, for increasing the natural resistance of fish. The development of vaccines seems to be the most promising solution for avoiding the application of antibiotics. Development and large-scale application of vaccines against viral diseases have primary importance to control 'traditional' viral diseases, such as the spring viremia, carp pox and viral gill necrosis. Large-scale introduction of vaccination against 'KHV' (which is actually a virus called Carp Nephritis and Gill Necrosis Virus, CNGNV) is also very important in the infected or endangered areas. The development of rapid diagnostic tools to determine the bacterial and viral infections is also necessary. Vigilance on parasitical diseases should be maintained. Research on better understanding of pre-conditioning environmental and technological factors, which make the fish less resistant and the pathogens more virulent, should also be continued.

            The effect of extensive carp farming on the environment is negligible or even positive, since the carp help to maintain aerobic bottom conditions. The environmental effect of semi-intensive polycultural carp farming depends on the intensity of production, and on the water quality of recipients. The accumulation of silt and organic material can be very high in integrated systems. However, the rotational use of land for fish-cum-duck and alfalfa and rice production is the most environmental friendly means of conducting aquaculture and agriculture. The effect of intensive (industrial) aquaculture systems on the environment depends on the efficiency of waste management.

            The overstocking of open waters with carp and the introduction of non-indigenous carps may cause negative impacts. The population of aquatic weeds can be destroyed by increasing turbidity and uprooting plants. By decreasing the spawning grounds available for phytophil species, common carp may decrease the biodiversity in natural waters.

            There are many well elaborated types of carp production, so it is relatively easy to select production methods that accord with Article 9 of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. The most widely applied technique, namely supplementary feed-based extensive or semi-intensive carp production, is considered as an environmentally friendly way of animal protein production. Responsible aquaculture on the production level (Article 9.4., Code of Conduct) can be ensured by applying a strict process of licensing, in which the main principles of environment and ecological protection are considered.

            The establishment of carp breeding associations that maintain and breed pure strains of common carp by certified breeders in licensed fish hatcheries frequent quality control based on standardized progeny testing and supporting farms in the stocking of pure strains, helps to maintain the carp population of various areas, including the wild-type carp populations of natural waters this system was elaborated and applied by the Association of Hungarian Fish Producers.

            Fish health control based on local veterinarians and government institutions helps to increase the security of production by decreasing the effects of the diseases of farmed fish on the natural fish population, and helping to minimize the use of chemicals, drugs and antibiotics.

            The introduction of quality controls, based on the labelling/traceability of the products, and the provision of support for the development of 'organic' products may increase the application of environmentally friendly technologies, as well as improving the supply of good quality fish.


            I dag i historien: Født den 17. juni

            Daniel Webster, congressman from New Hampshire, Massachusetts senator, and secretary of state before the Civil War.

            Daniel Hale Williams, physician who performed the first open heart surgery, founder of Chicago's Provident Hospital.

            A.A. [Alan Alexander] Milne, novelist, humorist and journalist (Winnie the Pooh).

            Oliver Hardy, film comedian, one half of Laurel and Hardy.

            Cary Grant, U.S. film actor (Gunga Din, Bringing Up Baby, The Philadelphia Story, North by Northwest).


            Indhold

            Archeologists estimate that the earliest human settlement of the Samoan archipelago was around 2900–3500 years before the present (1500-900 BCE). [1] This estimate is based on dating the ancient Lapita pottery shards that are found throughout the islands. The oldest shards found so far have been in Mulifanua and in Sasoa'a, Falefa. [1] The oldest archaeological evidence found on the islands of Polynesia, Samoa and Tonga all date from around that same period, suggesting that the first settlement occurred around the same time in the region as a whole. Little is known about human activity in the islands between 750 BC and 1000 AD, though this may have been a period of mass migrations that led to the settlement of present-day Polynesia. Mysteriously, during this period, the making of pottery appears to have suddenly stopped. The Samoan peoples have no oral tradition that purports to explain this. Some archaeologists have suggested that Polynesia lacked pottery-making materials, and that most of the pottery used during the migration period in Polynesia was imported rather than sourced or crafted locally.

            Samoa's early history is interwoven with the history of certain chiefdoms of Fiji and of the kingdom of Tonga. The oral history of Samoa preserves the memories of many battles fought between Samoa and neighboring islands. Intermarriage between Tongan and Fijian royalty and Samoan nobility helped build close relationships between these island nations that still exist today. These royal blood ties are routinely acknowledged at special events and cultural gatherings. According to Samoan folklore, two maidens from Fiji brought to Samoa the tools that were necessary to engage in the art of tatau (in English, tattoo), and this is the origin of the traditional Samoan malofie (også kendt som pe'a for men and as malu for women).

            The dominant cultural traditions of Samoa, known as the fa'asamoa, originated with the warrior queen Nafanua. Her rule instituted the fa'amatai: decentralized family, village, and regional chiefly systems. Her niece, Salamasina, continued this system, and their era is considered to be a golden age of Samoan cultural traditions.

            Linguistically, the Samoan language belongs to the Polynesian sub-branch of the Austronesian language family, which is thought by linguists to have originated in Taiwan.

            According to oral tradition, Samoa and Polynesian share a common ancestor: Tagaloa. [2] The earliest history of Samoa concerns a political center in the easternmost Samoan islands of Manu'a, under the rule of the Tui Manu'a. In the Cook Islands to the east, the tradition is that Karika, or Tui Manu'a 'Ali'a, came to the Cook Islands from Manu'a suggesting that the rest of Polynesia was settled from Manu'a and Samoa.

            1700 -tallet Rediger

            Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century but did not intensify until the arrival of the British missionaries. In 1722, Dutchman Jacob Roggeveen was the first European to see the islands. This visit was followed by the French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (1729–1811), the man who named them the Navigator Islands in 1768. In 1787 Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse visited Samoa, where at Tutuila Island, in what is now American Samoa, there was a conflict leading to deaths on both sides, including the deaths of twelve Frenchmen.

            1800 -tallet Rediger

            European and Tahitian and Cook Islander Missionaries and traders, led by John Williams (missionary) began arriving around 1830. Coming via Tahiti, they were known in Samoa as the Lotu Taiti. The Rev. John Williams was helped by the Ali'i Malietoa Vainu'upo to establish the Lotu Taiti, which became the Christian Congregational Church of Samoa.

            The United States Exploring Expedition (1838–42) under Charles Wilkes reached Samoa in 1839 and appointed an Englishman, John C. Williams, son of the missionary, as acting U.S. consul. [3] However this appointment was never confirmed by the U.S. State Department John C. Williams was merely recognized as "Commercial Agent of the United States". [3] A British consul was already residing at Apia.

            In 1855 J.C. Godeffroy & Sohn expanded its trading business into the Samoan Islands, which were then known as the Navigator Islands. During the second half of the 19th century German influence in Samoa expanded with large plantation operations being introduced for coconut, cacao and hevea rubber cultivation, especially on the island of 'Upolu where German firms monopolized copra and cocoa bean processing. British business enterprises, harbour rights, and consulate office were the basis on which Britain had cause to intervene in Samoa. The United States began operations at the harbor of Pago Pago on Tutuila in 1877 and formed alliances with local native chieftains, most conspicuously on the islands of Tutuila and Manu'a (which were later formally annexed as American Samoa).

            In the 1880s Great Britain, Germany and the United States all claimed parts of the kingdom of Samoa, and established trade posts. The rivalry between these powers exacerbated tensions between the indigenous factions which were all jockeying for complete political authority. The islands were divided among the three powers in the 1890s, and between the United States and Germany in 1899. [4]

            The First Samoan Civil War and the Samoan crisis Edit

            The First Samoan Civil War was fought roughly between 1886 and 1894, primarily between rival Samoan factions, although the rival powers intervened on several occasions with military forces. There followed an eight-year civil war, where each of the three powers supplied arms, training, and in some cases, combat troops to the warring Samoan parties. [5] The Samoan crisis came to a critical juncture in March 1889 when all three Western contenders sent warships into Apia harbour, and a larger-scale war seemed imminent, until a massive storm on 15 March 1889 damaged or destroyed the warships, ending the military conflict. [6]

            Robert Louis Stevenson arrived in Samoa in 1889 and built a house at Vailima. He quickly became passionately involved in the attendant political machinations. His influence spread to the Samoans, who consulted him for advice, and he soon became involved in local politics. These involved the three great powers battling for control of Samoa - America, Germany and Britain - and the indigenous factions which were all jockeying for complete political authority.. He was convinced that the European officials appointed to rule the Samoans were incompetent, and after many futile attempts to resolve the matter, he published A Footnote to History. The book covers the period from 1882 to 1892. [6] This was such a stinging protest against existing conditions that it resulted in the recall of two officials, and Stevenson feared for a time it would result in his own deportation. [7]

            The Second Samoan Civil War and the Siege of Apia Edit

            The Second Samoan Civil War reached a head in 1898 when Germany, Great Britain and the United States disputed over who should control the Samoan Islands.

            Det Battle of Apia occurred in March 1899. Samoan forces loyal to Prince Tanu were besieged by a larger force of Samoan rebels loyal to powerful chief Mata'afa Iosefo. Supporting Prince Tanu were landing parties from four British and American warships. Over several days of fighting, the Samoan rebels were defeated. [8]

            American and British warships shelled Apia on 15 March 1899 including the USS Philadelphia. Following the initial defeat at Apia, Mata'afa's rebels defeated a combined American, British and Tanu allied force at Vailele on 1 April 1899, with the allies in retreat. [9] According to a war correspondent associated with the Auckland Star newspaper, the aftermath saw Mata'afa's warriors leaving American and British corpses on the field being severed of their heads. [10] Germany, Britain and the United States quickly resolved to end the hostilities by partitioning the island chain at the Tripartite Convention of 1899. [3] With Tanu and his American and British allies' inability to defeat him in war, the Tripartite resulted in Mata'afa being promoted to Ali'i Si'i, the high chief of Samoa. [9]

            The Samoa Tripartite Convention of 1899, a joint commission of three members composed of Bartlett Tripp for the United States, C. N. E. Eliot, C.B. for Great Britain, and Freiherr Speck von Sternburg for Germany, agreed to divide the islands.

            The Tripartite Convention gave control of the islands west of 171 degrees west longitude to Germany, (later known as Western Samoa), containing Upolu and Savaii (the current Samoa) and other adjoining islands. These islands became known as German Samoa. The United States was given control the eastern islands of Tutuila and Manu'a, (present-day American Samoa). [3] In exchange for Britain ceding claims in Samoa, Germany transferred their protectorates in the North Solomon Islands and other territories in West Africa. It does not appear that any Samoans were consulted about the partition and the monarchy was also abolished.

            From 1908, with the establishment of the Mau movement ("opinion movement"), Western Samoans began to assert their claim to independence. The Mau movement began in 1908 with the 'Mau a Pule' resistance on Savai'i, led by orator chief Lauaki Namulau'ulu Mamoe. Lauaki and Mau a Pule chiefs, wives and children were exiled to Saipan in 1909. Many died in exile. [2]

            World War I broke out in August 1914, and soon after, New Zealand sent an expeditionary force to seize and occupy German Samoa. Although Germany refused to officially surrender the islands, no resistance was offered and the occupation took place without any fighting. New Zealand continued the occupation of Western Samoa throughout World War I. Under the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, Germany relinquished its claims to the islands.

            In November 1918, the Spanish flu strongly hit the territory. 90% of the 38,302 native inhabitants were infected and 20% died. The American Samoa population was largely spared this devastation, due to vigorous efforts of its governor, John Martin Poyer. This led to some Samoan citizens petitioning in January 1919 for transfer to U.S. administration, or at least away from the New Zealand administration. The petition was recalled a few days later. [11]

            The Mau movement gained momentum with Samoa's royal leaders becoming more visible in supporting the movement but opposing violence. On 28 December 1929 Tupua Tamasese was shot along with eleven others during an otherwise peaceful demonstration in Apia. Tupua Tamasese died the following day his final words included a plea that no more blood be shed.

            New Zealand administered Western Samoa, or Samoa i Sisifo in the Samoan language, first as a League of Nations Mandate and then as a United Nations Trust Territory until the country received its independence on 1 January 1962 (from New Zealand) as Western Samoa. [12] Samoa's first prime minister following independence was paramount chief Fiame Mata'afa Faumuina Mulinu'u II.

            Samoa i Sisifo was the first Polynesian people to be recognized as a sovereign nation in the 20th century. Samoa became one of the Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations on 28 August 1970. In 1977, Queen Elizabeth II visited Samoa during her tour of the Commonwealth.

            A conflict briefly emerged between Samoa and American Samoa following Samoa's decision to drop the adjective "Western" from its name. The change was made by an act of the Legislative Assembly of Western Samoa adopted on 4 July 1997. [13] The step caused "surprise and uproar" in neighboring American Samoa, as for some American Samoans the change of name implied a claim to be the "real" Samoa and implied that American Samoa was just an American appendix. [14] Some in the American territory said it implied that there was only one Samoa. Two members of American Samoa's legislature traveled to Apia in September 1997 to meet with Samoan head of State Malietoa Tanumafili II, and lobbied to have the name change reversed in order to maintain peace and good relations. [14] An American Samoan petition to the United Nations for a ban on Samoa's using the name Samoa was seriously discussed and ten American Samoan representatives sponsored an unsuccessful bill aimed at preventing American Samoa from recognizing independent Samoa's new name. [14] The proposed American Samoan bill was criticized by independent Samoa's Prime Minister Tofilau Eti Alesana who called the bill "rash and irresponsible". [14]

            In 2002, New Zealand's prime minister Helen Clark formally apologized for two incidents during the period of New Zealand's administration: a failure in 1918 to quarantine the SS Talune, which carried the 'Spanish 'flu' to Samoa, leading to an epidemic which devastated the Samoan population, and the shooting of leaders of the non-violent Mau movement during a ceremonial procession in 1929.

            In 2007, Samoa's first head of state, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II, died at age 95. He held this title jointly with Tupua Tamasese Lealofi until the latter's death in 1963. Malietoa Tanumafili II was Samoa's Head of State for 45 years. He was the son of Malietoa Tanumafili I, who was the last Samoan king recognized by Europe and the Western World.

            Samoa's current head of state is His Highness Tui-Atua Tupua Tamasese Tupuola Efi, who was anointed the head of state title with the unanimous endorsement of Samoa's Parliament, a symbol of traditional Samoan protocol in alignment with Samoan decision-making stressing the importance of consensus in the 21st century.

            In May 2021, Fiame Naomi Mataʻafa became Samoa's first female prime minister. Fiame's FAST party won narrowly the election, ending the rule of long-term Prime Minister Tuilaepa Sailele Malielegaoi. [15] On 24 May 2021, she was sworn in as the new prime minister. [16]

            As European traders began commercial (and later domination) activities in the Samoan Islands, they imposed their datekeeping system on their transactions. Thus by the 19th century, Samoan calendars were aligned with those of the other Asiatic countries to the west and south. However, in 1892, American traders convinced the king to alter the country's dating system to align with the United States thus the country lived through 4 July 1892, twice. But 119 years later, the economic geography of the island had changed, and most business was being done with Australia and New Zealand. To make the jump back to the Asian date Samoa and Tokelau skipped 30 December 2011. [17]


            Déroulement du combat

            Les troupes britanniques prennent position dans une zone boisée, ce qui rend la progression des Français plus difficile car ils ne peuvent pas distinguer les mouvements de leurs adversaires à travers les arbres. Prudent, Wathier fait une première tentative avec quatre escadrons mais une charge de deux escadrons britanniques la fait échouer, contraignant le général français à engager la totalité de ses forces. La brigade Hulse se démasque alors et arrête les assaillants par son feu, tandis que les dragons légers attaquent une nouvelle fois et repoussent la cavalerie française sur près de 3 km jusqu'à ce que cette dernière repasse la rivière Azaba en sens inverse [ 2 ] .


            Combat of Carpio, 25 September 1811 - History

            After the end of the French Wars, it became increasingly clear that England was suffering from great social, economic and political upheavals. These problems collectively became known as the 'Condition of England Question'. Many of these problems would have occurred eventually but had been speeded up by the effects of the French Wars on the country. Most of the major changes were the direct result of the French Wars. Others came from natural growth and change. The distress and discontent caused by these enormous changes were manifested in a series of events in the period 1811-19. One of these was the upsurge in Luddism.

            Luddites were men who took the name of a (perhaps) mythical individual, Ned Ludd who was reputed to live in Sherwood Forest. The Luddites were trying to save their livelihoods by smashing industrial machines developed for use in the textile industries of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. Some Luddites were active in Lancashire also. They smashed stocking-frames and cropping frames among others. There does not seem to have been any political motivation behind the Luddite riots equally, there was no national organisation. The men merely were attacking what they saw as the reason for the decline in their livelihoods.

            However, early outbreaks of Luddism occurred during the French Wars and were seen by the government as clear evidence of disaffection. In 1812 the government probably had reason to be fearful:

            • a large part of the army was overseas, mainly in the Peninsular with Wellington
            • the country was fighting not only the French but also the Americans
            • England was experiencing the worst trade depression since the 1760s and people were suffering great hardship. as evidenced by the Sheffield riots of 1812

            The only person who seems to have appreciated the problems faced by ordinary people was the Earl Fitzwilliam, Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire. He said, 'outrage and conspiracy . are the offspring of distress and want of employment . fostered and rendered formidable by nothing but the want of trade'.

            This period was not the first time that England had experienced occurrences of machine-breaking. In 1779 the failure of a Bill to regulate the frame-knitting industry had resulted in 300 frames being smashed and thrown into the streets. However, by 1810 the Orders in Council and a change in fashion had led to a deterioration in the standard of craftsmanship required in stocking making and a consequent cheapening of the trade. It was the attempt to intimidate some masters who brought in the new machines that caused Nottingham stocking knitters to smash the machines.

            Stocking knitting was predominantly a domestic industry, the stockinger renting his frame from the master and working in his own 'shop' using thread given to him by the master the finished items were handed back to the master to sell. The frames were therefore scattered round the villages it was easy for the Luddites to smash a frame and then disappear. Between March 1811 and February 1812 they smashed about a thousand machines at the cost of between 6,000 and 10,000. In April 1812 the Luddites burned the West Houghton mill in Lancashire. Samuel Whitbread, an MP, said of the event

            As to the persons who had blackened their faces, and disfigured themselves for the purposes of concealment, and had attended the meeting on Deanmoor, near Manchester, it turned out that ten of them were spies sent out by the magistrates. These spies were the very ringleaders of the mischief, and incited the people to acts which they would not otherwise have thought of. [ Parliamentary Debates , lst Series, Vol. 23, Col.1000, (l8l2)]

            The authorities were incapable of stopping the attacks so the government felt obliged to put in place special legislation. Machine-breaking had been made a capital offence in 1721 in 1811 a special Act was passed to secure the peace of Nottingham. At the Nottingham Assizes in March 1812, seven Luddites were sentenced to transportation for life two others were acquitted.

            In April 1812, the Luddites attacked William Cartwright's mill at Rawfolds near Huddersfield. The event was described by Charlotte Br nte in her novel Shirley. Cartwright and a few soldiers held the mill against about 150 attackers, two of whom were killed. The following week an attempt was made on Cartwright's life and on 28 April William Horsfall, another manufacturer, was killed.

            In June 1812 Lord Sidmouth became Home Secretary, by which time the outbreaks of Luddism had begun to diminish. However in July, parliament set up Secret Committees for the examination of evidence from the 'disturbed areas'. Information had been given to Major Searle, the commander of the South Devon Militia, which was stationed in Sheffield. The informant was not identified. Part of the Report said

            It is the opinion of persons, both in civil and military stations, well acquainted with the state of the country, an opinion grounded upon various information from various quarters now before your committee, but which, for obvious reasons, they do not think proper to detail, that the views of some of the persons engaged in these proceedings have extended to revolutionary measures of the most dangerous description.

            Their proceedings manifest a degree of caution and organisation which appears to flow from the direction of some persons under whose influence they act. [ Parliamentary Debates, 1st Series, Vol.23, Col.1036. (1812)]

            On the strength of the evidence, the Secret Committees in parliament approved a Bill to preserve the public peace of the 'disturbed districts' and to give additional powers to the magistrates. It passed through parliament and remained in force until 25 March 1813. This was the only way that the government could compensate for the inefficient methods of crime prevention at the time. However, despite the government's fears, there is no evidence whatsoever that the activities of the Luddites wer politically motivated.

            Another parliamentary committee heard petitions for relief from the cotton workers and reported to parliament in 1812: it is clear from this section of the report that the government would do nothing to move from the economic ideas of laissez faire :

            While the Committee fully acknowledge and most deeply lament the great distress of numbers of persons engaged in the cotton manufacture, they are of opinion that no interference of the legislature with the freedom of trade, or with the perfect liberty of every individual to dispose of his time and of his labour in the way and on the terms which he may judge most conducive to his own interest, can take place without violating general principles of the first importance to the prosperity and happiness of the community, without establishing the most pernicious precedent, or without aggravating, after a very short time, the pressure of the general distress, and imposing obstacles against that distress ever being removed. [ Parliamentary Debates, 1st Series, Vol. 20, (1811) Col.609].

            Lord Liverpool, the PM endorsed the view of the committee when he said:

            In these cases the Legislature ought not to interfere, but should leave everything to find its own level. I am satisfied that government or parliament never meddle in these matters at all but they do harm, more or less. The evils inseparable from the state of things should not be charged on any government and, on enquiry, it would be found that by far the greater part of the miseries of which human nature complained were at all times and in all countries beyond the control of human legislation.

            In January 1813 three men were charged at York for the murder of Horsfall, were found guilty and were hanged. Fourteen others involved in the attack on Cartwright's mill or related activities were hanged a week later. Sidmouth and Lord Ellenborough expected the executions to have the 'happiest effects in various parts of the kingdom'.

            Direct action in the shape of strikes or machine breaking continued despite the special legislation and severe measures. A Bill was introduced to parliament to regulate the stocking knitting trade and especially to prohibit the cheap, nasty 'cut-ups' that were being sold ['Cut-ups' were tubes of stocking fabric that were cut to appropriate lengths and one end was then stitched to form the toe part of the stocking]. The legislation was rejected by the House of Lords. The textile workers then attempted to form a Trade Society to promote their demands but it was deemed to be illegal under the Combination Acts and it collapsed.

            In 1816 there was a revival of violence and machine breaking following a bad harvest and a downturn in trade. On 28 June the Luddites attacked Heathcote and Boden's mill in Loughborough, smashing 53 frames at a cost of 6,000. Troops were used to end the riots and for their crimes, six men were executed and another three were transported. William Cobbett's view of events was that

            Society ought not to exist, if not for the benefit of the whole. It is and must be against the law of nature, if it exists for the benefit of the few and for the misery of the many. I say, then, distinctly, that a society, in which the common labourer . . . cannot secure a sufficiency of food and raiment, is a society which ought not to exist a society contrary to the law of nature a society whose compact is dissolved. [ Political Register , 11 September 1819]

            After the trials, Luddism subsided in Nottinghamshire and Leicestershire. Concurrently, 'Swing' riots erupted in the countryside as a protest against low wages, unemployment and the Game Laws.

            The Tory periodical, the Quarterly Review , attacked the government's "do-nothing" policies:

            Of distresses, such as now pervade the mass of the community, small indeed is the part which parliaments or governments either create or cure. But what little might have been in our power . has unhappily, perhaps inadvertently, been thrown away. In passing from a state of war to a state of peace, the shock of the revulsion might not improbably have been lessened to all orders of society by somewhat graduating the transition. If stagnant manufactures, and languishing agriculture, and a population suddenly turned loose from the military or naval services of the country, produce a supply of hands for which there is no work, a partial and temporary remedy might perhaps have been found in undertakings of public utility and magnificence - in the improvement of roads, the completion of canals, the erection of our National Monuments for Waterloo and Trafalgar - undertakings which government might have supplied, if the means had been available. [Bind. 16, 1816, pp. 276-277]


            Se videoen: The Battle of Picardy, August 8 - September 24, 1918