Den amerikanske immigrationsstation Angel Island åbner i San Francisco Bay

Den amerikanske immigrationsstation Angel Island åbner i San Francisco Bay

Benævnt "Ellis Island of the West" åbner Angel Island i Californiens San Francisco Bay 21. januar 1910 som Amerikas største indgangshavn for asiatiske immigranter. I løbet af de næste 30 år behandles anslået 100.000 kinesere og 70.000 japanere gennem stationen.

Etableret som en militær reserve under borgerkrigen, blev 20 acres 740-acre ø overført til brug som immigrantstation i 1905, ifølge National Parks Service.

Da San Francisco fungerede som et vigtigt indgangssted for immigration for asiatiske immigranter, var Angel Island, der ligger 10 km fra byens kyst, et foretrukket sted for en station over fastlandet. "Dens placering tillod større kontrol over immigrantindrejse til USA, forhindrede immigranter på øen i at kommunikere med immigranter på fastlandet og bremsede indførelsen af ​​nye eller dødelige sygdomme til den generelle befolkning," ifølge parkens service.

Efter ankomsten med skib i bugten blev immigranter uden officiel dokumentation færget til øen, hvor parkerne bemærker, at de blev karantæne af race og køn "uanset familiære bånd" med børn under 12 år, der måtte blive hos deres mødre. Lægeundersøgelser og andre høringer kan tage dage til år i et "fængselslignende miljø".

I 1940 blev stationen flyttet til fastlandet San Francisco, og Angel Island er nu en californisk statspark.

LÆS MERE: USA's immigrationstidslinje


Angel Islands historie tilbyder lektioner om immigrationspolitik

For hundrede år siden i dag åbnede Angel Island Immigration Station i San Francisco Bay sine døre. Fra 1910 til 1940 var "Ellis Island of the West" porten til Amerika for mere end en halv million immigranter fra 80 lande, der alle søgte muligheden, friheden og formuen for den amerikanske drøm. Blandt dem var en kinesisk immigrant, der huggede følgende digt ind i kasernevæggene, mens han var tilbageholdt på Angel Island:

Jeg holdt mine hænder ved at skille mig af med mine brødre og klassekammerater.

På grund af munden skyndte jeg mig at krydse det amerikanske hav.

Hvordan skulle jeg vide, at de vestlige barbarer havde mistet deres hjerter og årsager?

Med hundrede slags undertrykkende love mishandler de os kinesere.

Vi ved ikke, hvem han var, da han ankom, hvor længe han blev på immigrationsstationen, eller om han blev indlagt i USA eller sendt tilbage til Kina. Det, vi ved, er, at hans digt gentog den frustration, vrede og fortvivlelse, som mange andre kinesiske fanger på Angel Island oplevede, da de led gennem ydmygende lægeundersøgelser, dage med intens afhøring og uger og undertiden måneders indespærring.

Bygget for at håndhæve love, der specifikt udelukkede kinesiske og andre asiatiske immigranter fra landet, afviste Angel Island Immigration Station utallige tilflyttere og deporterede tusinder af amerikanske indbyggere, der blev betragtet som risici for nationen eller var kommet ind i landet med falske papirer. For dem, der blev nægtet adgang på grund af race- og klassebestemt ekskluderingslove, viste Angel Island Amerika, når det var værst som en portnation.

Men det var ikke den eneste Angel Island -historie. Immigrationsstationen var også det første stop for tusindvis af kinesere, japanere, sydasiater og filippinere, der blev indlagt i landet og skaffede sig hjem her, hvor de arbejdede som husmænd, ejere af små virksomheder og arbejdere. Koreanere, russere og mexicanere passerede stationen og fandt tilflugt fra politisk forfølgelse og revolutionært kaos i deres hjemland.

Nogle der tilbragte tid på Angel Island blev til bemærkelsesværdige figurer. Karl Yoneda var en fremtrædende arbejdsorganisator på vestkysten. Alexandra Tolstoy, yngste datter af Leo Tolstoy, grundlagde Tolstoy Foundation og bistod tusindvis af flygtninge fra Europa under Anden Verdenskrig. Dong Kingman blev en kunstner og foredragsholder kendt for sine akvareller.

I 1940 lukkede Angel Island Immigration Station, efter at en brand sløjfede sin administrationsbygning. Siden 1997 har det været et nationalhistorisk vartegn.

Nu, på sit hundredeårsjubilæum, tilbyder det en rettidig lektion, da Amerika igen retter opmærksomheden mod debatten om immigrationsreform. I sidste måned fremlagde rep. Luis V. Gutierrez (D-Ill.) Et nyt omfattende lovforslag om immigrationsreform i Parlamentet. Præsident Obama har lovet at tage spørgsmålet op tidligt i år. Problemerne er komplekse, og følelserne er høje. Landet, der er forankret i en global recession og lider af arbejdsløshed, der er det højeste, de har været i årtier, er fortsat delt over mulige løsninger på vores immigrationsproblem.

Mange mener, at immigrationsreformen er usandsynlig i denne sammenhæng. Vi håber, at de tager fejl. I det 21. århundrede er der kommet rekordmange immigranter til landet. Der er nu mere end 38 millioner udenlandsfødte indbyggere i USA, hvilket udgør 12,6% af den amerikanske befolkning. Vi har brug for et fungerende immigrationssystem for at øge den nationale sikkerhed for at fremskynde den lovlige strøm af mennesker og varer, som vores globale økonomi afhænger af for at understøtte Amerikas værdier som en medfølende nation af immigranter og flygtninge. Vi har i bund og grund brug for en immigrationspolitik, der behandler ethvert individ med værdighed og respekt.

I stedet gentager vi den mørkeste side af Angel Islands historie. Ifølge Department of Homeland Security er mere end 32.000 mennesker tilbageholdt på en given dag på grund af immigrationsrelaterede anklager. Mange af dem er mangeårige amerikanske indbyggere uden tilknytning til terroraktiviteter. Alligevel opbevares de i månedsvis under dårlige betingelser, ofte med utilstrækkelig mad, tøj og lægehjælp, og ringe adgang til advokat 107 mennesker er døde i tilbageholdelse siden oktober 2003. Stigende anti-immigrantstemning er avlsdiskrimination. Immigrationslove er skæve for at favorisere dem med visse færdigheder og baggrunde, mens de deporterede er uforholdsmæssigt latino og fattige. Vores ødelagte immigrationssystem tilskynder til udokumenteret immigration, og for mange immigrantfamilier lever i skyggerne af det amerikanske samfund.

Amerikas modstridende forhold til immigration er skrevet på Angel Islands vægge. Vi glæder os over de "sammenklemte masser, der længes efter at være frie", men samtidig tilbageholder og deporterer vi uretfærdigt immigranter på grund af mangelfuld immigrationspolitik.

På denne skelsættende dato i vores immigrationshistorie skal vi huske Angel Islands multiraciale historie om inklusion og eksklusion og erkende, at der ikke er mere tid at spilde. Det er på tide at fikse immigration og opfylde Amerikas løfte som en nation af immigranter.

Erika Lee er lektor i historie ved University of Minnesota. Judy Yung er professor emeritus i amerikanske studier ved UC Santa Cruz. De er forfatterne til den kommende bog, "Angel Island: Immigrant Gateway to America."


Med refleksion og tårer fylder Angel Island 100

15. januar 2010. Portræt af 79-årige Lai Webster fra Sunnyvale, der kom igennem Angel Island som barn, i sit hjem i Sunnyvale. Dette er 100 -års jubilæumsåret for Angel Island, & quotEllis Island of the West. & Quot Angel Island i SF Bay var, hvor amerikanske immigrationsembedsmænd for det meste forsøgte at diskvalificere kinesiske immigranter fra at komme ind i amtet. (LiPo Ching/Mercury News)

15. januar 2010. Portræt af 79-årige Lai Webster fra Sunnyvale, der kom igennem Angel Island som barn, i sit hjem i Sunnyvale. Dette er 100 -års jubilæumsåret for Angel Island, & quotEllis Island of the West. & Quot Angel Island i SF Bay var, hvor amerikanske immigrationsembedsmænd for det meste forsøgte at diskvalificere kinesiske immigranter fra at komme ind i amtet. (LiPo Ching/Mercury News)

Malin Tom, 81, reflekterer over sine oplevelser fra at bo på Angel Island i sit hjem i Santa Clara den 14. januar 2010. Tom immigrerede fra Kina, da han var tolv år gammel. Angel Island var hans indtastningspunkt. Det var ikke et venligt sted. Følelser mod kinesere var stadig stærke i løbet af 1940'erne med love som den kinesiske eksklusionslov fra 1882 stadig truende. Angel Island fejrer 100 års jubilæum. (Gary Reyes/Mercury News)

Malin Tom, 81, har det forrevne omslag på de originale immigrationsdokumenter, der blev udstedt til ham, da han ankom til Angel Island i 1940, da han var tolv år gammel. Dette foto blev taget den 14. januar 2010 i hans hjem i Santa Clara. Tom immigrerede fra Kina, da han var tolv år gammel. Angel Island var hans indtastningspunkt. Det var ikke et venligt sted. Følelser mod kinesere var stadig stærke i løbet af 1940'erne med love som den kinesiske eksklusionslov fra 1882 stadig truende. Angel Island fejrer 100 års jubilæum. (Gary Reyes/Mercury News)

Malin Tom, 81, reflekterer over sine oplevelser, der boede på Angel Island i sit hjem i Santa Clara den 14. januar 2010. Tom immigrerede fra Kina, da han var tolv år gammel. Angel Island var hans indtastningspunkt. Det var ikke et venligt sted. Følelser mod kinesere var stadig stærke i løbet af 1940'erne med love som den kinesiske eksklusionslov fra 1882 stadig truende. Angel Island fejrer 100 års jubilæum. (Gary Reyes/Mercury News)

Malin Tom er en følelsesmæssig mand, hvilket forklarer, hvorfor han holdt sin rejse gennem Angel Island mest for sig selv i 60 år.

Jeg ville ikke græde foran folk, ” siger Tom, nu 81 og bor i Santa Clara. Det er en trist historie. Jeg var så bange og fattig. Jeg skammede mig, og kinesere taler ikke om deres skam. ”

Men han kunne ikke modstå et barnebarns anbringende for et par år siden. Ville han tale med hendes klassekammerater om at passere gennem “Ellis Island of the West ”?

Mit barnebarn gav mig mod. ”

Og da Tom endelig talte, var det som om en dæmning, der holdt immigranttårerne tilbage, var revnet og genopfyldte jorden i amerikansk historie med bittersød sandhed.

Torsdag vil en ceremoni i San Francisco mindes & mdash 100 år til datoen & mdash åbningen af ​​Angel Island ’s immigrationsstation. Regeringen vil bande 100 nye amerikanske borgere. Nogle af landets øverste immigrationsembedsmænd taler, såvel som folk, der faktisk har været igennem øen i San Francisco Bay, herunder digteren Nellie Wong og hendes søster fra Sunnyvale, Lai Webster.

Højttalerne vandt ’t sukkerfrakke på øen ’s ternet fortid. Angel Island var forskellig fra sin imødekommende pendant i New York Harbour.

Omkring 500.000 immigranter passerede øen fra 1910 til 1940. Heraf blev 300.000 tilbageholdt, en tredjedel af dem kinesere. Mens de fleste i sidste ende blev tilladt, ventede mange, ligesom Tom, måneder i en torturøs limbo, mens deres baggrunde blev undersøgt.

“ Angel Island var virkelig der for at holde folk ude, ikke for at byde dem velkommen, ” siger Judy Yung, professor ved University of California-Santa Cruz i amerikanske studier og forfatter til to bøger om emnet. Det skal vi huske. Hvordan kan vi bruge lektionen fra Angel Island til at leve op til vores ideal som en nation af immigranter? ”

I slutningen af ​​1800 -tallet var det lette guld i Californien væk, en økonomisk recession havde slået sig ned over hele landet, og en ny bølge af immigranter fra Asien og Sydeuropa vakte en nativistisk modreaktion. Kongressen ledte efter syndebukke.

Selv i dag spørger Tom, “Hvorfor var de hjemme hos kineserne? ”

Han var 12 år gammel i 1939 og boede sammen med sin mor i en fattig landsby i Canton -provinsen. Hans far, Yip Way Tom, havde sneget sig gennem Angel Island i 1916 som “Jack Chew, ” den formodede søn af en kinesisk-amerikansk familie. Under den kinesiske eksklusionslov fra 1882 kunne arbejdere kun immigrere, hvis de var børn eller børnebørn til amerikanskfødte, kinesisk-amerikanere.

“Kineserne fandt ud af et indviklet system med det samme, ” siger Yung.

Amerikanskfødte kinesere, der kunne sponsorere pårørende, solgte ofte deres immigrationspladser til underjordiske mæglere, som solgte dem i Hong Kong til desperate immigranter som Toms. Nogle gange skabte udokumenterede kinesere her helt nye identiteter på papir, især efter at tusinder af fødselsregistre blev ødelagt af jordskælvet og ilden i 1906 i San Francisco.

De kinesiske mænd, der kom til Angel Island med disse falske identiteter, blev kendt som “papirsønner. ”

På 4 fod, 8 򟗷/2 tommer høj, steg den unge Tom ombord på et skib i Hong Kong med en ny identitet, May Kwong Chew, søn af Jack Chew, og “coaching ” noter om Chew -familien. Han var nødt til at studere noter mellem anfald med søsygdom, fordi han ville blive grillet af forhørsmænd på Angel Island, der var villige til at ildes papirsønner og døtre ud.

“Efter tre uger på et skib, ” siger Tom, “ de næste tre måneder var endnu værre. ”

Tom husker, at han gennemgik tre eller fire forhør: Hvor var vandbrønden i din landsby? Hvor mange trin havde din veranda? Hvornår døde din onkel i Amerika? Hvilket firma arbejdede han for? Havde han fødselsmærker, og hvor?

Derefter ventede han, ligesom de andre fanger, mens immigrationsagenter tjekkede hans svar. Tom ventede i gennemsnit tre måneder, men nogle fanger blev tvunget til at blive på øen i op til to år.

Intet skræmte ham mere end hvisker om selvmord. Yung siger, at nogle immigranter, der flunkede afhøringerne, sandsynligvis dræbte sig selv på øen, men der er ikke noget officielt bevis.

De ville have været for skamfulde til at gå hjem og se deres familier og landsbyer i øjnene, ” sagde Yung, hvis egen far var en papirsøn og adopterede efternavnet “Yung. ”

Hun vurderer, at 4 procent af kineserne blev deporteret fra øen.

Indvandrere kanaliserede deres håb og øde til poesi, som de ætsede på væggene i deres fængselsbarakker. Tom læste nogle af disse, men de fik mig til at føle mig endnu mere ked af det. ”

For at hjælpe med at fordrive tiden spillede han spil med andre kinesiske drenge i rekreationsgården og hentede et par ord legeplads engelsk. På grund af den strenge adskillelse mødte han aldrig drenge fra andre nationer, selvom han kunne se dem i deres tildelte tid i gården.

For det meste slurrede han dog over forhørsspørgsmålene i løbet af dagen, klagede over frygtelig grød og anden vestlig mad og græd stille under sit tæppe om natten.

“Jeg ville ikke lave støj for de andre, ” siger han.

Efter tre måneder blev han løsladt og rejste til San Diego, hvor hans far leverede produkter til restauranter. På en meget bedre kost spirede Tom til næsten 6 fod høj og spillede basketball i gymnasiet. Han beherskede engelsk og beholdt sin kinesisk.

Da han og hans far vendte tilbage til Kina i 1947, lærte de, at Tom ’s bror og søster var død under anden verdenskrig, sandsynligvis af sygdom. Tom giftede sig, men da kommunisterne overtog, flyttede han og hans nye brud til USA i 1949 og sejlede gennem immigration som hr. Og fru Chew.

Han var måske forblevet en Tygge, hvis det ikke var for “Kinesisk Bekendelsesprogram, ” en slags amnesti for udokumenterede immigranter i begyndelsen af ​​1960'erne, så længe de ikke var kommunister eller kriminelle. Efter tre årtier i skyggen blev han igen Malin Tom og amerikansk statsborger. Mere end 18.000 kinesiske papirsønner og papirdøtre tilstod også og fik lov at blive.

Han stiftede familie og ejede en planteskole i Silicon Valley. Og han talte aldrig med nogen i detaljer om Angel Island.

“ Ikke engang for mig, ” siger hans kone, Jean.

I 2001 vendte Tom tilbage til øen efter 61 år med sine voksne børn og børnebørn, som havde tigget ham om at gå. Han siger, at det sværeste var at besøge en restaureret sovesal, hvor han tilbragte så mange grådige nætter og huskede lyden af ​​døre, der blev låst bag ham.

Jeg græd igen, ” siger Tom. Jeg er stadig en følelsesladet fyr. ”


ØRENE har det

Af Robert Barde, William Greene og Daniel Nealand


Sagsakter indeholder dokumenter, der fastslår en persons navn, sted og fødselsdato og mere. Sagen til Pang Kun, en kinesisk arbejder på 17 år i 1901, indeholder hans opholdsattest.

Angel Island og dens immigrationsstation i San Francisco Bay har et fremtrædende sted i historien om asiatiske amerikanere og i amerikansk historie. Det nøjagtige antal immigranter, der passerede eller blev tilbageholdt på Angel Island Immigration Station under dens eksistens (1910 - 1940) er ukendt, med estimater på mellem en million i den høje ende til de mere beskedne 300.000.

Selvom tallene er relativt små i forhold til Ellis Island i New York Harbour (måske 22 millioner), er Angel Island Immigration Station's plads i amerikanernes bevidsthed - især på vestkysten - skrevet stor. Dette skyldes dens store betydning for asiatisk amerikansk immigrationshistorie i store dele af den periode, der er omfattet af føderale love og politikker i henhold til den kinesiske eksklusionslov og dens efterfølgere (1882 - 1943). I disse år var San Francisco indrejsehavnen for cirka 90 procent af de asiatiske-stillehavsankomster i USA.

Dele af Angel Island og Immigration Service var en integreret del af det længere drama, der begyndte i 1882 med vedtagelsen af ​​den kinesiske eksklusionslov - en hidtil uset foranstaltning, der forhindrer immigration på grundlag af både race og klasse. Mens kinesiske arbejdere (herunder ejere og ledere af mange typer virksomheder) ikke kunne komme ind, blev der gjort undtagelser for grupper som lærere, købmænd, embedsmænd og studerende.

Håndhævelse af kinesisk udelukkelse blev oprindeligt givet til toldvæsenet (finansministeriet), derefter overført til Bureau of Immigration (Department of Commerce and Labour) i 1903. Inden åbningen af ​​Angel Island Immigration Station var forhør og tilbageholdelse af udlændinge udført i arresthuset på San Francisco -kajen i Pacific Mail Steamship Company. Begge faciliteter eksisterede for at muliggøre eksklusion af asiater - først og fremmest kineserne, der sammensatte størstedelen af ​​dem tilbageholdt til efterforskning og mulig eksklusion, men også japanere, koreanere, indianere og andre af ikke -europæisk oprindelse.

Immigrationstjenesten tilbageholdt i sine bestræbelser på at forhindre påståede "uønskede" at komme ind, mange sådanne tidlige ankomster og forsøgte at afgøre, om de var berettigede til at komme ind i landet. Emnerne i de resulterende efterforskningssager var overvældende kinesiske, men meget mindre antal filer for mange andre nationaliteter er også inkluderet - japanere, koreanere, sydasiater, filippinere, russere, latinamerikanere og den ulige europæer. Og ikke alle "kinesere" var kinesiske statsborgere - en betydelig brøkdel var indfødte amerikanere af kinesisk herkomst, der forsøgte at komme ind i USA igen.

Af alle de såkaldte "kinesiske sagsakter" i National Archives - Pacific Region (San Francisco), der ligger i San Bruno, Californien, er de ældste filer til to personer, der ankom til San Francisco ombord på SS Oceanisk den 12. maj 1884. Sag 9228/1601 vedrører Lui Fung, en købmand fra Hong Kong. Fil 9228/1630 indeholder erklæringer indsendt på vegne af Leong Cum, en ung kvinde, der var født i Lewiston, Idaho Territory, i 1868 og vendte tilbage til USA efter et besøg i Kina. Begge blev tilbageholdt (sandsynligvis i Pacific Mail's Detention Shed), inden de blev indlagt: Lui Fung den 13. maj, Leong Cum en dag senere.

Deres sager er en del af en samling af 250.000 efterforskningssager i NARA - San Francisco. Normalt kaldes disse filer, selv om de er unøjagtigt kaldet "kinesiske ekskluderingsfiler", mere korrekt "Ankomstundersøgelsesfiler". De repræsenterer nogle af de hundredtusinder af nyankomne og tilbagevendende beboere, der passerede gennem havnene i San Francisco og Honolulu mellem 1882 og 1955, som omfatter den kinesiske eksklusionsperiode.

NARA - San Francisco -filerne er den mest omfattende oversigt over dette aspekt af amerikansk historie. Lignende sæt filer findes i det sydlige Californien, Seattle, Chicago, Boston, New York og Philadelphia, men samlingen i NARA - San Francisco er langt den største. På landsplan er disse filer "bemærkelsesværdige i forhold til andre INS -immigrantfiler fra samme æra, idet de overlevede i deres oprindelige form," ifølge historikeren Marian L. Smith i Immigration and Naturalization Service.

Historikere og slægtsforskere har længe haft svært ved at undersøge denne enorme samling for at finde bestemte filer. Men et nyligt oprettet websted gør det nu muligt at søge i en del af efterforskningssagsfilerindekset over internettet. Early Arrivals Records Search (EARS) blev udviklet af Institute of Business and Economic Research og Haas School of Business (begge ved University of California, Berkeley) og NARA - San Francisco. De originale (fysiske) sagsfiler er stadig kun tilgængelige i papirform i San Bruno, men fotokopier kan bestilles via telefon eller e -mail. EARS -webstedet afslører imidlertid, om NARA har en sagsmappe for en bestemt person, plus sagsnummeret og en smule information om den pågældende person.

Hvad er der i en sagsmappe?

En typisk efterforskningssag indeholder personens navn, sted og fødselsdato, fysiske udseende, erhverv, navne og forhold til andre familiemedlemmer og familiehistorie. Specifikke INS -procedurer dokumenteres normalt. På grund af INS -undersøgelsernes karakter giver sagsakter også links til filnumre for relaterede sager, herunder andre familiemedlemmers.

Filerne kan indeholde certifikater om identitet og bopælskorrespondance coachingmateriale, der bruges af "papirsønner" INS -resultater, anbefalinger og afgørelseskort over immigrantfamilieboliger og landsbyer i Kina originale ægteskabsattester individuelle og familiefotografier ordret afskrifter af INS -forhør og særlige bestyrelser for henvendelse og vidners erklæringer og erklæringer. Nogle filer er ret sparsomme, mens nogle er ekstraordinært omfangsrige.

En erklæring af 24. juni 1903 til toldsamleren i Honolulu beskriver Pang Kuns fysiske udseende.

Hvilke sagsfiler har NARA - San Francisco?

Inden 1944 udviklede hvert INS -distriktskontor sine egne arkiveringssystemer. Navneindekser til sagsfiler er kun tilgængelige på få af kontorer. NARA -frivillige og studerende har oprettet et delvist databaseindeks til sagerne i INS San Francisco District Office, cirka 80 procent af INS Honolulu District Office sagsakter er allerede indekseret frem til 1944.

Fra Honolulu District Office for Immigration and Naturalization Service
Et indeks til mere end 16.600 "Chinese Exclusion era" -sager - hvoraf et antal faktisk omhandler japanere og filippinere - oprettet mellem 1903 og 1944.

Fra San Francisco District Office for Immigration and Naturalization Service
Et indeks til omkring 19.600 "Chinese Exclusion era" -sager fra 1884 til 1913, hvor hovedparten af ​​filerne kommer fra perioden 1906 - 1913. Der er mange tusinde flere sagsakter for perioden 1914 - 1955, der afventer indeksering. Langt de fleste INS -undersøgelsesfiler i NARA - San Franciscos samling vedrører kinesiske amerikanere, men mange andre nationaliteter er inkluderet.

Hvad er IKKE i EARS -databasen?

Ikke hver ankomst resulterede i en efterforskningssag. Mange ankomster før Første Verdenskrig fra Indien, Japan, Korea, Filippinerne og andre lande blev ikke undersøgt af INS i samme omfang som kineserne. Især blev filippinske ankomster sjældent undersøgt før oprettelsen af ​​den filippinske Commonwealth-regering i 1934. Inden immigrationsloven fra 1917 og oprettelsen af ​​en "asiatisk spærret zone" undersøgte INS-embedsmænd i San Francisco og Honolulu generelt kun ikke-kinesiske immigranter i visse tilfælde, f.eks. når immigranter blev anset for "sandsynligt at blive offentlige anklager" eller blev mistænkt for politisk aktivitet, og når nogle bestemmelser i eksisterende immigrationslovgivning kunne anvendes.

I nogle tilfælde oprettede INS sagsakter for visse individuelle asiatiske immigranter og asiatiske amerikanere, men ødelagde derefter optegnelserne, som det skete i 1948 med filippinernes San Francisco District sagsakter, der ønskede at blive hjemsendt på regningens regning mellem 1935 og 1940.

Mens NARA - San Francisco -samlingen indeholder sagsfiler oprettet af INS San Francisco for næsten alle "japanske billedbrude" i perioden 1908 til 1920, er mange post -1920 -filer for japanske immigranter og deres efterkommere blevet rapporteret savnet. Dette skyldes muligvis INS-justitsbrug i forbindelse med internering af anden japansk amerikaner.

Mange overlevende INS -filer fra San Francisco og Honolulu er ikke længere på NARA - San Francisco. Et vilkårligt antal handlinger kunne have resulteret i, at immigrantens fil blev sendt til et andet INS -distriktskontor. Derfra kan filen være blevet overført til et andet NARA -regionale arkiv, eller den kan stadig være i INS. Dette kan være sket, hvis personen f.eks. Blev statsborger eller kom ind i landet igen via en anden havn.

Måske tredive tusinde til tres tusind INS San Francisco -filer fra eksklusionsperioden for forskellige, for det meste asiatiske amerikanske, immigranter er blevet "uploadet" til moderne (1940 fremad) INS Alien Registration eller "A Files" samlinger, der forbliver i INS 'varetægt .

Flere data fra San Francisco Arrival Investigation -filer, der fordobler størrelsen på EARS -databasen og gør den komplet gennem 1921, skulle komme online inden for et år. Indeksering af de resterende næsten 200.000 filer vil kræve en massiv, løbende infusion af frivillig indsats og NARA -personaleressourcer.

Tilføjelser til EARS online -indeks vil gøre det til et ekstraordinært kraftfuldt værktøj for forskere, der er interesseret i denne uvurderlige primære ressource for amerikansk og især asiatisk amerikansk historie.

Spørgsmål om EARS -webstedet kan rettes til Mr. Barde på [email protected] Spørgsmål om adgang til individuelle sagsakter rettes til NARA: 650-876-9009 e-mail [email protected] Dataene blev leveret af National Archives and Records Administration - Pacific Region i San Bruno, Californien. På University of California udførte Berkeley, Lisa Martin og Neal Fujioka (begge på Haas School of Business) databaseudvikling, webprogrammering og sitedesign, og Patt Bagdon (Institute of Business and Economic Research) designede websidebanneret .

Bemærk om kilder

Det nøjagtige antal immigranter, der passerer Angel Island, er ukendt, fordi en brand i 1940, der ødelagde administrationsbygningen der, også ødelagde de fleste af immigrationsstationens administrative optegnelser. Indvandringssummer for stationen i INS's hovedkvarter, nu på National Archives i College Park, Maryland, er endnu ikke blevet opdaget. Skønnet på 300.000 er baseret på de 340.000 "Alien Arrivals at the Port of San Francisco, 1910 - 1940", hvoraf cirka 70 procent blev tilbageholdt på Angel Island. Aliens ankomstdata præsenteres i Maria Sakovich, "Angel Island Immigration Station Reconsidered: Non -Asian Encounters with the Immigration Laws, 1910 - 1940" (MA -afhandling, Sonoma State University, 2002). Tilbageholdelsesgraden er fra upublicerede data fra Pacific Mail Steamship Company, citeret i Robert Barde og Gustavo Bobonis, "Detained at Angel Island: Empirical Evidence" (kommende).

For en god beskrivelse af, hvilket eventyr det kan være at finde en sagsmappe, se Neil Thomsen, "No Such Sun Yat-Sen: An Archival Success Story" Kinesisk Amerika: Historie og perspektiver, Journal of the Chinese Historical Society of America 11 (1997).

For et eksempel på en omfangsrig sagsmappe, se Robert Barde, "En påstået kone: en immigrant i den kinesiske eksklusionstid" Prolog 36 (forår 2004).

Robert Barde er EARS -projektarrangør og akademisk koordinator ved Institute of Business and Economic Research, University of California, Berkeley.

William Greene er arkivspecialist ved National Archives and Records Administration - Pacific Region (San Francisco) i San Bruno, Californien.

Daniel Nealand er arkivoperationsdirektør, National Archives and Records Administration - Pacific Region (San Francisco) i San Bruno, Californien.

Denne side blev sidst gennemgået den 28. august 2019.
Kontakt os med spørgsmål eller kommentarer.


Dagbogsindlæg fører til internering på Angel Island

En af disse & ldquoenemy aliens & rdquo var en 46-årig japansk immigrant ved navn Kakuro Shigenaga. En far til fire små børn og en sælger i en dagligvarebutik i Maui, Shigenaga blev anholdt af FBI den 7. januar 1942.

Kakuro Shigenaga (foran, i midten) med sin familie i 1955. Da han blev anholdt af FBI, blev Kakuro adskilt fra sin kone (foran, højre), svigerfar Toyokichi Kuwano (foran, venstre) og fire børn (bageste række: Lorraine, Winston, Winston & rsquos kone Ruth og Sally. Ikke afbilledet: Kakuros søn Akira) under krigen. (Hilsen af ​​Mark Shigenaga)

Kakuro & rsquos barnebarn, San Rafael -beboeren Mark Shigenaga, opdagede, at både hans bedstefar og grandonkel var passeret Angel Island, mens han gravede ind i hans familiehistorie.

En måned efter Pearl Harbor blev angrebet, beslaglagde FBI Kakuro & rsquos dagbog under en fejning, da Kakuro tilfældigvis besøgte sin bror, Shigeo Shigenaga, i Honolulu. FBI hævdede, at dagbogen og rsquos-posterne indeholdt anti-amerikanske og pro-japanske skrifter. De blev midtpunktet i Kakuro & rsquos -høringen, hvor han blev afhørt om hans potentielle troskab til Japan.

I udskriften af ​​hans høring udtrykte Kakuro beklagelse over at have skrevet følelser, der blev opfattet som anti-amerikanske. Gennem en japansk oversætter og uden juridisk rådgiver insisterede han på, at skrifterne bare var en del af hans daglige, tankeløse øvelse, og at han virkelig ønskede fred og fred mellem Japan og USA.

Kakuro Shigenagas interneringskort følger hans rejse til lejre rundt om i USA. (Hilsen af ​​Mark Shigenaga)

I en kritisk afhøringsrunde sagde Kakuro, at han ikke var & ldquofor Japan, & rdquo, men han svarede også & ldquono & rdquo, da han blev spurgt, om han var imod Japan.

& ldquoDet svar kan have fået ham interneret. Hvis han havde sagt ja, ville det have ændret hele vores families skæbne, & rdquo Mark sagde. Han siger, at hans bedstefars og rsquos vidnesbyrd afspejler en radikalt ærlig vurdering af, hvad det betød at være en japansk immigrant i USA på det tidspunkt.

Så her var han, denne person, der blev født i Japan, som immigrerede til Hawaii. Og derefter med at have landet, hvor han blev født, starte en krig med sit nye hjem, & rdquo Mark sagde. & ldquoOg jeg tror, ​​at mange japanere på det tidspunkt var i konflikt med den måde. It's like, how could the country we were born from, where our ancestors are from, attack us?&rdquo

Kakuro was found to be &ldquoa subject of the Japanese empire&rdquo and &ldquodisloyal to the U.S.&rdquo He was among the first group of 172 Japanese Hawaiian immigrants who boarded the USS Ulysses Grant in late February 1942 headed for Angel Island.

Kakuro Shigenaga endured an uncomfortable 10-day sea voyage crammed into compartments below sea level. Author Patsy Saiki described the trip Kakuro and the other internees took as &ldquodays of humiliation and suffering&rdquo in a historical account of the journey.

"In all, about eight ships. formed a convoy which zigzagged its way to San Francisco. There were no portholes for they were below sea-level. What made the internees miserable was that they were locked, eight or ten in a room, for three hours at a time. At the end of three hours the door was unlocked and a guard escorted the men to a makeshift oil barrel latrine. It was continued days of humiliation and suffering. Transferred into small tugboats, they sailed . to Angel Island, which housed the Quarantine Station. Some of the men had never seen San Francisco, and this glimpse of the city and its environs reminded them of the misty hills of Japan.

Upon arrival to Angel Island, Kakuro and the other men were photographed, fingerprinted and examined in the nude for "infectious diseases." Then they were each given two blankets and were told to go upstairs to rest.

"It was extremely crowded and the odors were pretty strong and just the fact that, you know, 150 to 200 people were in this room designed really to hold about 60 was pretty overwhelming," Din said. The room is 36 feet by 70 feet, and was lined with three tiered bunk beds. Men also slept on the floor.

Most stays on the island were short, as men were quickly moved to inland internment camps.

Kakuro stayed on Angel Island from March 1-9 in 1942, and for the next three years, he moved to five different camps across the country, including in New Mexico, Louisiana, Wisconsin and Tennessee before being released when the war ended.

Unlike other civilian internees, Kakuro and other &ldquoenemy alien&rdquo internees were separated from their families for the entire duration of their internment.

Kakuro Shigenaga at the Department of Justice internment camp in Santa Fe, New Mexico, where he was held from 1944-1945. After leaving Angel Island, Kakuro Shigenaga was transferred to five different camps throughout the United States. (Courtesy of the Shigenaga family)


Angel Island's 740 acres hold a lot of history

Angel Island is the largest island in San Francisco Bay - and at the center of the region's history.

"It is one of the most historically significant places on the West Coast," said Roy Stearns, deputy director of the California State Park system.

The fire that burned overnight on the island got within 100 yards of one of the major artifacts of Western history - the island's collection of wooden buildings built by the U.S. Army during the Civil War.

Angel Island also holds the newly refurbished immigration station that was part of what some called "the Ellis Island of the West."

Firefighters saved them all, Stearns said.

The island is only 740 acres, but it is packed with history.

It has been inhabited for thousands of years - it was home to Miwok Indians and to Russian fur hunters in the 19th century it was also a Mexican cattle ranch and an Army post that served in every conflict from the Civil War to the Cold War.

Angel Island has housed Army recruits, enemy prisoners of war, new immigrants to the United States and overnight campers who found a wooded park with stunning views of the cities around the bay.

For the last 46 years, it has been a state park - more than 200,000 visitors come by ferry and private boat every year.

"It is a national treasure," said Eddie Wong, executive director of the Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation.

The island's official history began in August 1775, when the Spanish warship San Carlos anchored in a small wooded cove on the island. Capt. Juan Manuel de Ayala named the place Isla de Los Angeles and, in turn, the small cove where Ayala found refuge was named for him.

About 400 Indians came to see the San Carlos and trade with the Spanish, who thought them pleasant people with "fine stature, clean and of good color, very elegant of figure."

It was all nearly unknown land to the Europeans, and Ayala dispatched Jose Canizares, his pilot, to explore the bay. He named many of the landmarks around San Francisco Bay.

The British warship HMS Raccoon came in 1814 and gave its name to the strait that separates the island from the Marin peninsula.


A Federal Immigration Building With a Dark Past

From the outside, the U.S. Appraiser’s Building in downtown San Francisco is austere and bureaucratic, rising 16 stories tall at 630 Sansome Street. Distinctive for its time, it now resembles federal buildings in other cities around the country. But on the inside, the building carries a troubling history that resonates today, even though its past is largely lost to memory.

Ever since its completion near the end of World War II, 630 Sansome Street has been home to the bureaucracy of immigration, a shifting web of government agencies whose policies have changed over time, like the nation’s anxieties about its borders. In the post-war years, and especially for San Francisco’s Chinese community, the building was synonymous with the notorious detention quarters located on the upper floors—and the suicide and hunger strike that sparked public outrage.

On September 21, 1948, Leong Bick Ha, a 32-year-old Chinese woman, hanged herself from a shower pipe in the building’s detention quarters. She had undergone a thorough examination in China, waiting several months to receive permission to enter the U.S. “Coming from afar to join her husband, she had already borne much suffering,” wrote  San Francisco’s Chinese press. But when she arrived in the city, it was only to be detained at Sansome Street for three months by immigration officials. Separated from her 15-year-old son, who was held in another part of the building, “the torment in her mind was inconceivable.”

Ha’s death was hardly the first incident at 630 Sansome Street. Just three months earlier, Huang Lai, a 41-year-old Chinese woman, climbed from the window of her cell and attempted to jump from a parapet on the building’s 14th floor. After six months’ detention, the constant threat of deportation, and a grueling interrogation in a language she barely knew, Lai had given up. It took San Francisco police three hours to rescue her. Crowds witnessed the ordeal from the sidewalk.

The detention quarters at Sansome Street were a legacy of Angel Island, the “Ellis Island of the West,” the major point of entry for immigrants who had crossed the Pacific, until a fire shut it down in 1940. Between 1910 and 1940, “about a half a million people entered or departed the country through Angel Island,” says Erika Lee, director of the Immigration History Research Center at the University of Minnesota. As Lee and her co-author Judy Yung show in Angel Island: Immigrant Gateway to America, “the island,” as it was known locally, wasn’t comparable to its counterpart in the East. Whereas Ellis Island came to symbolize an open-door nation of immigrants, the purpose of Angel Island was to close America’s gates, to restrict entry to newcomers from Asia. On Angel Island, the entire process was racially driven: Europeans were separated from Asians, and Chinese were segregated from Japanese and other nationalities. Most immigrants were held for a few hours—at most a few days—while inspectors performed routine checks for signs of disease, criminality, insanity or disability.

But not the Chinese, who were detained for longer periods pending intensive interrogation and verification of their eligibility to land. The majority stayed for three to four weeks, but many waited much longer, some even enduring years of confinement. A 1909 report, prepared for the Secretary of Labor as construction at Angel Island was underway, described the island’s “delightful. . .scenic, climactic, and health conditions.” The San Francisco Chronicle boasted of the “finest Immigration Station in the world.” But this rhetoric belied reality. Housing was cramped and poorly insulated, and inspectors reserved harsh, cruel methods for Chinese detainees. “The only place in the United States where a man is guilty until he is proved innocent is at the immigration station,” remarked Charles Jung, who worked as an interpreter on the island between 1926 and 1930.

Even in the decades prior to Angel Island’s existence, anti-Chinese violence had been a constant in the development of California and the West. The mid-19th century Gold Rush attracted Chinese laborers who sought jobs with mining companies or along an expanding network of railroads. In response, nativist movements and their members pressured employers to fire Chinese workers and lobbied U.S. officials to enact anti-Chinese measures. Years of populist agitation against the Chinese culminated in the Chinese Exclusion Act, which was signed into federal law in 1882. It was the first major federal law restricting immigration to the United States—and the first to target a specific group of immigrants.

Although the law banned most Chinese immigration and prohibited Chinese naturalization, an estimated 303,000 Chinese still entered the country during the exclusion period under its exempted categories: returning laborers, merchants, U.S. citizens, and the wives, sons and daughters of merchants. Yet immigration officials, tasked with enforcing the restrictions, treated all Chinese people with suspicion and contempt. Detention facilities resembled prisons, and the Chinese, who spoke little or no English, were expected to prove their identities and marital relationships in punishing interrogations.

The 1940 fire at Angel Island, blamed on an overloaded circuit in the basement of the administration building, destroyed the Immigration Station. The Immigration Naturalization Service (INS), the precursor to today’s Department of Homeland Security, scrambled to find a place to house detainees. The decision was to relocate to the Appraiser’s Building at Sansome Street, which was slated to open later that year. Wartime shortages of manpower and materials delayed construction. In 1944, following years of makeshift arrangements at a building on Silver Avenue, the INS made its permanent move. Gilbert Stanley Underwood, an architect known for his National Park lodges, train stations, and the San Francisco branch of the U.S. Mint, designed the soaring structure under the auspices of the New Deal’s Public Works Administration. Floors 10 through 16 were reserved for INS offices and “temporary housing for new immigrant arrivals awaiting entry processing.”

World War II transformed the status of the Chinese in America an estimated 13,000 Chinese Americans enlisted in the armed forces and China, a U.S. ally, successfully pressured Congress to end exclusion in 1943. But conditions for Chinese immigrants at Sansome Street continued as if nothing had changed.

Leong Bick Ha arrived in San Francisco in 1948 to join her husband, former U.S. Army sergeant Ng Bak Teung of New York. He secured the right to bring her into the country under the War Brides Act, which waived immigration quotas for women who married American GIs. Amended in 1947 to include Asian spouses, the War Brides Act was supposed to expedite her move to the U.S. Yet Ha waited for three months at Sansome Street, separated from her son, while authorities investigated her marital status. Performing poorly at her interrogation, a nerve-wracking experience, she was told that her marriage could not be confirmed and deportation was imminent.

The Chinese-language press in San Francisco erupted in fury at the news of Ha’s death, citing “racial discrimination and the unreasonable immigration procedures that put stress on Chinese immigrants,” write historians Judy Yung, Gordon H. Chang, and Him Mark Lai, offering a roundup of Chinese editorial opinion in translation that appears in Chinese American Voices from the Gold Rush to the Present, a documentary collection. Ha’s story even traveled to China, where accounts of suffering at the hands of U.S. immigration authorities were not uncommon.

At Sansome Street, all 104 women detainees, the majority Chinese war brides like Ha, launched a hunger strike to protest immigration policies. Officials tried to downplay events, telling reporters that “the women did not eat because that was the way Chinese mourned the deceased,” says historian Xiaojian Zhao in her book Remaking Chinese America: Immigration: Family, and Community. “That these middle-aged Chinese country women would take group action against an agency of the U.S. government was inconceivable to the INS,” she adds. It wasn’t long before the American Civil Liberties Union got involved. Facing a storm of criticism from lawyers, local politicians, and the public, San Francisco’s INS district office shuttered the detention quarters in 1954, while keeping its offices in the building.

Today, 630 Sansome Street teems with activity. Run by the Department of Homeland Security, the building houses a number of federal immigration agencies. Citizenship oaths and interviews are administered to new and aspiring Americans on the sixth floor. Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE) has its northern California field office on the fifth. Deportation cases are heard in the fourth-floor courtroom, where nervous energy and the sounds of Spanish fill the air. It’s one of the busiest immigration courts in the country, handling about 10,000 new cases a year, many from those seeking asylum from poverty and bloodshed in Central America.

“U.S. immigration history is often told as a narrative of progressive reform,” says Lee. Xenophobic attitudes that began with the Exclusion Act are said to have waned in the postwar period. The 1965 Immigration and Naturalization Act abolished national origins quotas restricting non-European immigration.

But reality tells a different story. Dramatic ICE raids might capture headlines, but for immigrants at Sansome Street, encounters with federal power are far more quotidian, if no less cruel. The building belongs to the slow, grinding immigration bureaucracy, and its history shows how anxieties have shifted, from the country’s western shores to its southern borders. Detention remains a key component of American immigration policy, but instead of the old system—under federal control and limited to major ports of entry—today, it’s often done through the private sector.

As CIVIC, an organization that monitors conditions at detention centers around the country, states on its website, “legal permanent residents with longstanding family and community ties, asylum-seekers, and victims of human trafficking are detained for weeks, months, and sometimes years.” Abuses at detention centers, many run by for-profit prison corporations are rampant, according to advocates. Immigrants in ICE custody have died of neglect og sexual assault is pervasive. The average daily population of detained immigrants was 5,000 in 1994. In 2014, it was 34,000, says the Detention Watch Network. A 2016 DHS report put the total number of immigrant detainees at 352,882. The U.S. is now home to the largest immigrant detention system in the world.

Today at Sansome Street, immigrants from Central America, fleeing poverty or seeking opportunity, find themselves in bureaucratic limbo, just as the Chinese once did. The building stands as a reminder that the troubled past isn’t past at all.


Supervisor Proposes Resolution to Maintain Ferry Service to Angel Island Stating Historic Significance

By Bay City News &bull Published May 5, 2021 &bull Updated on May 5, 2021 at 11:44 am

With the Blue & Gold Fleet possibly ending its ferry service from San Francisco to Angel Island, Supervisor Gordon Mar on Tuesday called for a resolution supporting continued service to the island to honor the estimated one million immigrants who were once detained there.

Blue & Gold Fleet announced in December that it was seeking to end the service due to declining ticket sales, filing a request to discontinue with the California Public Utilities Commission.

Between 1910 and 1940, the island was used as a station to enforce the country's Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and other immigration policies, with Asian immigrants being detained and interrogated there. More than 200 Chinese poems carved into the station's wall by detainees remain as evidence of the era.

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The station was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1997.

"When my father and my grandmother came to this country, like thousands of other immigrants from China and elsewhere, they were detained at the Immigration Station on Angel Island. As we recognize Asian Pacific American Heritage Month, we have to recognize this history," Mar said during Tuesday's San Francisco Board of Supervisors meeting. "Angel Island remains a vital part of our city, our state, and our nation's history of immigration, and racist and exclusionary treatment of immigrants. To build a more just future, we have to contend with the injustices of our past. We have to preserve these places, their memories, and their lessons," he said.

Mar's resolution calls for the CPUC, the California Department of Parks and Recreation and the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway, and Transportation Board of Directors to identify solutions to continue ferry service.

"Our access to a place where hundreds of thousands of immigrants were detained, our ability to walk the halls and rooms, to see the hundreds of Chinese poems carved into the walls by detainees, to see and hear and feel their stories -- that access to our history is essential, and it is in jeopardy," Mar said.

The non-profit Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation is set to open the Angel Island Immigration Museum later this year.

"The former Immigration Station at Angel Island reminds us of an important chapter in San Francisco, California, and U.S. history.

Especially during a time when we have witnessed increased anti-Asian attacks, it is even more important to connect with and learn from our nation's history of racism and xenophobia towards Asians and Pacific Islanders," said Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation Executive Director Edward Tepporn.

The only other operator that takes visitors to Angel Island from San Francisco is Alcatraz Cruises, offering an Alcatraz Island/Angel Island combination tour. Without ferry service from San Francisco to Angel Island, the only way to get there would be the family-owned Angel Island-Tiburon Ferry in Marin County.

According to Mar's office, supervisors could vote on the resolution as early as next Tuesday.


Indhold

Angel Island is the second largest island in area of the San Francisco Bay (Alameda is the largest). On a clear day, Sonoma and Napa can be seen from the north side of the island San Jose can be seen from the south side of the island. The highest point on the island, almost exactly at its center, is Mount Caroline Livermore, more commonly known as simply Mt Livermore, at a height of 788 feet (240 m). This peak is named for named for Caroline Sealy Livermore. [4] The island is almost entirely in the city of Tiburon, in Marin County, although, there is a small sliver (0.7%) at the eastern end of it (Fort McDowell) which extends into the territory of the City and County of San Francisco. The island is separated from the mainland of Marin County by Raccoon Strait, the depth of the water approximately 90 feet. The United States Census Bureau reported a land area of 3.107 km² (1.2 sq mi) and a population of 57 people as of the 2000 census. [5]

The rocks of Angel Island are part of the Franciscan Complex, an extensive belt of marine sedimentary and igneous rocks which were deformed and metamorphosed during the Mesozoic Era. Metamorphism of the Franciscan Complex occurred at high pressures and low temperatures, producing indicator minerals jadeite and glaucophane, characteristic of subduction zone metamorphism. [6] The rocks of Angel Island have been grouped with similar rocks displaying similar metamorphic minerals in the East Bay Hills and on the Tiburon Peninsula as the "Angel Island Nappe". [7] The rocks are diverse, including well-exposed serpentinite in the old quarry, sandstones and conglomerates containing clasts of glaucophane schist on Kayak Beach, meta-volcanics and cherts with dark blue amphibole and brown needles of stilpnomelane on Perles Beach. [8] However, their relationships to one another are not well understood. [8] The Franciscan Complex rocks are unconformably overlain by flat-lying sediments of the Colma Formation near Blunt Point on the south coast of the island. [8] These sandstones are only weakly consolidated and are eroding to provide a supply of sand to the south coast of the island, in contrast to the northern and western beaches which are dominated by pebbles and cobbles. [9] The shape of the hillslopes on Angel Island include the scars of pre-historic landslides and mass wasting, and deposits of eroded material may have been transported away from the island by currents in the San Francisco Bay. [9]

Until about ten thousand years ago, Angel Island was connected to the mainland it was cut off by the rise in sea levels due to the end of the last ice age. From about two thousand years ago the island was a fishing and hunting site for Coast Miwok Native Americans. Similar evidence of Native American settlement is found on the nearby mainland of the Tiburon Peninsula upon Ring Mountain. [10] In 1775, the Spanish naval vessel San Carlos made the first European entry to the San Francisco Bay under the command of Juan de Ayala. Ayala anchored off Angel Island, and gave it its modern name (Isla de los Ángeles) [11] the bay where he anchored is now known as Ayala Cove.

I hans bog To år før masten, published in 1840, Richard Henry Dana Jr. mentions in chapter 26, that in 1834 his sailing ship collected wood from "a small island, about two leagues from the Yerba Buena anchorage, called by us 'Wood Island' and by the Mexicans 'Isla de los Ángeles' and was covered with trees to the waters edge."

It is shown, labeled I. de los Angeles, on an 1850 survey map of the San Francisco Bay area made by Cadwalader Ringgold [12] and an 1854 map of the area by Henry Lange. [13]

Like much of the California coast, Angel Island was subsequently used for cattle ranching. In 1863, during the American Civil War, the U.S. Army was concerned about Confederate naval raiders attacking San Francisco. It decided to construct artillery batteries on Angel Island, first at Stuart (or Stewart) Point and then Point Knox. Col. René Edward De Russy was the Chief Engineer James Terry Gardiner was the engineer tasked with designing and supervising the work. [14] The Army established a camp on the island (now known as Camp Reynolds or the West Garrison), and it subsequently became an infantry garrison during the US campaigns against Native American peoples in the West. [15]

Fort McDowell Edit

In the later 19th century, the army designated the entire island as "Fort McDowell" and developed further facilities there, including what is now called the East Garrison or Fort McDowell. A quarantine station was opened in Ayala Cove (which at the time was known as Hospital Cove) in 1891. During the Spanish–American War the island served as a discharge depot for returning troops. It continued to serve as a transit station throughout the first half of the 20th century, with troops engaged in World War I embarking and returning there. At the end of World War I the disembarkation center was commanded by William P. Burnham, who had commanded the 82nd Division in France during the war.

In 1938, hearings concerning charges of membership in the Communist political party against labor leader Harry Bridges were held on Angel Island before Dean James Landis of Harvard Law School. After eleven weeks of testimony that filled nearly 8,500 pages, Landis found in favor of Bridges. The decision was accepted by the United States Department of Labor and Bridges was freed. [16]

During World War II the need for troops in the Pacific far exceeded prior needs. The facilities on Angel Island were expanded and further processing was done at Fort Mason in San Francisco. Prior to the war the infrastructure had been expanded, including building the Army ferry USAT General Frank M. Coxe, which transported troops to and from Angel Island on a regular schedule. Fort McDowell was used as a detention station for Japanese, German and Italian immigrant residents of Hawaii arrested as potential fifth columnists (despite a lack of supporting evidence or access to due process). [17] These internees were later transferred to inland Department of Justice and Army camps. Japanese and German prisoners of war were also held on the island, supplanting immigration needs, which were curtailed during the war years.

The army decommissioned the military post in 1947. In 1954 a Nike missile station was installed on the island. [18] The missile magazines were constructed above Point Blunt on the island's southeast corner, and the top of Mount Ida (now Mount Caroline Livermore) was flattened to make way for a helipad and the associated radar and tracking station (IFC). The missiles were removed in 1962, when the military left the island. The missile launch pad still exists, but the station atop Mount Caroline Livermore was restored to its original contours in 2006. [19]

Quarantine station Edit

The bubonic plague posed such a threat to the U.S. that Angel Island opened as a quarantine station in 1891 to screen Asian passengers and their baggage prior to landing on U.S. soil. [20] The construction of this federally funded quarantine station was completed in 1890 at a cost of approximately $98,000. [21] The compound contained many separate buildings including detention barracks, disinfection facilities, convalescence quarters, and an isolation hospital that was known as the "leper's house". [21] Even with the new construction, the facilities were lacking in cleanliness, staffing and adequate space. [22]

In response to the death of Wong Chut King, a Chinese immigrant who worked in a rat-infested lumberyard in Chinatown, the San Francisco Health Board quickly quarantined the local area to neutralize possible disease-causing agents. [20] Persons suspected of having any contact with this sickness were sent to isolation facilities. [20] After more deaths, tissue samples were sent to Angel Island for testing to determine if they harbored Yersinia pestis, the bacteria responsible for spreading the bubonic plague. At this time, the plague was difficult to diagnose due to other diseases which could mask the presence of plague. [20] The culture was tested on animals for four days, and Y. pestis was confirmed. Bacteriologist Joseph J. Kinyoun, who was stationed at Angel Island in 1899, believed that the plague would spread throughout San Francisco's Chinatown. [20] [23]

Immigration station Edit

The construction of the Angel Island immigration station began in 1905 but was not used until 1910. [24] This zone was known as China Cove. It was built for controlling Chinese entry into the United States. [25] From 1910 to 1940, Angel Island served as an immigration station processing immigrants from 84 different countries, approximately one million being Chinese immigrants. [25] The purpose of the immigration station was to investigate Chinese who had been denied entry from the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. Immigrants had to prove that they had husbands or fathers who were U.S. citizens in order not to be deported. [26]

The immigration station at Angel Island was predominantly used to inspect, disinfect, and detain Chinese, Japanese, and other Asian immigrants who sailed across the Pacific Ocean. [22] In addition to standard medical examinations, Chinese immigrants were inspected for parasitic diseases, and the tests for intestinal parasites required a stool specimen. [22] Immigrants described the examination and disinfection process as brutal, humiliating, and indecent. [20] Passengers who were found to be sick were sent to the hospital on the island until they could pass a medical examination and an immigration hearing. [21] Investigation processes determined the length of time an immigrant would stay at the station [27] and Chinese immigrants could be detained for a period as short as two weeks to as long as two years. [28] A person's racial identity and social class determined the intensity of the examination imposed, resulting in fewer white Europeans and American citizens being subjected to the inspections. [22]

A fire destroyed the administration building in 1940, and subsequent immigration processing took place in San Francisco. On November fifth of 1940, the last gathering of around 200 immigrants, including around 150 Chinese, were exchanged from Angel Island to brief quarters in San Francisco. [25]

In 1964, the Chinese American community successfully lobbied the State of California to designate the immigration station as a State Landmark. Today, the Angel Island Immigration Station is a federally designated National Historic Landmark. It was renovated by the California State Parks, which re-opened February 16, 2009. Docent tours for school groups can be made by appointment.

In 1955, the State Park Commission authorized California State Parks to purchase 38 acres (15 ha) around Ayala Cove, marking the birth of Angel Island State Park. Additional acreage was purchased four years later, in 1959. The last federal Department of Defense personnel withdrew in 1962, turning over the entire island as a state park in December of the same year.

There is one active United States Coast Guard lighthouse on the island at Point Blunt. The lighthouse at Point Stuart has been disestablished.

Ecology Edit

The island's native plant communities include coastal grassland and coastal scrub, mostly on the island's south- and west-facing slopes and ridge tops, and evergreen woodland – predominantly of Coast Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia), bay (Umbellularia californica), toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia), and madrone (Arbutus menziesii), with California Hazelnut (Corylus cornuta) and Western Sword Fern (Polystichum munitum) in the understory – on the eastern and northern portions of the island sheltered from the westerly winds from the Golden Gate. [29]

It is thought that the Coast Miwoks used regular fires to expand the grassland and shrublands at the expense of the woodlands. The grasslands and shrublands provided edible seeds and bulbs, and supported larger numbers of deer and small game. [29]

The Angel Island Mole, Scapanus latimanus insularis, is a subspecies of broad-footed mole endemic to Angel Island. [30]

The military had planted 24 acres of Bluegum Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) on the island for windbreaks, beautification, timber, and erosion control. By the mid-1980s, the area covered by eucalyptus had expanded to 86 acres. In the 1980s, California State Parks undertook environmental studies to remove most of the Eucalyptus from the island, in order to restore native flora and reduce fire danger. The proposal generated controversy and received much local media coverage, and was approved to begin in 1990. Eucalyptus were removed from 80 acres between 1990 and 1997, and nursery-grown native plants were planted in the cleared areas. Six acres of historically significant eucalyptus trees were retained. [31]

As elsewhere in California, intensive cattle grazing in the 19th Century allowed annual grasses introduced from Southern Europe to replace the native perennial grasses. [29] Ongoing removal of non-native plants, including French broom (Genista monspessulana), Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus) and Ice plant (Carpobrotus edulis), continues in an effort to restore the original evergreen woodland, perennial grassland, and coastal scrub plant communities. [31]

In addition to the eucalyptus, plantings from the military period of Monterey Pine (Pinus radiata), Cork Oak (Quercus suber), Australian Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon), Canary Island Date Palm (Phoenix canariensis), Century Plant (Agave americana), Japanese Redwood (Cryptomeria japonica), Incense Cedar (Calocedrus decurrens), Deodar Cedar (Cedrus deodara), Coast Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), Norfolk Island Pine (Araucaria heterophylla), Monkey puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana) and others can be found in and around the former military bases and immigration station. [29]

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were reintroduced to the island by the army in 1915 for hunting. In the absence of predators, the deer population expanded and overgrazed the island. The deer population is now managed annually by California State Parks and the Department of Fish and Game. [32]

In 2002, the summit of Mount Caroline Livermore, which had been flattened in the 1950s to build the Nike missile radar and tracking installation, was re-contoured to resemble its original appearance, and increased 16 feet in height as a result. The access road up the west side of the mountain was removed, and replaced with a winding trail up the east side. [33]


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"This place is called an island of immortals, But in fact the mountain wilderness is a prison. Once you see the open net, why throw yourself in? It is only because of empty pockets I can do nothing else." -Poem carved into barracks wall Angel Island Immigration Station, author unknown.

On a weekend summer day, as the morning fog lifts over the San Francisco Bay, China Cove on the northeastern shore of Angel Island State Park is washed in sunlight--tranquil except for the laughter of children playing on the small stretch of sandy beach and the voices of 200 to 300 visitors.

To most first-time visitors, the cove is another picturesque spot from which to picnic and watch tankers and yachts sail by. To others who know about the island’s history, the cove is a curiosity. But to those whose relatives passed through the old immigration barracks on the north slope of the cove, the small, drafty, wooden building--bare and sparse--represents the "Ellis Island of the West."

Its more famous sister island, Alcatraz, often overshadows the largest island in the San Francisco Bay, Angel Island. Activities and attractions offered on the island include picnic sites with breathtaking views, fishing and sunbathing at coves and beaches, hiking trails through wooded terrain, biking on the five-mile Perimeter Road, camping, historic military sites and buildings and an educational tram tour. The most popular attraction, however, is the old Immigration Station at China Cove.

Originally built to process an anticipated flood of European immigrants entering the United States through the newly opened Panama Canal, the Immigration Station on Angel Island opened on Jan. 21, 1910, in time for World War I and the closing of America’s "open door" to stem the tide of these immigrants from Europe. The facility instead served as a detention center for the majority of the approximately 175,000 Chinese immigrants who came to America between 1910 and 1940, seeking escape from the economic and political hardships of their homeland. At any one time, between 200 and 300 males and 30 to 50 females were detained on Angel Island.

What these newcomers found when they reached America was discrimination and a series of restrictive anti-Asian laws, including the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. Although all Asians were affected, 97 percent of the immigrants processed through Angel Island were Chinese.

After the earthquake and fire of 1906 destroyed records that verified citizenship, many Chinese residents of California were able to claim citizenship for themselves and dozens of "paper children."

Citizenship papers were then sold to prospective immigrants. Entire villages would often purchase papers for one representative in the hopes that he would return from "Gam Saan" or "Gold Mountain" and share his expected wealth. Immigration officials responded to this deception by detaining all working-class Chinese immigrants for interrogation.

Typical questions asked in these interviews include: How many stairs lead up to your house? How many chickens did you own? Recite your family history. Those whose answers did not match those of their "paper parents" were deported.

According to Immigration Station docents, almost 10 percent of the detainees were deported. Rather than face the humiliation of being sent back to their villages, which had pooled meager resources to buy citizenship papers, many deportees committed suicide.

The Chinese immigrants were held on the island for weeks, months, even years while awaiting hearings or appeals on their applications. In contrast, immigrants passing through Ellis Island were processed within hours or days and merely had to pass medical hurdles.

To vent their frustrations at their forced idleness and isolation--authorities separated family members to prevent exchange of coaching information and routinely inspected letters and gift packages. Detainees wrote poems expressing their anger, despair, homesickness and loneliness.

The poetry, written and intricately carved on the walls in the classical style of the Tang dynasty, were recorded by two detainees in the early 1930s and rediscovered in 1970. Some of the writing on the walls is still legible today. It was this poetry that led to the $250,000 appropriation from the State Legislature for the preservation of the Immigration Station barracks.

In the now sparse and airy rooms, one can only imagine the isolation and lack of privacy each detainee was forced to endure. Crowded into bunks three tiers high, the men and women imprisoned in the cramped "dormitories" lived in constant distrust of each other.

The women’s bathroom, site of many suicides, looks bright and almost cheerful with its new coat of paint. However, visitors are chilled by the building’s draftiness--or is it the thought of unhappy ghosts trapped on this island of immortals?

Although complaints about unsatisfactory conditions and mistreatment were filed frequently--the first filed only a few days after the station opened--bureaucrats were slow to address the charges and did not abandon the detention center until a fire on Aug. 12, 1940 destroyed the administration building.

Three months later, on Nov. 5, a group of Chinese immigrants, 125 men and 19 women, were loaded onto ferries and transferred to temporary quarters in South San Francisco.

On this seemingly ordinary day came the end of a sad and bitter era: The Ellis Island of the West had finally closed its doors. For the thousands of Chinese immigrants who passed through the Angel Island Immigration Station, it is an era best forgotten. On the whole, former detainees have been reluctant to talk about their experiences, preferring to leave this chapter closed. More than 50 years after the closing of the immigration station, there is finally a sense of conclusion. Over 2,000 former detainees have been able to return to their island-prison to make peace with the past.

"We finally made it to Gold Mountain," said Paul Chow, former chairman of the Angel Island Immigration Station Historical Advisory Committee. "And we’re here to stay. We are part of the United States, just as much as the Europeans are," he said of the Chinese-Americans. "We have put the pain behind us. Now we are free to open a new chapter in Asian-American history."


Se videoen: Angel Island State Park: Exploring the Perimeter Trail u0026 Immigration Station